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The tasks of psychological research of a military team
The main research tasks, the solution of which provides an understanding by the military psychologist of the socio-psychological processes occurring in a particular military team, can be formulated in the form of questions. Obtaining reliable answers to them is the goal of a comprehensive socio-psychological study. Conventionally, these tasks can be divided into several areas. I. Tasks of the general parametric description of the collective.
- What is the name of the military team? What is the functional purpose of the collective, its place in the military-organizational system among other groups, the time of creation?
- What are the qualitative-quantitative (compositional) parameters of the team? Here: the number of members, socio-demographic characteristics of the personnel: age, service, social, educational, ethnic characteristics, marital status, especially the level of military professional qualifications, including the experience of military operations - based on personal files, individual conversations, results checking the level of military professional preparedness. II. The objectives of the study of collective activity.
- What activities (activities) does the military team carry out)?
- What is its organizational and staff structure (composition of official roles of team members), what are the functional responsibilities of the military personnel, what regulatory acts (documents) do they define? How are the military personnel subordinate to each other, what form does the "organigram" (schematic image) of the organizational staff structure have? (Based on the study of staffing, statutory functional duties, job descriptions).
- What military-professional tasks (goals of activity) does the group solve? What is their type (divisible or indivisible tasks, predominant load on sensorimotor, intellectual, perceptive, etc. components), level of complexity (extremeness, monotony, technical complexity, physical load, degree of general nervous tension, loading of individual analyzers and motor organs in activity process)?
- What is the effectiveness of solving military professional tasks (productivity, quality in relation to the consumption of material, technical and moral-psychological resources)? How were combat training tasks accomplished during ongoing inspections?
- What is the level of development (effectiveness) of activity in relation to socio-normative, is there an excess of normative, initiative group activity?
- How is preparation for activity organized (provided by combat training, moral and psychological preparation)?
- What is the prevailing existing social, economic, moral and legal context (conditions, situation, background) of group activity? Which of the following factors and in what have an impact on performance?
- What are the sanitary-hygienic and living conditions of the daily life of the military?
- What is the resource and ergonomic security of the activity (means and ergonomic conditions of activity - the comfort of the environment, the convenience of “working positions”, etc., the state of armaments and equipment)?
- What are the main sources of discomfort during the implementation of activities?
- How is the process of activity carried out (involvement of military personnel in the process, the predominant nature and pace of actions - auto-tempo, forced pace, “torn” rhythm, etc.)?
- What is the usual level of fallibility (accident rate) of military professional actions, what is their source?
- What are the features of the team leader? What is the style of his leadership (communication)? How are individual style parameters characterized?
- How is military-professional interaction organized between individual members of the group?
- What does the structure of business communications look like (“communication networks” (for professional communication)? How is service information transmitted, with what quality (completeness, accuracy, frequency of communicative exchange, noise immunity)? Where and why do its delays, losses, distortions occur?
- How are servicemen assessed the levels of existing psychological compatibility (subjective satisfaction with interaction) and harmony (productivity of interaction) in the process of activity, how much does this correspond to objective criteria?
- What is the level of general and individual satisfaction of servicemen with the content, conditions, means and results of activities?
- What methods of moral and material incentives have the greatest impact on the effectiveness of activities?
- Do the goals, means, methods, motives, content and organization of activity correspond to each other?
- What, in the opinion of the members of the collective (separately, the leader), are the main activity problems expressed? III. The objectives of the study of intra-group and inter-group relationships in the team, the characteristics of the intra-group behavior of its individual members.
- What is the state of military discipline (a typical level of discipline - conscious, compelled, passive; typical forms of violations, etc.)?
- What is the content, level of coincidence (difference) of the dominant group needs, motives (based on methods of studying the level of value-orientation unity, ranking of leading values, etc.)?
- What is the content of group goals and accepted values, how are they subordinate to each other?
- What type of interpersonal relationships (sympathy, antipathy, indifference, friendship, camaraderie, enmity, etc.) and interactions (cooperation, competition, confrontation, contrast, etc.) are manifested in activity and communication? How can the moral and psychological climate in the team be characterized as a whole (based on included and not included observations, the use of questionnaires and relationship scales)?
