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Sticking type of accentuation of character and features of its manifestation in young soldiers
So, we will consider the various character traits that form a person as a person in cases where they represent a deviation from a certain standard and are defined as stuck accentuation and features of its manifestation in military personnel. This is all the more relevant in light of the difficult situation that has developed with the mental health of draftees. Thus, for 1,000 people called up, 47 are people with mental illnesses identified in the first six months - a year of military service, in general, every second person leaves the army because of mental illness1.
K. Leongard is the basis of the stuck type, which distinguishes the pathological stability of the affect. In a stuck personality, the effect of affect stops much slower than in other people, and one has only to come back with thought to what happened, as the emotions accompanying stress immediately come to life. ”The affect of such a person lasts a very long time, although no new experiences activate it.” 2
The most pronounced affect stuck is manifested when the personal interests of the accentuated person are affected. Affect in these cases turns out to be a response to wounded pride, to hurt pride, as well as to various forms of repression, although the moral damage may be insignificant. Insult of personal interests, infringement of the thirst for material goods, passion for acquiring, as a rule, is never forgotten by stuck personalities, therefore they are often described as vindictive or vindictive people. In addition, such people are called sensitive, painful touchy, vulnerable. In terms of military service, this can lead a soldier to suicidal behavior (since it was only in 1996 that 373 urgent service soldiers committed suicide in and out of service, which accounts for almost 1/5 of the losses of Russian troops in Chechnya, of which 1/3 of them due to the infringement of personal dignity, offenses, family and intimate problems) .3
C. Leongard stresses that many stuck accentuates usually do not want to admit sensitivity, rancor, fearing accusations of intolerance, hatefulness, hiding it by all possible means. But denying such, for example, the military personnel have in mind only one thing: that outwardly they at some point no longer show hostility, since “they have already played their own way”. But "... this is true only to the extent that the incident is no longer relevant for them; they continue to remember the evil they did ... in terms of personality accentuation, it is sufficiently evidence that injustice inflicted once remains in the memory, although other features of the same personality can inhibit the manifestations of this long-time insult. ”1 But under certain conditions a military man - stuck accentuate is capable of unmotivated deviant behavior. It can be assumed based on the analysis of disparate information received through the media channels (the detailed data are closed) that some mass executions in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (only in 1997 as a result 50 people died (!)), For example, in the village of Pobedino of the Sakhalin Region condition of delayed stuck affect.
But it should be noted that the feeling of indignation of social injustice among the personality of a soldier of the stuck type will be observed in a weaker degree. They consider such a trait a valuable quality and see no reason to hide it. But if they are active in upholding public interests, then only to the extent that they relate them to justice for themselves, in this way they only try to give more weight to their personal claims.
Jam is manifested in the case of success, manifested in arrogance, arrogance. Ambition is especially characteristic, a clear feature in people with excessive persistence of affect: ambition is accompanied by self-confidence, and there are always few incentives for such people. The soldier will strive to recognize himself at all costs, ignoring comrades.
K. Leongard, in relation to other people, emphasizes suspiciousness in sticking accentuates. “Suspiciousness of a sticking person is all-encompassing, because painful suspicion is generated not by certain external circumstances, but is rooted in the psyche of the person.” 2 tasks related to guard duty, organization of access control, are reinforced by suspicion and can become both excellent specialists and not rhotic persons requiring active psychological assistance.
The development of stuck accentuation is not a simple summation of stressful situations associated with the infringement of individual rights. The increase in affect is caused by the appearance of a long succession of success and failure. Such situations are characteristic when there is an opportunity to react to the insult, but the success of this will be only partial. ”Such a continuous change of satisfaction and new defeats leads to the emergence of paranoid affect ... At the same time, the affect itself is immeasurably stronger than the occasion that caused it. Especially great danger when in the above “swinging” affects are involved, with a tendency to resistance. In this case, the push in the opposite direction does not give a sufficient reduction in the power of affect. ”1 Such stable affects are problems in love relationships, especially in sex; participation in litigation (with participation in various roles in lawsuits, family quarters of parents, relatives, etc.). In such cases, the consequences can be unmotivated perseverance, even when the facts speak about the wrong accentuate. A person can be so overwhelmed by thoughts of his inferiority in the intimate sphere, or by his idea of rightness, by the idea of tremendous achievements, that all other interests and goals for him do not exist.
The stuck personality type of military personnel is also interesting in that it is equally fraught with opportunities for both positive and negative character development. As is known, a person can only gain respect and authority if he somehow achieves positive results, standing out against the background of others. Therefore, every ambitious person strives to achieve high performance in any kind of activity, thus, ambition can become an important driving force on the way to excellent labor or creative performance. Anyone who has suffered injustice by mistake, by virtue of coincidence, but his personal authority was not injured, is unlikely to be particularly affected by this. But ambition can also be a negative factor, for example, when an ambitious unceremoniously suppresses and pushes his colleague, in which he sees a competitor. In such cases, the ambitious usually encounters public outcry, and the way out can be twofold: either he comes to his senses and tries again to gain recognition by dedication in his work, or the second feature of such a person is victorious - her suspiciousness, hostility.2
Professional activity of a stuck person confirms this.
