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Appetite. From war to truce and on to peace
According to many slimming, appetite, here is the main problem, the main obstacle that prevents a person from losing weight! After all, as is often the case, there is a mood, a desire, and an awareness of the need to finally take on yourself. And at first, it seems, everything is fine. But, the evening comes ..., the husband brings a cake ..., friends call for a visit ..., and all our good wishes are wasted.
A great variety of means and methods is devoted to the fight against appetite. But they all give only a temporary effect, or do not give it at all. And, above all, because
in the overwhelming number of fat people, the appetite is completely normal, as if the opposite would seem to them. It is possible to talk about its pathological increase no more often than in one case per 10,000 people.
And how to treat something that is so cool? How to try to reduce what is so normal? Of course, we can continue to excel in this struggle with ourselves, but if we lose this battle every time, would it not be better to sort out the problem? What kind of appetite is this and why is it sometimes so difficult for us if it is not impossible to resist the desire to eat?
Let's start with the obvious statement - man, this is one of the animals inhabiting the earth. Once, relatively recently, man belonged to the wild nature and obeyed all the laws of regulation that exist in this environment. And very many of those regulatory mechanisms inherited. And it would be useful for us to sort out these mechanisms, noting along the way those that we could successfully use in our practice.
In animals, all activity related to nutrition is controlled by the food instinct. This is one of the three basic instincts. The other two are the instinct for self-preservation and the instinct for reproduction.
In the brain of the animal there is an appetite center, or hunger center. This is a rather complicated structure. It is formed by nerve cells located in different parts of the brain: in the cortex, subcortical nuclei. There are experiments that have already become classic, when weak electrical discharges simulating nerve impulses were sent to animals through electrodes implanted into different parts of the brain. So, while irritating some centers of the brain, the animals ate and ate and could not get enough. They did not stop eating even when their excess weight reached gigantic proportions. By the way, along with the nerve nuclei responsible for the feeling of hunger, were found and education, forming a feeling of satiety. When they were irritated, the effect was exactly the opposite. Animals refused to eat, bringing themselves to pronounced emaciation.
In a certain simplified form, the regulation of eating behavior is as follows. The appetite center responds to blood glucose levels. And with a decrease in this level, there is a feeling of discomfort and a desire to eat associated with it. If food is available, the animal is immediately sent to eat. If, however, obtaining food requires a long transition, or in the case of predators, stalking and stalking, then a system that mobilizes energy from reserves is activated. Fat splitting is going on, the level of nutrients in the blood rises and the hunger pangs recede1. But from time to time they remind of themselves, and more and more persistently every time. This causes the animal to be more and more sophisticated in the search for food. But the food is found. Next comes the actual satisfaction of the food instinct and the pleasure of this satisfaction. Nutrients from food are partly used to extract energy, and some are replenished. The creation of reserves is necessary because it is completely unknown when the next time will be able to get hold of food.
 For us, this moment is extremely important. It turns out that muscular activity, by stimulating the breakdown of stored fat, can reduce the need for food for some time.
The sensitivity of the center of hunger depends in a certain way on the time of day and on the season. In animals with a night type of food, it is higher at night, in animals with a day type, respectively, during the day. In animals hibernating, the activity of the hunger center increases during the formation of fat reserves. It is clear that the higher the sensitivity of the center of hunger, the easier and more often the desire to eat and the harder it is to eat.
In humans, the system of regulation of appetite and food intake works in the same way. With the only difference that in humans, the main activity is very often not directly related to obtaining food. In fact, well, what is the relationship between teaching teaching, or cutting the fabric and tracking down prey? But with the prey all is well. In modern economically developed countries, where hunger is defeated, food is available. She is almost everywhere. Homes in the fridge, in stores, in food markets, and so on. True, this raises the problem of satiety, one of the consequences of which is overweight ...
And now is the time to talk about how, relying on knowledge about the regulation of eating behavior, to turn our appetite from the main enemy into a best friend. By the way, this is the best way out of any war, and even more so from the war with oneself, which is different from other wars in that it cannot be defeated by violence. So let's stop fighting with ourselves! The desire to eat is a completely normal feeling. So our body shows its natural desire to live! Resisting hunger in a situation where food is available is an extremely painful thing. And, in general, hopeless. Hunger is imperative. Moreover, the longer we manage to hold out, barring our own food, the more disordered and plentiful our food will be when we finally "break down". Conversely, the more often we eat, the less food we need to satisfy the food instinct.
The center of appetite for most people is more sensitive in the evening than in the morning, in the autumn-winter time, than in the spring-summer. This center is more sensitive against the background of anxiety and depression than against the background of a good mood. And this has a definite meaning, a reflection of our connection with wildlife.
