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The mechanism of regulation of acid-base reaction through nutrition



Thus, by the beginning of this chapter, we decided that in the stomach plant food for the most part exhibits its acidic properties, and animal proteins, like proteins of plant origin, alkaline properties. Now we should consider the chemical effect of these products on the acid-base balance of the internal environment of the body, or rather, derivatives of these products that are absorbed into the internal environment of the body after the food has gone through a complete digestion cycle. In the case of animal proteins, these are amino acids, in the case of vegetable proteins, these are also amino acids, but with a lower molecular weight (i.e., smaller in size), in the case of most products of plant origin, these are sugars, fruit organic acids and salts of these acids formed in the digestive tract from organic acids. Both in that and in another case, in the stream of substances absorbed into the internal environment, in addition to proteins, sugars, organic acids and their salts, fats, water and minerals, including trace elements and vitamins, are also contained. But the main distinguishing feature of the effect on the acid-base balance of blood, lymph and interstitial fluid in the first case is the presence of amino acids, and in the second - organic acids and soluble salts of these acids.
Let's look at the mechanism of action of organic acids and their salts on the shift of acid-base balance towards alkalinity, which is so persistently and persistently mentioned in popular literature. It is unfortunate that this does not explain the obvious discrepancy, namely, that organic acids, which by their chemical nature have acidic properties, do not acidify, but rather (!) Alkalize our internal environment. The answer to this paradox becomes possible and obvious only when we take into account the important circumstance that not the organic acids themselves, but the salts of these acids enter the intestine. In order to explain the alkalizing effect of soluble organic salts on blood, lymph and interstitial fluid, it is necessary to recall from a chemistry course that soluble organic salts are salts formed by weak acids and strong bases, i.e., alkali and alkaline earth metals of groups I and II The periodic system of D.I. Mendeleev with pronounced alkali-forming properties (especially in group I: potassium, sodium, lithium).
As you know, salts formed by a strong base and a weak acid in the aqueous medium hydrolyze to form a weak acid and a strong base (alkali), while the alkali dissociates, and the weak acid is destroyed with the release of carbon dioxide and water. Such a destruction of a weak acid, if it does not occur at room temperature, then takes place even with a small (within 10 ° C) heating. In our body, a temperature of 36.6 ° C is a reliable guarantee that the organic acids formed during the hydrolysis process will quickly and reliably pass into the final products of their decay - carbon dioxide and water. The combination of carbon dioxide and water is nothing more than a hypothetical carbonic acid H2CO3.
Thus, a short time after the salts of organic acids have passed into the internal environment of our body, alkalis and carbonic acid remain from them, and, let me note, in the process of conversion of salts of organic acids to these products, the energy so needed by our the body for life.
Nevertheless, until this moment of the analysis, no shift of the acid-base balance of the internal environment of the body to the alkaline side has yet occurred and, moreover, could never have happened if not for one circumstance.
But before we talk about it, let's once again decide on the starting position.
On the one hand, in the process of hydrolysis we got alkali, and on the other, carbonic acid. Moreover, the environment in which this mixture is located is chemically neutral, in other words, in the form in which this situation is presented, it could in no way affect the shift of the acid-base balance in any direction, even towards acidification, even towards alkalization. Why is that? And because the action of alkali in the resulting mixture is equal to the reaction of the acid, and all this acid-base opposition could go on indefinitely, if only it remained on a sheet of paper. But the fact of the matter is that in the conditions of the internal environment of the body, the confrontation very quickly ends with the victory of alkali.
As already mentioned, carbonic acid in the form in which we present it as the H2CO3 formula is a hypothetical acid, in other words, it does not exist in nature, but carbon dioxide dissolved in water exists. The direction of metabolic processes in the human body is such that the carbon dioxide formed in the process of metabolism through the lungs is constantly removed from our body.
Thus, carbon dioxide, formed as a result of hydrolysis of salts of organic acids, will be brought out, as well as the water formed during hydrolysis.
And what will remain in the internal environment? There will be an alkali, which, in accordance with its chemical nature, will shift the acid-base balance of blood, lymph and interstitial fluid in the direction of alkalization.
Now let's look at the other side of this coin and answer the question: why is the internal environment of the body acidified due to the consumption of meat and meat products? I believe that answering it will not be so difficult if we turn to the chemical structure of the protein molecule. Animal protein macromolecules include, in addition to carbon and hydrogen atoms, atoms of acid-forming elements such as sulfur, nitrogen and phosphorus. Why are these acid-forming elements? Because the oxides of these elements, when dissolved in water, produce acids. This is a timely observation, because in the process of metabolism protein molecules undergo a series of redox reactions, the result of which is carbon dioxide, water and oxides of acid-forming elements. Dissolving in water, which makes up more than 95% of the human internal environment, they just form the very acids that shift the acid-base balance of blood, lymph and interstitial fluid in the acidic direction.
This mechanism is quite clear and does not require any further explanation. But is it enough to know that a person regularly eats meat to immediately state that the acid-base balance of his blood is acidic, and the poor man suffers from acidosis? No, this is not enough, because a meat-food follower can have a very satisfactory indicator of the acid-base balance of the blood.
Then one wonders how, by consuming animal protein in excess, meat-eaters do not acidify, and even quite the opposite, in some cases, alkalize their bodies? There is no secret to this. It is enough for the meat-eater to work intensively for 40-50 minutes in the fresh air, and due to hyperoxygenation - an intensive influx of oxygen into the body - the excess of carbon dioxide is washed out from the blood, and its acid-base balance is shifted to the alkaline side. Thus, a meat-eater involved in sports or active physical labor may not be afraid for its acid-base balance. He will always be normal with him.
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The mechanism of regulation of acid-base reaction through nutrition

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    The task of regulatory processes is to maintain internal conditions (homeostasis) as a prerequisite for normal physiological processes. The immediate object of regulation is extracellular fluid, more specifically: - the concentration of hydrogen ions (isotidria); - concentration of electrolytes (isotonia); - the total composition of electrolytes (isoionium); - extracellular space volume, more precisely
  2. Acid-base balance
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