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Here are the lines from one letter, I want to bring them literally: “It is necessary to change the approach to nutrition itself, and not to sit on questionable diets. It seems that you understand all this, but you regret yourself a loved one. We eat 3 weeks (really eat, but not eat) cakes, sweets, etc., then get up on the scales. You punish yourself with a strict diet (for about 3 months). Thank you, although there is an iron willpower (I don’t eat anything fatty, sweet - I can say nothing I eat at all), I lose weight, but then I get up again on the same rake. That is why losing weight in 3 months by 5 kg, and then gaining these 5 kg for 1 month of continuous eating cakes and buns. Why is everything tasty and sweet so high in calories? And why does my sister eat twice as much as me, and she is thin ”?
Familiar picture?
Recently, studying the basis for the development of obesity, scientists have increasingly attached importance to genes and heredity, rather than parenting and the environment. According to experts, they play the most important role in determining the weight of a person, making some "ideals of harmony", and others - literally cripples for life.
Each person has a unique set of genes, heredity and lifestyle. Small subtleties in any of these components can explain the fullness or thinness.
This is the so-called familial or hereditary obesity.
Indeed, in full parents, children most often also are overweight or will have it when they become adults. Moreover, it is not possible to explain this only by family eating habits. There is an action of hereditary causes.
Currently, doctors conduct a large number of studies on the presence of hereditary, genetic defects leading to the development of obesity. A number of obese people find defects in the activity of special substances (enzymes) involved in the breakdown of fat, as well as defects in the work of the appetite center in the brain when the activity of the hunger center is increased.
Already identified more than 400 genes involved in weight control. Most of them contribute precisely to weight gain, although there are protective mechanisms. But their implementation may be ineffective if, for one reason or another, the slightest secondary disturbances in the balance of nutrients occur. Simply put, chronic overeating.
For everything that happens in the body, special chemicals are responsible - hormones and neurotransmitters. Such as the "famous" - leptin, as well as resistin, adiponectin, ghrelin. It is with their work - or the discord in their work - is associated with a set of excess weight. Without going into details of their biochemical effects on metabolic processes, I want to emphasize one thing. All these hormonal disorders are practically always hereditary, which means they are genetically predisposed.
Moreover. There is also a group of genes responsible for physical activity. Some people simply cannot drastically change their physical status, force themselves to be more mobile, although they are well aware that this is useful. Conversely, the influence of physical activity is so great that it allows you to change the activity of a genetic predetermined metabolic process.
There are two types of muscle fibers:
1. Slow - quickly and easily tired, adapted to perform short-term, albeit powerful physical exertion (strength sports).
2. Fast - resistant to fatigue, working only in the presence of oxygen and allowing a long time to perform physical activity of moderate severity (walking, running).
In different people, the ratio of the number of slow and fast muscle fibers in the same muscles is predetermined genetic and can differ quite significantly. At the same time, British scientists found that the more lean a person is, the more slow fibers he has, using fat, by the way, as an energy source. Conversely, people prone to obesity, have more fast fibers. Their muscles get tired much faster when performing prolonged physical exertion.
In order to “retrain your muscles”, that is, to learn fast fibers to work on the principle of slow ones, you need to exercise daily aerobic exercise for a long time. The body, as it were, adjusts to the kind of load that becomes constant for it and begins to burn fats more actively.
And quite recently it was discovered that it is the genes that determine the amount of energy needed to maintain the basic functions at rest. Normally, two thirds of the calories burned are spent on this process. I want you to remember this fact!
In one study, an experiment was made; children with initially equal body weight were given the same amount of calories, and they gained completely different weights. With other things being equal, identical twins gained the same weight, and, being on a diet, they equally lost weight.
All this we see confirmation in real life. There are people who eat quite a lot, but they have a long time (and a small number of people throughout their lives) do not develop obesity. These lucky ones eat a lot, but remain slim. It is believed that, on the contrary, their metabolism is enhanced, and the extra calories from food “burn”. Can I envy?
When those extra pounds do not want to be dumped, many blame their slow metabolism.
