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The relationship of psychology and other modern sciences
A person as a subject of research can be considered from various points of view: as a biological object, as a social being, as a carrier of consciousness. Moreover, each person is unique and has his own personality. A variety of manifestations of man as a natural and social phenomenon has led to a significant number of sciences that study man.
All sciences that study man can conditionally be divided into groups of sciences. One group of sciences studies man as a representative of the biological species Homo sapiens. Anthropology, which includes human morphology, the doctrine of anthropogenesis, and racial studies, can be included in these sciences in the first place. Such sciences as anatomy, physiology, biophysics, biochemistry, psychophysiology, etc. can be included in this group.
Another group of sciences does not study man, but humanity, that is, it considers man as a social being. The third group of sciences studies the interaction of man with his surrounding nature. It should be noted that in each of the considered areas or in each area there is a zone of scientific interests of psychological science. Let's take a closer look at the relationship of psychology with other sciences that study man as a biological and social phenomenon.
First of all, it is necessary to dwell on the relationship between psychology and philosophy, since questions of psychology have long been studied in the framework of philosophy, and only in the middle of the XIX century. Psychology, having separated from philosophy, has become an independent science. But even having become an independent science, psychology has maintained a close connection with philosophy. And today there are scientific problems that are considered both from the perspective of psychology, and from the point of view of philosophy. These include problems such as the concept of personal meaning and purpose of life, worldview, political views, moral values, etc.
In addition, in psychology itself there are questions that cannot be solved experimentally and laboratoryly. When faced with problems of this kind, psychologists are forced to turn to philosophy and thereby develop and use the conclusions that they are offered by representatives of related science - philosophy. Traditional interdisciplinary problems, in this case philosophical and psychological, include problems of the essence and origin of human consciousness, the nature of higher forms of human thinking, the influence of society on the personality and personality on society, methodological problems of psychology, etc.
For a long time there was a fundamental division into materialistic and idealistic philosophy. And most often this contrast
It was of an antagonistic nature, that is, there was a constant opposition of views and positions, a search was made for evidence of the failure of this or that inference. As a result, stagnation of scientific thought was observed in a number of psychological schools. Today, when there is a rapprochement between these main trends of philosophy, we can confidently speak of the equal importance of these areas for psychology. So, materialistic philosophy was the basis for the development of problems of activity and activity origin of higher mental functions. On the other hand, the idealistic trend in philosophy contributes to the understanding by psychological science of such complex concepts as responsibility, conscience, the meaning of life, spirituality, etc. Therefore, the use of both directions of philosophy in psychology most fully reflects the dual nature of man, his biosocial nature.
It must also be emphasized that there are problems whose solution is possible only with the joint participation of psychologists and philosophers. For example, such problems include the problems of epistemology - the science of a person's knowledge of the world around him, designed to clarify the fundamental comprehensibility of his person. Thanks to the research of the famous Swiss scientist Jean Piaget (1896-1980) and the International Epistemological Center he created in Geneva, he managed to learn a lot about the nature of human intelligence and its development. In addition, there are psychological theories that are in the nature of psychological and philosophical. Such theories include the theoretical work of modern followers of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) - neo-Freudians. For example, the work of neo-Freudian psychologist Erich Fromm (1900-1980) is often used by modern foreign sociologists and philosophers.
It should be noted that such a unity of philosophy and psychology is also due to the fact that psychological science chooses the methodology of scientific research, based on philosophical theories and concepts, which, in turn, are formed within the framework of philosophy. The dominance of one or another worldview is reflected in the laws of development of psychological science. For example, the dominance of materialism in Russian psychology predetermined the rapid development of experimental psychological methods, increased interest in the natural sciences of psychology, and the desire to solve the problem of the relationship between the psychological and the biological. But at the same time, insufficient attention was paid to the development of moral structures of personality. This can be confirmed by the spiritual crisis observed in Russia at the end of the 20th century.
Thus, modern psychology and philosophy are still developing in close unity, complementing each other. Integration and interpenetration of knowledge of these sciences is observed at the theoretical and methodological level.
Another science closely related to psychology is sociology. Mutual support is also observed here, but already at the level of the research methodology. So, sociology borrows the methods of studying personality and human relations from social psychology, and psychology makes extensive use of sociological methods of collecting information, such as questioning and questioning.
In addition, there is an interpenetration of various theories developed in the framework of these sciences. For example, the concept of social learning, developed primarily by sociologists, is generally accepted in social and developmental psychology. On the other hand, the theories of personality and small groups developed by psychologists are widely used in sociology.
Psychologists and sociologists work together to solve a number of problems. Such problems include problems of relationships, socialization and social attitudes, their formation and transformation.
Consider the solution to one of the most significant problems for psychology and sociology - socialization. It should be noted that the solution to this problem became possible only thanks to the joint development of psychologists and sociologists. In sociology, the problem of socialization is considered within the framework of the theory of social learning, and in psychology - within the framework of the problem of social adaptation of an individual. Human adaptation is a central problem for many sciences, since this problem is very multifaceted. In turn, social adaptation is one of the facets of human adaptation. At the same time, two aspects are distinguished in social adaptation: socialization of an individual and its activity.
