Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous || Next >> |
It is the most common mineral substance in the human body. Calcium not only plays an important role in the formation of stagnant tissue, but also is part of the blood, cellular and tissue fluids. This micronutrient directly affects the processes of muscle contraction, and, hence, the whole motor activity of a person depends on it. It also affects the stimulation of the functions of a number of enzymes and hormones involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Its role lies in the metabolic transformation of fats. Its high content in the body speeds up their "digestion" by cells and does not allow them to accumulate in adipose tissue. Calcium in the body takes the form of hydroxyapatite salt, in the form of which is stored in the teeth and bones.
The most popular biological supplements contain calcium in the form of citrate or carbonate salt. In addition, some manufacturers add to juices and other calcium products in the form of malic acid salt.
Usually in the digestive tract, calcium is released from the complexes with the formation of a liquid form that is absorbed into the small intestine.
Although calcium is found in many foods, providing them with an organism is not an easy task, since it refers to difficult-to-digest elements. So, for example, even an excess of saturated fats prevents the absorption of calcium in the intestine.
The best natural sources of this microelement are milk and dairy products - milk, cottage cheese, yoghurt, kefir.
Remember the charming passer Panikovsky from I. Ilf and E. Petrov's novel The Golden Calf, who was very fond of kefir and taught his "partner" Balaganov: "Shura, drink kefir. He is very useful for health. " This statement of Mikhail Samuilevich was recently confirmed by American scientists.
It turned out that an increased amount of calcium suppresses the production of calcitriol, which makes any diet more effective. It is known that a decrease in the production of calcitriol increases the intensity of the utilization of fats and reduces the level of lipogenesis.
German dietician Dr. Zemel recommends not to sever much of his zoological roots. He found that the lack of calcium in the body helps to increase the level of specific hormones, which in turn provoke weight gain. In this case, dietary supplements containing calcium, do not solve the problem. To normalize the metabolism, the body needs only natural calcium, supplied with dairy products. Scientists came to the conclusion that calcium, contained in fermented milk products, is most effective in comparison with all other types of calcium. They recommend replacing part of the food with kefir, and cottage cheese to stimulate the processes of weight loss.
A prominent nutritional specialist, Dr. Harris of the Georgia Georgia University, also confirms this data. He suggests that more detailed studies of the effect of sour-milk products on obese people are advisable. While such studies are only being conducted, many nutritionists in the world are already recommending their patients daily intake of fermented milk products.
The shell of a chicken egg, consisting of 90% calcium carbonate, is the easiest way to solve this problem. It is calcium carbonate that is easily absorbed by the body.
| << Previous || Next >> |
| = Skip to the content of the tutorial = |
Calcium function is necessary for the structural integrity and mineralization of bones and teeth and plays an important role in a number of exchange and regulatory processes. It is a concomitant factor of many enzymes necessary for the functioning of the nervous and muscular systems, a component of the blood coagulation system and a regulator of many intracellular processes. Sufficient calcium intake is vital
- Concentration of calcium in plasma
Normally, the concentration of calcium in the plasma is 8.5-10.5 mg / 100 ml (2.1-2.6 mmol / l). Approximately 50% of the plasma calcium is in free ionized form, 40% is associated with proteins (most with albumin) and 10% with anions (with citrate and amino acids). Physiologically active is free ionized calcium, whose concentration ([Ca2 +]) is the most important in
- The exchange of calcium is normal
Normally, the daily intake of calcium is 600-800 mg. Absorption occurs mainly in the proximal part of the small intestine. In the intestine, calcium secretion is also maintained, the rate of which is constant and does not depend on absorption. Usually up to 80% of calcium consumed is excreted with feces. Calcium excretion is carried out through the kidneys, averaging 100 mg / day, and can vary from
- Impaired balance of calcium
Calcium plays a paramount role in the metabolic and many physiological processes of the human body. It is the main component of bones. Calcium ions play an important role in the transfer of intracellular signals, various enzyme reactions, and blood coagulation. Calcium determines neuromuscular conduction. Regulation of stabilization of calcium balance is a process of great importance. 99%
- Disorders of calcium metabolism
Calcium is found mainly in the bones (98%), but maintaining its normal extracellular concentration is extremely important. Calcium ions are involved in virtually all physiological processes, including muscle contraction, the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, blood clotting and bone metabolism. Consequently, calcium metabolism disorders can lead to severe disorders of many
- CALCIUM PHOSPHATE CRYSTALLINE
It was found that when calcium phosphate precipitates from an aqueous strongly saturated solution at a pH greater than 7, amorphous phosphates first appear. The amorphous precipitate can be slowly transformed into a stable crystalline precipitate due to the process of dissolution, renucleation and crystal growth. The rate of transformation depends on the pH. The stability of amorphous phosphates improves at high pH.
- CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALLINE
Features Calcium crystals of oxalate dehydrate are usually colorless, characteristic octahedral or oval shape (Figure 4-11). Under the light microscope look like large or small squares, the angles of which are connected by diagonal lines. Calcium oxalate crystals are found in acidic, neutral or alkaline urine. Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals vary in size and can
- CALCIUM CARBONATE CRYSTALLINE
Calcium carbonate can crystallize in the urine of horses, rabbits, goats, forming large yellow-brown or colorless spheroids with radial striation, or small crystals of round, oval or dumbbell shape (Figures 2 and 3). In dogs and cats, these crystals are usually not detected. If a dumbbell crystal is found in the urine, it is more like calcium oxalate monohydrate. Fig.
- CARBIDE CALCIUM (CALCIUM CARBIDE)
GENERAL INFORMATION Empirical formula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CaCl2 Molecular weight, kg / kmol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64.1 Aggregate state. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . solid Appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- Regulation of the extracellular concentration of ionized calcium
The intake of calcium into the extracellular fluid occurs either when absorbed from the intestine, or as a result of resorption from the bone tissue; no more than 0.5-1% of bone calcium participates in metabolism with extracellular fluid. Calcium can leave the extracellular space due to: 1) deposition in the bones; 2) urinary excretion; 3) secretion in the digestive tract and 4) excretion with sweat. Extracellular Concentration
- Lack of calcium in the baby
Sometimes, with breast milk, a child loses calcium, even if there is enough of it in the mother's diet, due to a violation of calcium metabolism in her body. Lack of calcium and frustration, in turn, calcium metabolism in the baby is fraught with impaired development of the osseous system and teeth, often accompanied by anemia, susceptibility to colds, infections and allergic reactions.
- Violation of calcium metabolism (hypercalcemia)
ICD-10 cipher E83.5 Diagnosis When diagnosed Mandatory Plasma calcium content 3 mmol / l or more Consciousness level, frequency and effectiveness of breathing, Heart rate, blood pressure, ECG, medical history, thorough physical examination Laboratory tests: electrolytes (K, Ca , Na, Mg), urea, creatinine R-graphy of chest organs Additional (according to indications) Level of hormones
- Disturbance of calcium metabolism (hypocalcemia)
Cipher for ICD-10 E83.5 Diagnosis When establishing the diagnosis Mandatory level of consciousness, neurological examination, muscle tone, reflexes, frequency and effectiveness of breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, ECG, anamnesis Laboratory tests: electrolytes (K, Ca, Na, Mg), protein, albumin, AlAT, AsAT, urea, creatinine Additional (as indicated) CBS, blood gases Parathyroid
- CALCIUM BALANCE DISTURBANCES