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Awareness of the shortcomings of the concept of balanced nutrition stimulated new scientific research in the field of physiology of digestion, food biochemistry and microbiology.
First, it has been proven that dietary fiber is a necessary component of food.
Secondly, new digestion mechanisms were discovered, according to which food digestion occurs not only in the intestinal cavity, but also directly on the intestinal wall, on the membranes of intestinal cells using enzymes.
Third, a previously unknown special hormonal system of the intestine was discovered;
And finally, fourthly, valuable information was obtained regarding the role of microbes that live permanently in the intestine, and about their relationship with the host organism.
All this led to the emergence of a new concept in dietetics - the concept of adequate nutrition, which absorbed everything valuable from the theory and practice of a balanced diet.
According to the new trends, an idea of endoecology — the human internal ecology — was formed, based on the assertion of the important role of the intestinal microflora. It has been proven that between the human body and the microbes that live in its intestines, a special relationship of interdependence is maintained.
In accordance with the provisions of the theory of adequate nutrition, nutrients are formed from food during the enzymatic cleavage of its macromolecules, both through abdominal and membrane digestion, as well as through the formation of new compounds in the intestine, including irreplaceable ones.
Normal nutrition of the human body is not due to one stream of nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract to the internal environment, but several streams of nutrients and regulatory substances.
At the same time, of course, the main nutrient flux consists of amino acids, monosaccharides (glucose, fructose), fatty acids, vitamins and minerals, formed during the enzymatic breakdown of food. But, in addition to the main stream, five more independent streams of various substances enter the internal environment from the gastrointestinal tract. Among them, the flow of hormonal and physiologically active compounds produced by cells of the gastrointestinal tract deserves special attention. These cells secrete about 30 hormones and hormone-like substances that control not only the work of the digestive system, but also the most important functions of the whole organism.
In the intestine, three more specific streams are formed, associated with the intestinal microflora, representing the waste products of bacteria, modified ballast substances and modified food substances.
Finally, it is conditional that harmful or toxic substances from contaminated food are released into a separate stream.
Thus, the basic idea of the new theory was that nutrition should not only be balanced, but also adequate, that is, appropriate to the capabilities of the organism.
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