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Amino acids

In these cases, many European clinics successfully use glutamine preparations. Usually, glutamine is prescribed in addition to the course of treatment for patients suffering from stress or trauma (post-surgery, burns). Studies show that this use of glutamine helps reduce muscle loss in humans, since glutamine has a strong anti-catabolic effect.
Even when in a normal state, the human body uses a large amount of glutamine throughout the day. Especially a lot of glutamine is required to maintain the proper functioning of the immune system, kidneys, pancreas, gall bladder and liver. Glutamine also performs an important function of nitrogen transport, it removes ammonia from certain parts of the body (brain and lungs) and transports it to others (kidney and intestines). In addition, glutamine is used as a raw material for a strong natural antioxidant - glutathione (synthesized from glutamine, cysteine ​​and glycine).
In addition to everything listed above, glutamine refers to the few amino acids that cause additional production of growth hormone (growth hormone, somatotropin).
Although this question already refers to the field of endocrinology, I will allow myself to briefly outline the features of the action of this hormone, since it plays an exceptional role in the metabolism.
The stimulating effect of growth hormone is not direct, but is related to its effect on the formation of somatomedins in the liver. The main among somatomedins is somatomedin C, which in all cells of the body increases the rate of protein synthesis, which, in turn, leads to stimulation of cell division and as a consequence to the growth of muscle mass.
Factors affecting the secretion of somatotropin include hypoglycemia of fasting, certain types of stress and intense physical work. Growth hormone is mostly secreted in a dream, the first release occurs in forty minutes, then every 2-3 hours, while you sleep. Therefore, the first thing that can raise the level of growth hormone is a good rash. Also, stimulation of the release of growth hormone can be done by taking certain amino acids.
The most important substances releasing growth hormone are also the amino acids ornithine, arginine, tryptophan, glycine and tyrosine, which act synergistically (i.e., much more effectively) with B6 vitamins and niacinamide, zinc, calcium, magnesium, potassium and vitamin C, "launching »Night secretion of growth hormone. The natural levels of growth hormone decrease as you grow up. At the age of about 50 years, the production of growth hormone almost completely ceases, but adding amino acids and vitamins stimulating its release into the diet can make the production of growth hormone the same as in youth.
Ornithine and arginine, two of the several amino acids involved in the release of human growth hormone, are today one of the most popular amino acid supplements, mainly because they help to lose weight and improve the shape of the body while you sleep (that is, when the hormone is secreted growth). While some hormones encourage the body to accumulate fat, growth hormone acts as a fat mobilizer, helping not only to maintain form, but also to be more energetic. During the day, we draw energy from carbohydrates, and at night it is consumed from fat stores. In the daytime, when a person eats, the pancreas produces insulin, which helps burn carbohydrates and saves fats. And at night the pituitary gland produces the so-called growth hormone, which ensures the burning of fats. Our body very economically uses fat reserves. After a late supper, a lot of insulin is produced, which, as it were, informs the pituitary that food has entered the body, and there is no need to spend precious fat reserves at night. As a result, the pituitary gland does not produce enough growth hormone. And the trouble is not only that at night we will not grow thin, as nature has planned. Growth hormone has many other functions. Receptors to it have almost all the cells of our body, and if at night, growth hormone is produced little, all organs and systems suffer. And most importantly - while the organism is accelerating old age. After 35 years, the production of this hormone gradually decreases, and late supper also reduces it, dramatically accelerating the natural aging process. Ornithine stimulates the secretion of insulin and helps it manifest anabolic (muscle-building) action, which is why the use of ornithine increased among bodybuilders. The intake of additional ornithine helps to increase the level of arginine in the body (since arginine is formed from ornithine, and ornithine - from arginine as a result of their interconversions). Due to the fact that ornithine and arginine are so closely related, they have similar characteristics and should be taken with some precautions. In order for ornithine to fully manifest its properties, it must also be taken on an empty stomach, washed down with water or juice, but not with a liquid containing protein.
To raise the level of growth hormone can be the strength exercises, recommended from the middle of the second stage of the technique, but they will be discussed later.
As for Glutamine itself, under normal food conditions a rather large amount of it is concentrated in muscle tissues. The muscles are actually the storage sites for this amino acid and about 60% of the free amino acids contained in the muscle cells are synthesized from glutamine.
If the intestines, immune system and other organs can not get enough of this amino acid from food, they begin to "steal" the stores of glutamine from muscle tissues, while the state of catabolism, or the breakdown of muscle protein, develops.
Since my goal is to protect patients from this condition, the use of glutamine seems to be a worthwhile addition to any restrictions on protein intake from food.
Some doctors prescribe glutamine in huge quantities, while counting on the fact that he himself somehow gets to the skeletal musculature. However, studies show that 50 to 85% of a large oral dose of glutamine simply does not enter the blood, disintegrating under the action of enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract. Although there is no evidence of a glutamine overdose, I am still convinced that a sharp increase in the content of any single amino acid in the serum is highly undesirable. This can lead to its rapid deamination and, as a result, poisoning the body.