Socialization of a person is a process of assimilation and reproduction by an individual of public experience, as a result of which he becomes a person and acquires the psychological qualities, knowledge, abilities and skills necessary for life, including speech. Thanks to speech, he, in turn, gets the opportunity to communicate with his own kind, that is, to interact with people around him. Socialization is the individual’s cognition of the civilization created by people, the acquisition of the experience of social life, the transformation from a natural to a social being, from an individual to a person. Socialization includes the assimilation of moral standards, the culture of human relationships, the rules of behavior among people, as well as social roles, activities, forms of communication.
Socialization is a multifaceted process consisting of various aspects, but the mechanisms of socialization deserve special attention, that is, the ways in which the human individual joins the culture and gains experience gained by other people. The main sources of socialization of a person carrying the necessary experience are public associations (organizations), members of his own family, school, literature, art, print, radio, television, etc.
The mechanisms of human socialization are studied by sociologists in the framework of the theory of social learning. From the point of view of this theory, human behavior is formed in the process of its interaction, communication and joint activity with various people in various social situations, observing the behavior of other people and imitating them, as well as training and education. It should be emphasized that the theory of social learning denies the exceptional importance for the formation of human behavior of biological factors, the characteristics of the organism and its functional state. This theory emphasizes the role of not only biological, but also social factors, such as features of the social environment, for example, family, school environment, etc. From this statement, the second main point of the theory of social learning follows: human behavior is formed under the influence of factors of the social environment.
Thus, the scientific developments of sociologists are very closely connected with the work of psychologists, since it is in psychology that the interaction of man and the social environment is considered. In turn, for psychology, various aspects of socialization are of independent interest. For example, such an aspect of socialization as identification is very important. What is meant by this term?
In the process of his physical and social development, the child learns a large number of norms and forms of behavior, human relations.
It is quite clear that he cannot develop a form of behavior that is significantly different from the behavior of his immediate social environment. Therefore, during the formation of behavior, the main example for a child is his parents, friends, acquaintances. In the process of this assimilation of social norms, a person begins to identify himself, i.e., relates himself to a certain social, age or gender group. As a result, the individual acquires the skills of social and gender-role behavior characteristic of the society in which he lives.
No less important for psychology are the problems of socialization, such as social facsilitation (a positive stimulating effect of the behavior of some people on the activities of others), imitation, suggestion, conformity, and adherence to norms. At the same time, all these problems developed by psychological science are also used in the studies of sociologists. Thus, sociology and psychology are closely interrelated both at the level of theoretical research and in the use of certain methods. This is due to the fact that their common ancestor is philosophy. Developing in parallel, they complement each other's studies in the study of the social manifestations of man and human society.
Another science related to the field of social sciences and closely related to psychology is pedagogy. At first glance, these sciences are inseparable, since the upbringing and education of children cannot but take into account the psychological characteristics of the individual. But in practice the situation is somewhat different. If the roots of psychology go back to philosophy, then pedagogy initially developed as an independent science. As a result, psychology and pedagogy took shape as independent sciences and exist separately. Unfortunately, in practice there is still no close understanding between psychologists and educators. For example, the work of a school psychologist, as a rule, is paid lower than the work of a teacher, although it is very difficult to say which of these two specialists makes a greater contribution to the development and formation of the personality of a young person.
At a certain stage in the development of our country (1920-1930s), a comprehensive science of children, their education and upbringing — pedology — existed and successfully developed. In the framework of this science, teachers, psychologists, physicians, physiologists and other scientists have successfully collaborated. There were scientific centers where pedologists were trained, scientific laboratories in which specialists from various fields developed childhood problems. The achievements of domestic scientists in the field of pedology were not inferior to foreign ones. In the framework of this science, psychological methods have been widely used to study personality traits and the educational impact on children. However, this very promising science suffered the same fate as genetics and cybernetics. Pedagogical research was discontinued, and scientific and research institutions were closed. The ideological defeat of science was completed by a resolution of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks “On pedological distortions in the system of the People's Commissariat of Education” of 1936.
Today it is very difficult to give an unambiguous answer to the question of the reasons that caused the defeat of a very promising science. Probably, there are three main reasons. Firstly, the idea of pedology was that different people have different abilities. To a large extent, this is due to the difference in the genetics of people, therefore, the pedagogical process should be structured differentially taking into account the individual characteristics of students and contribute not only to the harmonious development of personality, but also to the priority development of those abilities that are most clearly represented in the child. Therefore, representatives of pedology argued that from birth people have various opportunities because of their genetically determined physiological and psychological characteristics. To a certain extent, such a statement was contrary to the prevailing ideology of that time, which claimed that Soviet people live in a society of rare opportunities, that is, everyone can succeed in any business he chooses. This point of view is most clearly reflected in the well-known thesis: “There are no irreplaceable people.” Therefore, it is likely that one of the reasons for the defeat of pedology as a scientific direction was the difference in views on pedagogical abilities and state structures.
On the other hand, pedologists themselves are to some extent to blame for everything that happened. The craze for tests, the widespread dissemination of test material led to the fact that the methods of psycho-diagnostics were used by people not sufficiently competent, which contributed to a distortion of the essence of not only pedology, but primarily psychology.
