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Chromium other microelements.
Chromium is a mineral that has become widely known due to its ability to normalize the glucose level in the blood serum.
In the late 1950s, two researchers, Schwartz and Mertz, reported that in rats that had an artificially created chromium deficiency, sugar intolerance developed; When adding the same chromium in the diet of "Diabetes-like" rats, their state was normalized. This was the first confirmation that chrome is needed by an animal for a normal life. Since then, researchers have realized that chromium plays an important role in human metabolism.
Since the concentration of chromium in most types of foods is too low to affect the concentration of sugar in the blood, many nutritionists recommend that their patients supplement the diet with chromium supplements.
The positive effect of chromium on sensitivity to insulin plays a key role in the treatment of depressive conditions, accompanied by a pathological craving for the use of carbohydrates. Additional intake of chromium positively affects the pathological disorders of appetite, reduces the craving for carbohydrates and normalizes libido. Additives with chromium are usually well tolerated and do not cause side effects.
Chromium is an integral part of the low molecular weight glucose tolerance complex (GTF), which facilitates the interaction of cellular receptors with insulin, thereby reducing the body's need for it. The tolerance factor enhances the action of insulin in all metabolic processes with its participation. In addition, chromium is involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and is an activator of certain enzymes.
Scientists from the Beltsville research center link the effect of this element to enzyme systems so that chromium triggers an addition reaction of phosphorus-containing molecules to insulin receptors, which in turn provides glucose support to cells that need energy.
When the hormone finishes its work, another enzyme comes into play and "cuts off" the phosphorus-containing molecules from the insulin receptors. Thus, their activity ceases. Decrease in the secretion of insulin and its concentration in the blood leads to the mobilization of energy from the depot (liver, muscle, fat tissue) while reducing food intake.
This microelement is so important for the tolerance of sugar, that its severe insufficiency leads to the development of a diabetes-like disease.
The level of chromium decreases during childbearing and after its birth, in children's diabetes, in coronary arterial disease (sclerosing arteries leading to the heart). Chromium deficiency during pregnancy can explain diabetes, which in this case develops (diabetes of pregnant women), and a violation of the interaction of chromium with insulin can also contribute to rapid weight gain, fluid retention and increased blood pressure that some women experience during pregnancy, and after childbirth .
Recent studies have shown that the amount of chromium content in any additives may not be as important as the chemical form of the element itself. So it is established that only trivalent chromium takes part in biochemical processes.
According to a study in Ohio, USA, the absorption of various forms of chromium is different. Only the picolinate of chromium is well absorbed by the body. In the experiment, it is proved that when used in this form, about 40% of this element is absorbed. The absorption of other chromium compounds is negligible and amounts to approximately 1%. The absorption of chromium from food products is less than 10 percent.
Of all the variety of products, "broccoli" is the richest source of chromium. One serving of "broccoli" contains 10 times more chrome than the same amount of green beans, potatoes or orange juice, although the concentration of this element in plant foods is an order of magnitude lower than its concentration in mammalian tissues. Especially high is the content of chromium in brewer's yeast, in addition, it is present in meat, liver, legumes, whole grains, bran.
Unfortunately, chromium is poorly digested, especially from products subjected to intensive temperature treatment. Moreover, the abundant use of carbohydrates stimulates the process of removing chromium from the body. A modern man, adhering to a diet rich in refined sugar, needs more chrome than, say, fifty years ago. It should be noted that now people not only consume less, but lose more chromium.
Many manufacturers of additives tend to make their product non-toxic, convenient for production and chemically stable (capable of long life on drugstores). Also, preference is given to ingredients that can be easily shaped into tablets for ease of use.
This last consideration prompted manufacturers of multivitamin-mineral supplements to give preference to chromium chloride, whose molecules differ in small size. People do not want to take ten tablets a day or swallow one pill, shocking them with large sizes. The problem is that it is chromium chloride that is absorbed worse than all its compounds. In the experiment, a dozen women took 200 micrograms of chromium in the form of chromium chloride, which led to an increase in only thirty percent of the intake of chromium in their organisms compared to their normal diet.
The use of Chromium nicotinate, known as GTF, used as a glucose tolerance agent (this drug has gained widespread commercial fame in recent years) increases the level of chromium consumption by half. Preliminary studies have confirmed that chromium nicotinate has a stabilizing effect on the glucose level in the blood.
However, according to DiSilvestro, these data may be a consequence of the violation of the methods of chromium in the blood and the fruit of the imagination. Ohio scientists studied a dietary supplement containing chromium nicotinate in combination with some attached amino acids. It is established that such a compound is absorbed three times better than GTF.
But the best characteristics are noted yet for chromium picolinate. In this compound, chromium is connected to picolinic acid (picolinic acid). Additives containing this compound increased the intake of chromium in the test subjects by six times. It should be noted, for the sake of fairness, that these studies were funded by the Nutrition21 nutritional supplement company, which produces a food supplement containing chromium picolinate with the Chromax trademark.
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Chromium other microelements.
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