I believe that it is enough to prescribe two or three grams of glutamine twice a day. Moreover, just these two grams of glutamine, taken orally, lead, in fact, to a fourfold increase in the level of growth hormone (somatotropin) and immediately stop catabolism of muscle tissue.
However, in order to normalize the state of muscle tissue that has already undergone partial destruction as a result of prolonged protein starvation, I would recommend some time to take four equal doses of glutamine a day. Moreover, it is necessary that one of these doses should be at the end of physical exertion, and the other should be taken before bedtime.
Research scientist Anthony Almada writes in her works that at a certain time (right after an aerobic exercise or just before going to bed) we can meet the body's needs for a large amount of glutamine through an accurate minimum dosage to preserve the muscle structure and prevent their destruction.
Separately it is worth emphasizing once again that the huge value in calculating the effect of a certain amino acid should be given to its interaction with other amino acids in the blood serum. For example, glycine in combination with glutamine significantly enhances its effect, and alanine can keep the level of glutamine in the muscles, turning into blood into glucose. This is especially important in terms of limiting the amount of calories consumed, with the appointment of a "strict" diet or increasing breaks between meals. Arginine has a high detoxification effect and, with an excess of amino acids in the blood, participates in the conversion of ammonium salts into urea.
Ornithine:
• reduces the amount of fat in the body;
• participates in the metabolism of muscle tissue;
• strengthens the immune system;
• promotes the functioning and regeneration of liver tissue;
• participates in the formation of urea, detoxification of ammonia;
• reduces the tendency to fat deposition in the body;
• promotes recovery from muscle fatigue;
• promotes energy metabolism in the muscles.
Prolin:
• the most important protein building material of the human cell.
Tyrosine:
• participates in the formation of norepinephrine, depressing appetite;
• stimulates the release of growth hormone, which in the presence of vitamin B6 increases muscle mass and reduces body fat.
Phenylalanine:
• Depressing appetite;
• stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones.
Histidine:
• participates in the synthesis of protein;
• is a precursor of glutamine.
Taurine:
• promotes the use of fats in the energy cycle.
In addition, amino acids include vitamin-like substances - Carnitine and Paraaminobenzoic acid.
L-carnitine (vitamin Bt).
Here are its main functional and biological characteristics:
• the process of its synthesis is activated when there are vitamins C, B6 and iron in the diet;
• it promotes the oxidation of fatty acids in the mitochondria;
• transports fatty acids with long chains into the mitochondria;
• regulates the concentration of ammonia in the blood;
• its beneficial effects appear when taking before physical exertion;
• increases the maximum aerobic power and exerts a gentle glycogen effect;
• has an anti-ketogenic effect with a low-calorie diet;
• helps to get rid of excess subcutaneous fat;
It should be emphasized that the main moment in the assimilation of any amino acids is elevated sugar and insulin in the blood. Insulin stimulates protein synthesis, which is manifested by a decrease in blood levels of amino acids that have side chains (isoleucine, valine), due to their transport through the cell membrane in the muscle tissue. It is established that insulin increases the accumulation of 8 of the 20 natural amino acids in the muscles. Insulin is the main anabolic hormone in the human body responsible for the transport of amino acids to muscle cells and the further construction of these proteins from these cells. Although some recent discoveries in the field of biochemistry call into question this priority role of insulin. The question of how best to combine high levels of insulin with the intake of amino acids remains unresolved.
It seems to me, that it is necessary to take care of that in a diet in respect of additives there was a necessary quantity of Q-factors. Perhaps the most important of these is chromium, in its optimum form for mastering - "chromium picolinate". Chromium increases sensitivity to insulin, and since insulin transports amino acids into muscles, it is obvious that the patient will be less able to absorb amino acids, lacking chrome.
Other important Q factors include zinc, which is an insulin regulator, B6 and B12 vitamins that are important for protein metabolism, as well as biotin. A significant proportion of these Q-factors will come from a rationally composed diet. But I think it is necessary to additionally assign correctly chosen formulas of multivitamins with mineral complexes, the composition of which should be changed depending on the need of the organism at different stages of the procedure.
In concluding the subject of proteins, I would like to express my confidence that a biochemical laboratory that has the technical capability to determine the amino acid composition of blood serum will, in the near future, be included in the arsenal of each clinic that is implementing a modern approach not only to the problem of treating obesity, but also to other practical issues dietetics. At the same time, a biochemistry consultant will become an indispensable employee of any clinic for therapeutic nutrition.
