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Chromium other microelements.


Chromium is a mineral that has become widely known due to its ability to normalize the glucose level in the blood serum.
In the late 1950s, two researchers, Schwartz and Mertz, reported that in rats that had an artificially created chromium deficiency, sugar intolerance developed; When adding the same chromium in the diet of "Diabetes-like" rats, their state was normalized. This was the first confirmation that chrome is needed by an animal for a normal life. Since then, researchers have realized that chromium plays an important role in human metabolism.
Since the concentration of chromium in most types of foods is too low to affect the concentration of sugar in the blood, many nutritionists recommend that their patients supplement the diet with chromium supplements.
The positive effect of chromium on sensitivity to insulin plays a key role in the treatment of depressive conditions, accompanied by a pathological craving for the use of carbohydrates. Additional intake of chromium positively affects the pathological disorders of appetite, reduces the craving for carbohydrates and normalizes libido. Additives with chromium are usually well tolerated and do not cause side effects.
Chromium is an integral part of the low molecular weight glucose tolerance complex (GTF), which facilitates the interaction of cellular receptors with insulin, thereby reducing the body's need for it. The tolerance factor enhances the action of insulin in all metabolic processes with its participation. In addition, chromium is involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and is an activator of certain enzymes.
Scientists from the Beltsville research center link the effect of this element to enzyme systems so that chromium triggers an addition reaction of phosphorus-containing molecules to insulin receptors, which in turn provides glucose support to cells that need energy.
When the hormone finishes its work, another enzyme comes into play and "cuts off" the phosphorus-containing molecules from the insulin receptors. Thus, their activity ceases. Decrease in the secretion of insulin and its concentration in the blood leads to the mobilization of energy from the depot (liver, muscle, fat tissue) while reducing food intake.
This microelement is so important for the tolerance of sugar, that its severe insufficiency leads to the development of a diabetes-like disease.
The level of chromium decreases during childbearing and after its birth, in children's diabetes, in coronary arterial disease (sclerosing arteries leading to the heart). Chromium deficiency during pregnancy can explain diabetes, which in this case develops (diabetes of pregnant women), and a violation of the interaction of chromium with insulin can also contribute to rapid weight gain, fluid retention and increased blood pressure that some women experience during pregnancy, and after childbirth .
Recent studies have shown that the amount of chromium content in any additives may not be as important as the chemical form of the element itself. So it is established that only trivalent chromium takes part in biochemical processes.
According to a study in Ohio, USA, the absorption of various forms of chromium is different. Only the picolinate of chromium is well absorbed by the body. In the experiment, it is proved that when used in this form, about 40% of this element is absorbed. The absorption of other chromium compounds is negligible and amounts to approximately 1%. The absorption of chromium from food products is less than 10 percent.
Of all the variety of products, "broccoli" is the richest source of chromium. One serving of "broccoli" contains 10 times more chrome than the same amount of green beans, potatoes or orange juice, although the concentration of this element in plant foods is an order of magnitude lower than its concentration in mammalian tissues. Especially high is the content of chromium in brewer's yeast, in addition, it is present in meat, liver, legumes, whole grains, bran.
Unfortunately, chromium is poorly digested, especially from products subjected to intensive temperature treatment. Moreover, the abundant use of carbohydrates stimulates the process of removing chromium from the body. A modern man, adhering to a diet rich in refined sugar, needs more chrome than, say, fifty years ago. It should be noted that now people not only consume less, but lose more chromium.
Many manufacturers of additives tend to make their product non-toxic, convenient for production and chemically stable (capable of long life on drugstores). Also, preference is given to ingredients that can be easily shaped into tablets for ease of use.
This last consideration prompted manufacturers of multivitamin-mineral supplements to give preference to chromium chloride, whose molecules differ in small size. People do not want to take ten tablets a day or swallow one pill, shocking them with large sizes. The problem is that it is chromium chloride that is absorbed worse than all its compounds. In the experiment, a dozen women took 200 micrograms of chromium in the form of chromium chloride, which led to an increase in only thirty percent of the intake of chromium in their organisms compared to their normal diet.