Thirdly, we have the right to assume that the development of pedology met with very strong opposition from teachers, since the teacher in the pedological direction was not considered as the central figure in the learning process, but was only one of the participants in this process. In turn, pedagogy in this area was not considered as the basic science of upbringing the younger generation, but was only a science of learning, i.e., the transfer and assimilation of knowledge. It is likely that many teachers did not want to put up with this state of affairs and opposed the development of pedology. Unfortunately, a certain gap between psychology and pedagogy has been observed to this day, despite the fact that every year psychology more and more penetrates the educational process.
Based on the foregoing, we can say that psychology is very closely connected with the social sciences. This statement is true not only for the sciences we have examined, but also for others, for example, history. There are examples of a deep synthesis of history and psychology in creating a general scientific theory. One such example is the theory of cultural and historical development.
higher mental functions of man, developed by L. S. Vygotsky. In it, the author showed that the main historical achievements of mankind, primarily language, tools, sign systems, became a powerful factor that significantly advanced the phylogenetic and ontogenetic development of people. Using all this, a person has learned to control his own psyche and behavior.
Another equally well-known example of the relationship between history and psychology is the use of the historical method in psychology. The essence of this method is that in order to understand the nature of a psychic phenomenon, it is necessary to trace its phylogenetic and ontogenetic development from elementary to more complex forms. In order to realize what the higher forms of the human psyche are, it is necessary to trace their development in children. Следовательно, главной и наиболее ценной мыслью, которая лежит в основе сближения психологии и истории, является та, что современный человек с его психологическими качествами и личностными свойствами есть продукт истории развития человечества.
Таким образом, познакомившись с взаимоотношениями и связями психологии и общественных наук, можно сделать вывод о том, что психология — это общественная наука. Сделав такой вывод, мы будем правы, но лишь частично. Главной особенностью психологии является то, что она связана не только с общественными, но и с техническими и биологическими науками.
Связь психологии и технических наук обусловлена тем, что человек является непосредственным участником всех технологических и производственных процессов. Практически невозможно организовать производственный процесс без участия человека. Человек был и остается основным участником этого процесса. Поэтому не случайно психологическая наука рассматривает человека как неотъемлемую часть технического прогресса. В исследовании психологов, занимающихся разработкой социотехнических систем, человек выступает как самый сложный элемент системы «человек—машина». Благодаря деятельности психологов создаются образцы техники, которые учитывают наши психические и физиологические возможности, в противном случае могли бы быть созданы технические образцы, которые в силу своих эргономических характеристик никогда не могли бы эксплуатироваться человеком.
Не менее тесно психология связана с медицинск-ими и биологическими науками. Связь психологии с данными науками обусловлена двойственной природой человека как социального и одновременно биологического существа. Большинство психических явлений, и в первую очередь психических процессов, имеют физиологическую обусловленность, поэтому знания, полученные физиологами и биологами, используются в психологии для того, чтобы лучше понять те или иные психические явления.
В свою очередь, психология тесно вошла в область медицины. Сегодня хорошо известны проблемы психосоматического и соматопсихического взаимовлияния. Суть данного явления состоит в том, что психическое состояние индивида отражается на его физиологическом состоянии, в определенных ситуациях психические особенности могут способствовать развитию того или иного заболевания, и, напротив, хроническое заболевание, как правило, сказывается на психическом состоянии больного. Учитывая тесную связь психического и соматического, в со» временной медицине активное развитие получили методы психотерапевтического воздействия, использующие «лечебные свойства» слова.
Таким образом, современная психология тесно связана с различными областями науки и практики. Мы с полным основанием можем утверждать, что везде, где задействован человек, есть место психологической науке. Поэтому не случайно психология с каждым годом приобретает все большую популярность и распространение. В свою очередь, бурное развитие психологии, ее внедрение во все сферы практической и научной деятельности привело к возникновению разнообразных отраслей психологии.
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Взаимосвязь психологии и других современных наук
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The problem of the position of psychology in the system of sciences worried many researchers. Most of them drew attention to the fact that psychology integrates the knowledge of all scientific disciplines that study a person and this explains its special place in the system of scientific knowledge. To determine the place of psychology in the system of other sciences, it is necessary to clarify their classification, taking into account the characteristic
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- The history of psychological knowledge in other sciences
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- The place of psychology in the system of sciences
In the 19th century, the classification of sciences developed by the creator of the philosophy of positivism, the French scientist O. Comte, was very popular. In Comte's classification, there was no place for psychology at all. The father of positivism believed that psychology had not yet become a positive science. For the first half of the XIX century, this statement was generally fair. • Since then, much has changed: psychology
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- Branches of psychology, related disciplines and its place in the system of sciences
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- Modern social psychology
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Современная психология представляет собой весьма разветвленную систему научных дисциплин, находящихся на разных ступенях формирования, связанных с различными областями практики. В качестве основания классификации отраслей психологии может быть избрана психологическая сторона: 1) конкретной деятельности, 2) развития, 3) отношения человека (как субъекта развития и деятельности) к обществу