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Chromium other trace elements.
Chromium is a mineral that has become widely known because of its ability to normalize serum glucose.
In the late 1950s, two researchers, Schwartz and Merz, reported that rats that had an artificially deficient chromium in their diets developed sugar intolerance; with the addition of chromium in the diet of "Diabetes-like" rats, their condition returned to normal. This was the first confirmation that chromium is necessary for animals for a normal life. Since then, researchers have realized that chromium plays an important role in human metabolism.
Since the concentration of chromium in most types of foods is too low to affect the concentration of sugar in the blood, many nutritionists recommend that their patients supplement the diet with chromium supplements.
The positive effect of chromium on insulin sensitivity plays a key role in the treatment of depressive conditions, accompanied by a pathological burden to the consumption of carbohydrates. The additional intake of chromium has a positive effect on pathological disorders of appetite, decreases the craving for carbohydrates and normalizes libido. Chromium supplements are usually well tolerated and do not cause side effects.
Chromium is an integral part of the low molecular weight complex - glucose tolerance factor (GTF), which facilitates the interaction of cellular receptors with insulin, thus reducing the body's need for it. The factor of tolerance enhances the action of insulin in all metabolic processes with its participation. In addition, chromium is involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and is an activator of certain enzymes.
Scientists from the Beltsville Research Center (Beltsville research center) associate the effect of this element on enzyme systems with the fact that chromium triggers the reaction of the attachment of phosphorus-containing molecules to insulin receptors, which, in turn, provides maintenance of glucose to cells that need energy.
When the hormone finishes its work, a different enzyme comes into play and “disables” phosphorus-containing molecules from insulin receptors. Thus, their activity ceases. Reduced insulin secretion and concentration in the blood leads to the mobilization of energy from the depot (liver, muscle, adipose tissue) while reducing food intake.
This trace element is so important for sugar tolerance that its strong insufficiency leads to the development of diabetes-like disease.
The level of chromium decreases during childbirth and after birth, in children with diabetes, with coronary arterial disease (hardening of the arteries leading to the heart). Chromium deficiency during pregnancy can explain diabetes, which then develops (diabetes during pregnancy), and a disruption in the interaction of chromium with insulin can also contribute to rapid weight gain, fluid retention and increased blood pressure that some women experience during pregnancy, as well as after childbirth .
Recent studies have shown that the amount of chromium in any additives may not be as important as the chemical form of the element itself. So it is established that only trivalent chromium takes part in biochemical processes.
According to a study conducted in Ohio (USA), the absorption of various forms of chromium is different. Only chromium picolinate (picolinate) is well absorbed by the body. The experiment proved that when used in this form absorbed about 40% of this element. The absorption of other chromium compounds is insignificant and is approximately 1%. Chromium absorption from food products is less than 10 percent.
Of all the variety of products, "broccoli" is the richest source of chromium. One portion of “broccoli” contains 10 times more chromium than the same amount of green beans, potatoes, or orange juice, although the concentration of this element in plant foods is an order of magnitude less than its concentration in mammalian tissues. Particularly high chromium content in brewer's yeast, in addition, it is present in meat, liver, legumes, whole grains, bran.
Unfortunately, chromium is poorly absorbed, especially from products subjected to intensive heat treatment. Moreover, the abundant consumption of carbohydrates stimulates the process of removing chromium from the body. A modern man who adheres to a diet rich in refined sugar needs more chromium than, say, fifty years ago. It should be noted that now people not only consume less, but also lose more chromium.
Many manufacturers of additives tend to make their product non-toxic, convenient for production and chemically stable (capable of long life on pharmacy shelves). It also prefers ingredients that can easily be given the form of tablets for ease of use.
This last consideration prompted the manufacturers of multivitamin-mineral supplements to prefer chromium chloride, the molecules of which differ in small size. People do not want to take ten pills a day or swallow one pill, shocking them with their large size. The problem is that it is chromium chloride that is absorbed worse than all its compounds. In the experiment, a dozen women took 200 micrograms of chromium in the form of chromium chloride, which resulted in an increase of only thirty percent of the chromium in their organisms compared with their usual diet.
The use of chromium nicotinate (Chromium nicotinate), known as GTF, used as an agent that enhances glucose tolerance (this drug has gained wide commercial fame in recent years) doubles the level of chromium consumption. Preliminary studies have confirmed that chromium nicotinate has a stabilizing effect on blood glucose.
However, according to DiSilvestro, these data may be the result of a violation of the method of chromium in the blood and the fruit of imagination. Ohio scientists have studied a supplement containing chromium nicotinate in combination with some added amino acids. It is established that such a compound is absorbed three times better than GTF.
But the best characteristics are noted nevertheless at chromium picolinate. In this compound, chromium is combined with picolinic acid (picolinic acid). Additives containing this compound increased chromium intake in subjects six times. It should, for the sake of fairness, be mentioned that these studies were funded by Nutrition21, a company that produces food supplements containing chromium picolinate under the brand name Chromax.
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Chromium other trace elements.
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