The use of Chromium nicotinate, known as GTF, used as a glucose tolerance agent (this drug has gained widespread commercial fame in recent years) increases the level of chromium consumption by half. Preliminary studies have confirmed that chromium nicotinate has a stabilizing effect on the glucose level in the blood.
However, according to DiSilvestro, these data may be a consequence of the violation of the methods of chromium in the blood and the fruit of the imagination. Ohio scientists studied a dietary supplement containing chromium nicotinate in combination with some attached amino acids. It is established that such a compound is absorbed three times better than GTF.
But the best characteristics are noted yet for chromium picolinate. In this compound, chromium is connected to picolinic acid (picolinic acid). Additives containing this compound increased the intake of chromium in the test subjects by six times. It should be noted, for the sake of fairness, that these studies were funded by the Nutrition21 nutritional supplement company, which produces a food supplement containing chromium picolinate with the Chromax trademark.
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Chromium other microelements.

  1. MICROELEMENTS
    Micronutrients should be added to the PP taking into account daily requirements. However, the information available on this issue is clearly insufficient, since there are no clearly established doses of trace elements for patients in intensive care units. Nevertheless, the often occurring micronutrient deficiency may be accompanied by some clinical manifestations and ultimately affect the results of treatment. Highly
  2. Physiological and hygienic assessment of basic microelements.
    Microelements are chemical elements found in the tissues of the human body in concentrations of 1: 100,000 or less. To microelements also include chemical elements, in low concentrations contained in water, soil, etc. Some trace elements are absolutely necessary for the most important processes of the vital activity of the human body, as well as for the normal course of many metabolic processes
  3. The situation with micronutrients
    It describes the prevalence of deficiency of four micronutrients: iodine, iron and vitamins A and D. These questions are discussed in more detail in Chapters 4-6. Iodine The definition of mild, moderate and severe iodine deficiency (Table 3) is based on a combined assessment of four different indicators: goitre in school-age children, an increase in the volume of the thyroid gland
  4. Trace Elements
    Iron. It is necessary for the biosynthesis of compounds that provide respiration, hematopoiesis, participates in immunobiological and oxidation-reduction reactions, is part of the cytoplasm, cell nuclei and a number of enzymes. Assimilation of iron prevents oxalic acid and phytin. To assimilate B12 and ascorbic acid are necessary. Need: men - 10 mg per day women -18 mg per day. When
  5. Trace Elements
    Iron reserves of iron in the body are usually small. It is necessary for the synthesis of hemoglobin, myoglobin, enzymes. Manganese An integral part or activator of enzymes plays a role in the metabolism of matter in the bones. Zinc An integral part of enzymes. Lack of zinc leads to eczema, especially in the oral cavity, diarrhea, alopecia, hypogonadism. During surgery, there is a loss of zinc (Dolp,
  6. Minerals and trace elements (minerals)
    Mineral substances are inorganic constituents of food. Many of them play an important role in the body, and their constant supply with food is necessary. Mineral composition of food includes more than 60 macro- and microelements. ___________ __ carrying out a nervous excitation to the muscles Iron hemopoiesis (in the composition of hemoglobin, 60% of the total Fe in the body), anemia, rapid fatigue
  7. Introduce multivitamins and trace elements in the diet
    All children with refractory diarrhea should receive daily food fortified with polyvitamins and microelements for two weeks. The necessary nutritional supplements available in local stores are often quite acceptable; The least expensive are tablets, which can be grinded and added to food. Thus, it is possible to select all possible combinations of vitamins and
  8. Chlorpromazine and other neuroleptics [phenothiazine derivatives (promazine, levomepromazine, trifluoperazine and others)]
    Dizziness, severe weakness. In severe cases, loss of consciousness (sopor, coma), seizures, increased tendon reflexes. Dryness of the oral mucosa, pupils narrowed, tachycardia, arterial hypotension. ACTION AT THE CALL | Gastric lavage with a probe, the introduction of enterosorbents (activated charcoal, vaulen, SKN for 20-40 g in the form of an aqueous suspension through the mouth