And in vain. In fact, this view is not quite right. If you have a slow metabolism (metabolism), this does not mean that you are destined to be complete.
Speaking in understandable language, metabolism is the intensity with which the body consumes the nutrients contained in food, turning them into energy (calories). So, a person with a fast metabolism, consumes incoming calories faster and, therefore, to some extent may be less susceptible to overweight.
The main factor determining your metabolism is your physique. The more muscle mass, the faster will be energy consumption, that is, metabolism. That is why in men it is, on average, 10-20% higher than in women. Heredity and hormones are important factors determining your metabolism. The human psyche, stress, diet, exercise and medication can also have a significant effect on the change in metabolism. I'm not talking about some endocrinological diseases.
Observations have shown that the metabolism is determined already at the birth of a person. But, if you naturally have a slow metabolism, this does not mean that you are destined to be complete!
So, we have to admit that the hereditary nature of obesity is still there. If some of your close relatives have problems with being overweight, then there is a chance that you will have them too. And this is a quite understandable fact, since you can have a similar structure of the digestive system, certain features of the metabolism and the level of work of the endocrine glands. But does it mean that it is a sentence?
Often, my patients believe that since they have a lot of obesity in their family, it means that the same fate awaits them. They say to me: “Doctor, maybe all this is useless? After all, in our family are all fat, it means that I cannot get rid of it! ”
To this I reply to them that I, too, have been fat since childhood, and how else, and I also have a pronounced heredity. But I figured out the causes of obesity, found a mechanism for normalizing weight, achieved complete recovery, and now I am only watching myself. I follow several easy rules and my weight does not grow. Moreover, already many of my patients with burdened heredity after losing weight perfectly hold the result. So you can argue with nature! To do this, you just need to understand and accept one truth for yourself. We are different!
And this is not determined by completeness, which is easy to handle. It is determined by the genetic characteristics of our body. It is just like being a man of a different race.
Call it as you like, caste, clan. I like the word family more. Family of people with similar genetic characteristics of the organism. Perhaps even we had one very distant ancestor.
At the same time, it does not matter if you have lost weight, like, for example, I continue to struggle with excess weight. We are one with you from birth!
Maybe you are surprised at what I am talking about, and you have never thought about it before. Now many people, and even doctors, perceive obesity, rather, as the fruit of human licentiousness and laziness, than a specific genetically determined disease of metabolism. After all, most often the doctor simply limits his advice to lose weight, and when asked how to do this, he advises to eat less and move more. Good advice, but not much use from him. You are advised to “run away from a heart attack,” at a time when it is difficult for you even to tie shoe laces.
But what I want to say next will astound you even more.
I affirm with full responsibility that the genetic feature that unites all of us is not a punishment, but a great gift that people for many years simply could not use. What surprised!?
The fact is that we all lived and live according to the laws of life, invented for ordinary people. It should be accepted that this is not our life and not our rules and traditions. By following them, we inevitably doom ourselves to an imbalance of metabolism, only one manifestation of which is overweight. We suffer from this weight, the masses of concomitant diseases are not understanding why this is happening. And only when you realize yourself as a member of another community, another family, everything will fall into place.
Now let's go back to what I said and asked to remember you at the very beginning of this chapter. All of us are united by one genetically incorporated property, which I was not afraid to call a gift. We all have a slower metabolism.
“What's so good about that?” You say.
Observations have shown that the metabolism is determined at the birth of a person. But if you naturally have a slow metabolism, this does not mean that you are destined to be complete! Of course, you can go the simplest classical way - to lose weight, increasing muscle mass and at the same time acting on the body in order to speed up metabolism, not to let it “calm down” - this is possible. This strategy in the treatment of obesity in the old manner is used by most dietitians. But in this case you will have to “run from the weight” all your life, and if you “stop” for a second as the weight starts to grow rapidly. And examples are not enough.
I suggest another way. Limit the supply of nutrients to the level of its slow metabolism. In this case, you do not have to keep yourself in good shape all the time, and everything will gradually fall into place.