In the evening, we rather store energy, and spend it in the morning. A store of energy is created and closer to the cold. In a state of anxiety, quenching the food instinct directly increases safety, gives us the energy necessary to withstand danger, and thus calms. Hence, by the way, the antidepressant effect of food. Appetite increases with chronic sleep deprivation. This is again due to the fact that, against the background of lack of sleep, anxiety increases, and food calms.
The conclusions are obvious, try to lose weight, while remaining in a good mood, eliminate lack of sleep, build your diet so that the restrictions and prohibitions are as low as possible in the evening hours. Perhaps it would be better to plan the main efforts for weight loss in the spring and summer, whereas in the cold season it is better to limit yourself to maintaining weight.
The mood increases and, accordingly, the appetite normalizes with the use of such mild antidepressant effects as a pleasant bath, shower, a walk in the fresh air, a meeting with an interesting interlocutor, a theatrical performance, and so on. These simple and affordable things have a lot of potential. They should not be neglected.
In women, the sensitivity of the hunger center depends on the phase of the menstrual-ovarian cycle. In the second phase of the cycle, the appetite is usually higher than in the first. It is also a very simple way out - direct efforts to lose weight in the first phase of the cycle, and in the second limit to maintaining weight.
Appetite usually increases due to intoxication. Alcohol increases the permeability of cell membranes for glucose, the level of blood sugar drops sharply, and we feel the feeling of hunger. Conclusion - if you set the task to reduce weight, or avoid its growth, alcohol consumption should be moderate.
Different nutrients from food have a different fate in the body. Fat mainly replenish stocks, carbohydrates and proteins mainly serve current activities. Fatty food is harder to eat, because fat is where to put - the capacity of fat reserves is huge. But if the food is not rich in fats, but contains enough protein and carbohydrates, then the body is unlikely to replenish its fat reserves, but it will quench the feeling of hunger. Conclusion, try to satisfy the appetite of predominantly low-fat foods. And the feeling of satiety will appear, and excess fat will not accumulate.
The appetite is usually quite healthy, or, in any case, it can increase in the presence of so-called food impulses - the type of food, its smells, talk about food, or situations where food is very likely. It is inevitable, we are so arranged. And to appeal to common sense is useless here. So what of what we have recently eaten and a few moments ago were full? We can eat and reserve. And the creation of energy reserves, an important vital function of any animal, including humans. And in this situation, the most important and most difficult thing is not to forbid oneself food, not to convince oneself that one is already full and not to swear at one's dependence on food and lack of will. In fact, all these actions will only aggravate the appetite. It would be much more effective to satisfy hunger with low-fat food, then you will quickly get enough of a small piece of fatty food that “seduced” you. And let's agree. One thing is greedily eating "having broken" and it is quite another thing to eat reasonably and slowly, knowing that there are no prohibitions and any product you can.
And, perhaps, the most important and most interesting. As it was found in a fairly large number of scientific studies, in a certain way, built physical activity can reduce appetite. The mechanism of this phenomenon is seen in the fact that, against the background of muscular activity, the level of adrenaline and noradrenaline rises in the blood. And these hormones stimulate the breakdown of fat. In addition, nerve impulses coming from the working muscles, increase the tone of the brain, reduce depressive mood. And once the mood improves, it means that the need for food decreases, as in the antidepressant factor.
It should be warned that not every load has such an appetite-reducing effect. So, for example, after exhausting workouts, accompanied by severe fatigue, appetite rather increases. To achieve the desired effect, it is rather necessary to exercise medium intensity, without shortness of breath, palpitations and other discomforts, leaving behind a pleasant sensation of warmth in the body, a feeling of cheerfulness and good mood.
And another very important moment for us. Many of our patients noted a decrease in appetite and good nutritional comfort even on unloading diets, if they were very clearly aware of why they need to lose weight, and moved toward this goal. All right In this case, the so-called psychological movement, or personal growth. A person realizes that from a slave of habits he turns into a master of the situation. He realizes that he is changing for the better. He realizes that at last he took up the business for which he was born into the world, namely, to be happy. And now that any life problem is on his shoulder. The interest in themselves, in their feelings, the discovery of a new mass, including in gastronomy. For example, it turns out that food is much nicer and tastier to eat slowly. That feeling light hunger is very nice in its own way. So my body tells me that burning of fat reserves occurs regularly. And that feeling of light hunger is much more pleasant than the state of overeating. Swollen belly and restless sleep with nightmares, who cares?
And the most important thing in this state is not to bend the stick. Do not rush into a contest with you. Do not set yourself up to complete hunger. From unnecessary overvoltage, everything can turn around 180o. Weakness, decreased mood, self-doubt, increased appetite and "breakdown."
So, a good mood, a clear vision of the goal, a reasonably built diet, carrying both satiety and pleasant taste sensations, tonic physical activity, these are the natural regulators that allow to normalize any even the most "wolf" appetite.
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Appetite. From war to truce and on to peace
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