Such people often achieve a very high official position, although it does not always correspond to their education and abilities. If the insufficient intellectual data of these people impede the taking of such a post, it is all the same, even if within the narrow framework of their activity, there is a continuous desire to move forward. With a significant degree of personality accentuation, ambitious aspirations often undergo disruptions. Due recognition, due assessment of such people are constantly hampered by their conflicts with others, because of which they not only do not move up the career ladder, but very often they are demoted. The dynamics of this process in adolescence may be the following: sincere enthusiasm for something, accompanied by achievements and success, encountering competition and affects, turns into a willingness to shoulder the blame for the situation on others who are supposedly hostile towards it, over time the person can stand up on the path of deviant behavior.
The specific character of the manifestation of character traits in a stuck accentuant is closely connected with the direct activity, the performance of specific professional functions, which is characterized by a personality-critical feature. In addition to purely external, situational (task complexity, decision time, etc.), the form of the flow of the critical process is largely determined by the relations of the subject, the degree of personal involvement in the assessment process, the place of internalized moral norms in the hierarchy of sustainable motivational entities. Against the background of a stressful situation, emotional stress increases and, as a result, “I and positive values” and “I and negative values” become alien. The revealed features of semantic formations testify to the defectiveness of the value system functioning, and, consequently, to the reduced ability to use it as a criterion for assessing real behavior.1 Such servicemen in difficult situations are capable of gross violations of the requirements of governing documents against the background of the desire to protect personal interests, justify their behavior of the situation.
In the studies of domestic psychologists, besides this, such a feature of stuck accentuates stands out - a low assessment factor for intermediate goals, low penetration into the decision process, found in 77% of the subjects.2 In 29% of cases where the solution of the task caused considerable difficulties, the advancement of each intermediate goal was accompanied such individuals have a complete repetition of the conditions of the problem. There was a sort of enhanced fixation of the objective conditions of activity, a complete orientation towards them in the absence of an adequate, full-fledged assessment of intermediate goals. As a result, the activities proceeded inadequately, avoiding variations and novelty. Fixing on one specific intermediate goal with the dominance of objective conditions did not allow to make a qualitatively new step in solving the problem.3
These problems limit the ability of accentuates to reverse actions through social norms and values, cause the uncriticality of stuck accentuates to be uncritical, lead to some forms of deviant behavior, and in some cases contribute to offenses.
There can be no “pure” manifestation of one or another accentuation of a person. Knowing the individual traits, it is easy to trace their compatibility.
Strengthening, weakening or variation of one trait can be traced, but the character’s prediction, according to the author of the typology, the refraction of several character accentuations, and especially the combination of temperament with the accentuation, can be judged only on the basis of practical observations and experience.
Thus, having considered the stuck accentuation within the framework of the typology of K.Leongard's character and the peculiarities of its manifestation in the military on the basis of studies of domestic and foreign psychologists, let us present the conclusions in the form of a table (Table 1):
Features manifestations of stuck accentuation in young
Table 1 Based on the foregoing, we formulate brief conclusions on the problem of analyzing stuck accentuation:
• The basis of the formation of stuck accentuation - the persistence of passion, especially when personal interests, self-esteem of the person are affected; The main positive features of a stuck characterological accentuate are - principled, obsession, thrift; negative - spontaneity of attachments and offenses, suspicion, vindictiveness, arrogance;
• The development of accentuation depends on the presence of stress, alternation of success and failure, dissatisfaction of resentment, especially in the field of intimate relationships and in the family; the focus of stuck accentuates can be both positive and negative, depending on the conditions of the living environment and the attitude of others around them, and, therefore, successful work of a psychologist with such people is possible;
• There are no “clean” accentuates. Their complex combinations require constant research and correction of efforts on the part of the psychologist.
Brief conclusions on the first chapter:
• the distinction of individual personality traits requires in psychology a certain typology of similar traits on some basis in order to organize the system and practical work with the personality (group);
• theory, classification of characters has deep historical roots and is characterized by a polyvariance of approaches, as a rule, corresponding to the main existing theories of personality in modern psychology;
• the character has only relative constancy and changes under the influence of the environment and social environment in significant ranges, which requires the introduction of the concept of “norm” and “pathology”;
• the typology of accentuations of K.Leongard's character allows us to designate the approaches of the psychologist’s work when working with deviations from the “norm” of character in an environment of personal adaptation to changing environmental conditions, which is important in the present conditions of the RF Armed Forces; one of the specific accentuations is stuck, characterized by positive and negative traits and persistence of passion, which manifest themselves from the presence of stress, a combination of success and failure of the individual and can have both positive and negative orientation.
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