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Amino acids

  1. AMINO ACIDS
    A legitimate question may arise: what is secretin? Is its nature known, or is it simply a name given to an unknown substance? The answer is that the nature of this substance is known, although not in all its details. Secretin is a protein, and proteins consist of large molecules, each containing hundreds, thousands, and sometimes millions of atoms. Compare this with a water molecule (H2O), which consists of three
  2. Absorption of amino acids
    Digestion of proteins in the stomach occurs during the conversion in an acid medium of pepsinogen to pepsin (optimal pH 1-3). Pepsin cleaves the bonds between the aromatic amino acids adjacent to the carboxylic amino acids. Pepsin is inactivated in an alkaline medium. This stage of digestion of proteins is absent in patients after gastrectomy, as well as in those who have been taking inhibitors for a long time
  3. CONGENITAL VIOLATIONS OF AMINO ACID EXCHANGE
    Leon E. Rosenberg (Leon E. Rosenberg) All polypeptides and proteins are polymers of 20 different amino acids. Eight of them, called irreplaceable, are not synthesized in the human body, so they need to be introduced with food. The rest are formed endogenously. Despite the fact that most of the amino acids in the body are bound in proteins, yet inside the cell
  4. Disorders of the transmembrane amino acid transport
    With effective intracavitary digestion, only amino acids (above 98%) are absorbed in adult humans using transmembrane transport carriers of amino acids (permease systems). In newborns and children 2-3 months of life, especially premature infants, with artificial feeding, it is possible to absorb short peptides, including antigenic ones, with the formation of enteral cross
  5. FROM AMINO ACIDS TO QUERCETIN
    In the first publication, we described in some detail about the oncologist Wolfe Laskine, and therefore for those whom she did not get into, let's briefly describe how the practitioner, the manager of one of the Moscow oncology dispensaries, came up with the idea of ​​creating a therapeutic diet for cancer patients. Laskin was looking for a product of vegetable origin, rich in amino acids. Recall that by that time
  6. Diseases of amino acid metabolism
    Phenylketonuria Hereditary diseases in which the transport of amino acids through the intestinal mucosa and the renal tubules is disrupted or their catabolism is altered due to a deficiency of enzymes or coenzymes. General diagnostic criteria for amino acid metabolism disorders require additional laboratory examination: 1) the combination of mental retardation with the pathology of vision (homocystinuria, insufficiency
  7. Deceleration of amino acids in organs and tissues
    The amino acids absorbed from the intestine enter the bloodstream and partially into the lymphatic system, representing the "metabolic fund" of various nitrogenous substances, which then participate in all kinds of metabolism. Normally, the amino acids that are absorbed into the blood from the intestine circulate in the blood, are quickly absorbed by the liver and partly by other organs (kidneys, heart, muscles).
  8. Hereditary disorders of amino acid metabolism (aminoacidopathy)
    The urgency of considering the interruption of the interchange of amino acids is determined by the fact that this pathology is reflected, primarily, on the functions of the nervous system and is one of the main causes of dementia. Knowledge of this pathology is necessary in the practice of neonatologists and genetic laboratories for the prevention and early correction of oligophrenia. Phenyl pyruvic oligophrenia (synonym:
  9. Pathology of interstitial metabolism of proteins (impairment of amino acid metabolism)
    The main ways of protein metabolism are the reactions of transamination, deamination, amidation, decarboxylation, re-methylation, resulfuration. The central place in the interchange of proteins is taken by the reamination reaction as the main source of the formation of new amino acids. Violation of transamination can occur as a result of deficiency in the body of vitamin Bb.
  10. Intermittent interchange of proteins
    The pathology of this stage of protein metabolism is manifested in the violation of interstitial (intermediate) exchange of amino acids. Normally, the concentration of free amino acids in plasma is 4-8 mg / l. The intake of amino acids with food or their intravenous administration has little effect on this indicator. The main organs that utilize amino acids are the liver and kidneys. The brain absorbs amino acids selectively, preferring
  11. Genetic code. Properties of the genetic code
    The genetic code is a unified system for recording hereditary information in nucleic acid molecules as a sequence of nucleotides. The genetic code is based on the use of an alphabet consisting of only four letters A, T, C, D, corresponding to nucleotides of DNA. Since there are 20 different amino acids in proteins, each can not be encoded by one or two nucleotides (it will be
  12. The importance of protein in human life
    The properties of the protein depend on its composition and on the location of amino acids in the molecule. And the order of amino acids in the protein molecule plays a very important role in the performance of their functions. Amino acids, synthesized in our body, are called interchangeable. Some amino acids in the human body are not formed - these are essential amino acids. Proteins containing the entire set of essential amino acids,
  13. Disturbances in the qualitative composition of proteins supplied with food
    Of the more than 80 natural amino acids, only 22 occur in food proteins. Of these, 12 can be synthesized in the body, 10 are indispensable - arginine, valine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, phenylalanine. Deficiency of any of them slows down growth, causes a negative nitrogen balance, associated with increased disintegration of tissue proteins to extract a scarce
  14. PROTEIN EXCHANGE
    It is known that the protein consists of amino acids. In turn, amino acids are not only a source. synthesis of new structural proteins, enzymes, substances of hormonal, protein, peptide nature and others, but also a source of energy. The characteristics of the proteins that make up the food depend both on the energy value and on the spectrum of amino acids. The average period of protein breakdown is not the same in
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