- What is the content and nature of the main conflicts in the team? Who is their initiator? What can lead to the collapse of the team? (Conflictological techniques are used).
- What is the sociometric structure of emotional interpersonal preferences in the team? What determines mutual elections and rejections by team members of each other? (Based on sociometry, referentometry, using the scale of compatibility of individuals and groups).
- How is the influence of the content of activity interaction on interpersonal relations manifested?
- What are the norms and norms, positive and negative traditions of relationships and activities in the team?
- What is the content of existing role expectations - in relation to each other, leader, beginners? What is the dominant image-standard of personality, behavior of a leader, leader, newcomer? (Based on surveys).
- What group sanctions are used by team members?
- Who provides group social control, monitoring forms of communication and following traditions?
- What socio-psychological characteristics, personal qualities of military personnel are assessed as significant? How do the norms and traditions of relationships affect the assessment of each other's military personality?
- How do military leaders with different status and roles - deputies, "old-timers" and newcomers, leaders and outsiders characterize the leader?
- Who are the unofficial leaders, what is their focus, what intragroup social and psychological roles and by whom are they represented in the team?
- Does the role of the socio-psychological structure reflected in the structure of the functional role, i.e.
How are intra-group, interpersonal roles related to Active roles (official and unofficial)?
- What is the dominant content of group emotional processes and states (moods, interpersonal sympathies) and how are they related to activity processes? (Based on the methods of color selection according to Lusher and Lutoshkin).
- What is the content and orientation of the prevailing group value judgments (group opinion)? Who is the “opinion leader”?
- What microgroups are represented in the team, who are their members, what is the orientation and relationship of these microgroups (based on sociometry)?
- What are the forms of unofficial communication and interaction of military personnel (social activities, meetings, cultural events, sports, activities for joint recreation)?
- What are the contradictions and negative phenomena in the team?
- What is their source (determinants, premises, factors, causes)? What role do they play in the activities and communication of the team?
- What are the main interpersonal problems (problems of interpersonal relations, communication)?
- What are the typical difficulties (adaptive, communicative, etc.) of individual team members?
- What is the team striving for? What sees his main perspective?
- Who and what prevents (helps) the development of the team?
- How is the team connected with other military teams? What social ties are maintained outside the Armed Forces?
- What is the information security of the team? What are the sources of social and military-professional information (the degree of regularity of their functioning, the level of use of the media, and other sources)?
- How is intergroup interaction with other units (teams)? IV. Methodological tasks.
- How to fix and describe intragroup phenomena? What are the signs, indicators, parameters of significant characteristics? How to measure and compare them with other groups?
- Which of the research methods (observation, surveys, questionnaires, individual and group conversations, testing, studying documents and activity products, stating and formulating experiments) can be applied?
- In what units, by what quantitative indicators, indicators, estimates (measurement scales) can the phenomenon under study be registered? How to ensure the reliability (validity, reliability, representativeness) of the received socio-psychological information?
- What mathematical and statistical tools will reveal hidden relationships and patterns of socio-psychological phenomena? Thus, the main areas of socio-psychological research of a military collective are determined by the specific content of the components of its psychological structure (compositional features, processes of group dynamics, dynamic structure, group formations) The most important in practical respect areas of research of a military collective are: the study of factors of the effectiveness of joint military activity, state of interpersonal relationships, features of the leadership style of the team m and intra behavior of individuals (especially - and military leaders with a deviating behavior).
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The tasks of psychological research of a military team
- The tasks of psychological research of a military team
The main research tasks, the solution of which provides an understanding by the military psychologist of the socio-psychological processes occurring in a particular military team, can be formulated in the form of questions. Obtaining reliable answers to them is the goal of a comprehensive socio-psychological study. Conventionally, these tasks can be divided into several areas. but)
- The main directions and tasks of the psychological research of the military team
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- The main areas of psychological research of the military team
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If the commander knows the features of the headed team, then he will easily be able to find the most effective management methods, he will be able to implement the decisions made with great success in any environment. To study the psychological characteristics of a military team, the unit commander, as a rule, uses methods of observation, questioning, analysis of group results
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