After all, each of the people have their own "life hours." In some, they go very fast, and they are rapidly living their lives, others very slowly. Have you heard of burnout syndrome when work leads to emotional emptiness, physical and mental fatigue? Do you know such an expression - “burned out at work”? Have you ever wondered at the unexpected, untimely death of still older active people?
Simply, their “hours of life” went much faster than ordinary people, and, consequently, their metabolism was much higher.
We are with you all the way around. Our “watches” go slowly, and if we manage to follow the rhythm of these “watches” in our life, live according to the laws of their time, we will not only lose weight permanently and will be able to easily maintain a normal weight, we will greatly increase our life expectancy compared to ordinary people . I would even call it the peculiar philosophy of a healthy lifestyle for all potential and obvious fat people.
Are you ready for this? Do you agree to abandon the usual, well-established lifestyle in exchange for health and longevity? However, who said that your life will be worse from this?
I am often asked the question: "Well, doctor, now I’ll have to follow a diet all my life?"
I want to emphasize right away that this is not a diet in the traditional understanding of this term, since you will not have any hard restrictions. This is just an accepted worldwide healthy lifestyle with minimal rules for combining products.
Of course, one may not even recall anything at all, but then there is a very high probability that all the result in the restructuring of the metabolism, which we have achieved with such difficulty, will be lost. Your weight will begin to grow again, and not because someone wants it so much, but because this is the genetic tune of your body.
A recent study by Israeli scientists indirectly confirms my words. It can even be said that they allow us to somewhat revise the previously existing notions of a “healthy weight”. According to their data, extra (within reason!) Kilograms not only do not harm health, but also prolong life!
A new study, which was conducted by the doctors of the Jerusalem hospital in conjunction with the American Institute of Health, showed that despite the fact that the BMI level of 25-27 is already considered a sign of extra pounds, its owners live longer than those whose weight is normal!
Since 1963, scientists have monitored the medical records of 10,232 Israeli men in various "weight categories". It turned out that 48% of people whose BMI was in the range of 25 to 27, “crossed” the 80-year mark, and 26% survived to 85 years. These indicators are even better than those who follow normal weight with the help of diets and sports lifestyle. Among those whose BMI level was higher (from 27 to 30), 45% of men survived to 80 years, up to 85 - 23%.
At the same time, Israeli and American doctors continue to insist that individuals with a BMI above 30 are at risk. It is in this category that mortality is highest.
Scientists from the University of Washington (St. Louis, USA) have found that taking low-calorie balanced foods leads to a decrease in the concentration of thyroid hormone T3. This hormone is responsible for body temperature, cell metabolism, and affects the formation of free radicals. All of these factors are considered important indicators of aging. A low-calorie diet also reduces the content of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inflammatory mediator (TNF) - alpha. The author of the work of Luigi Fontana and his colleagues believe that the simultaneous decrease in the concentration of T3 and TNF can slow down the aging process.
As soon as you can, having overcome the usual stereotype of life, limit the intake of nutrients to the norm of your metabolism and even slightly lower, your body will immediately begin to save energy more economically, and metabolism will come to an ideal balance. Life will follow the basic genetically predisposed, slowed down scenario. Moreover, to notice this reduction in energy consumption will be quite difficult from the outside. This can manifest itself only in a slight decrease in body temperature. Sometimes just a couple of degrees.
I sometimes have to hear from my patients that their hands and feet suddenly began to freeze, and even in summer, in the heat. Or if before a person was constantly sweating, now he doesn’t feel it.
Even sometimes experiencing hunger, you are fully insured against any violations that can be observed in ordinary people.
You can safely limit your diet to 1500 and even 1000 K. cal per day and, at the same time, you will feel great. I say this so confidently because I myself have been trying for a long time not to exceed this amount of food, although I spend a lot of energy on constant consultations, lectures and regular power loads in the gym.
All this can be called a hypothesis that requires further study and reflection, or you can just laugh at it. Everyone decides for himself. But whatever you decide, you should know that we are one team, one family from birth!
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