  9. The role of macroelements and microelements in the development and development of children's health
    Of the 92 naturally occurring chemical elements, 81 is present in the human body. Mineral substances are a part of all liquids and tissues. By regulating more than 50,000 biochemical processes, they are necessary for the functioning of the muscular, cardiovascular, immune, nervous and other systems; take part in the synthesis of vital compounds, metabolic processes, hematopoiesis,
  10. SYMPTOMS OF INSUFFICIENCY OF MICROELEMENTS IN BIRDS RATION
    Iron is contained in the body of the bird in an amount of 60-100 mg per 1 kg of fat-free body weight and is contained mainly in red blood cells in conjunction with hemoglobin. Participates in the process of carrying oxygen from the lungs to all tissues of the body. Signs of iron deficiency in the body are anemia, a decrease in hemoglobin in the blood, a decreased activity of redox
  11. MAIN NUTRITIVE SUBSTANCES, MINERALS, MICROELEMENTS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE IN NORM AND PATHOLOGY
    There are 6 main groups of nutrients, 3 of which provide the body with energy - these are proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Other nutrients - vitamins, minerals and water - are not energy substances. In the body, proteins, fats and carbohydrates are split into energy. The amount of energy released in this case from 1 g of the substance is called the energy
  12. Korovina NA, Zakharova I.N. Vitamins and trace elements in the practice of a pediatrician, 2009

  13. Other sensations
    Compared with sight and hearing, other sensations lack the rich functionality, due to which vision and hearing are called "higher senses." Yet these other feelings are vital. For example, a sense of smell (sense of smell) is one of the most primitive and most important of these sensations. Perhaps this is due to the fact that the smell penetrates the brain through a more direct route,
  14. OTHER STEROIDS
    In the body, there are other steroids that can either be synthesized from cholesterol or formed simultaneously with it during similar chemical reactions. For example, bile contains steroids, called bile acids. Their concentration in bile is 7 to 8 times higher than the concentration of cholesterol. (Unlike the latter, bile acids do not lead to diseases, since it is good
  15. Other approaches.
    Interaction analysis, one of the most rapidly developing therapies, is discussed in detail in the next chapter. Two other approaches to psychotherapy have been used for a long time. Many American psychiatrists of the older generation belong to the "Meyer" school of psychobiology; This system was developed by the late Adolf Meyer, who was a professor of psychiatry
  16. We are different!
    Here are lines from one letter, I want to quote them verbatim: "It is necessary to change the approach to nutrition, and not sit on questionable diets. It seems that you understand all this, but you feel sorry for yourself. We munch 3 weeks (really eat, do not eat) cakes, sweets, etc., then you get up on the scales. You punish yourself with a strict diet (for about 3 months). Thank you, although there is an iron willpower (I do not eat anything greasy,
  17. OTHER MICROBACTERIAL INFECTIONS
    Stanley D. Freedman1 Introduction. In the 1950s it was shown that not only mycobacterium tuberculosis, but also other representatives of the Mycobacterium genus can cause disease in humans. Classification of these microorganisms, based on the morphology of colonies and growth characteristics, was proposed by E. Runion. These bacteria are widely distributed in nature as saprophytes,
  18. DERIVATIVES OF UREA AND OTHER AMINO COMPOUNDS
    Preparations of this group are used for fighting with perennial and to a lesser extent annual, single and dicotyledonous weeds in gardens, potato, leguminous, sugar beet and other crops, and also for the destruction of undesirable woody vegetation. Herbicidal effect is manifested on the 2-3rd day, complete loss of weeds occurs in 2 weeks. Preparations penetrate into plants
  19. OTHER CLOSTRIDIAL INFECTIONS
    Dennis L. Kasper (Dennis L. Kasper) Definition. Bacteria of the genus Clostridium are widespread in nature. These are gram-positive spore-forming obligate anaerobes. More than 60 species of clostridia are known, many of which are usually considered saprophytes. Some species are pathogenic for humans and animals, especially in conditions of reduced oxidation-reduction potential. These
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