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We are different!
Here are lines from one letter, I want to quote them verbatim: "It is necessary to change the approach to nutrition, and not sit on questionable diets. It seems that you understand all this, but you feel sorry for yourself. We munch 3 weeks (really eat, do not eat) cakes, sweets, etc., then you get up on the scales. You punish yourself with a strict diet (for about 3 months). Thank you, although there is an iron willpower (I do not eat anything fat, sweet - you can say I do not eat anything at all), I lose weight, but then I again stand on the same rake. That's why you lose 5 kg for 3 months, and then you collect these 5 kg within 1 month of continuous eating cakes and rolls. Why is everything delicious and sweet is high-calorie? And why does my sister eat twice as much as me, and she's thin? "
A familiar picture?
Recently, studying the basis for the development of obesity, scientists increasingly attach importance to genes and heredity, and not to education and the environment. According to experts, they play the most important role in determining the weight of a man, making some "ideals of harmony", and others - literally cripples for life.
Each person has a unique set of genes, heredity and lifestyle. Small subtleties in any of these components can explain completeness or slimness.
We are talking about the so-called family or hereditary obesity.
Indeed, in full parents, children are also often overweight or will have it when they become adults. And, to explain this only by family eating habits fails. There is an effect of hereditary reasons.
Currently, doctors conduct a large number of studies to study the presence of hereditary, genetic defects leading to the development of obesity. A number of fat people find defects in the activity of special substances (enzymes) involved in the breakdown of fat, as well as defects in the work of the appetite center in the brain, when the activity of the hunger center is increased.
More than 400 genes involved in weight control have already been identified. Most of them contribute to weight gain, although there are protective mechanisms. But their implementation can be inconclusive, if for some reason or other the slightest secondary imbalance in nutrient balance occurs. Simply put, chronic overeating.
For all that occurs in the body, meet special chemicals - hormones and neurotransmitters. Such as the "famous" - leptin, as well as resistin, adiponectin, ghrelin. It is with their work - or discord in their work - that a set of excess weight is associated. Without going into the details of their biochemical effects on metabolic processes, I want to emphasize one thing. All these hormonal disorders are always practical hereditary, which means a genetically predisposed character.
Furthermore. There is also a group of genes responsible for physical activity. Some people simply can not dramatically change their physical status, force themselves to be more mobile, although they know perfectly well that this is useful. Conversely, the effect of physical activity is so great that it allows you to change the activity of the genetic predetermined metabolic process.
There are two types of muscle fibers:
1. Slow - quickly and easily tired, adapted to perform a short-term, albeit powerful exercise (power sports).
2. Fast - resistant to fatigue, working only in the presence of oxygen and allowing a long time to exercise physical load of moderate severity (walking, running).
In different people, the ratio of the number of slow and fast muscle fibers in the same muscles is predetermined by the genetic and can differ very significantly. At the same time, English scientists have established that the more thin a person is, the more he has slow fibers, using, by the way, as a source of energy, fat. Conversely, people prone to obesity, have more fast fibers. Their muscles get tired much faster when doing prolonged physical activity.
To "retrain their muscles", that is, to teach fast fibers to work on the principle of slow, it is necessary to carry out daily aerobic exercise for a long time. The organism, as it were, adapts itself to the kind of load that becomes constant for it and begins to burn fats more actively.
And more recently, it was discovered that genes determine the amount of energy needed to maintain basic functions at rest. Normally, two thirds of calories burned are spent on this process. I want you to remember this fact!
In one study, an experiment was set up, children with the same body weight were given the same number of calories, and they gained a completely different weight. Other things being equal, the identical twins gained the same weight, and, being on a diet, equally dumped their weight.
To all this we see confirmation in real life. There are such people who eat quite a lot, but they have a long time, (and a small number of people throughout life) do not develop obesity. These lucky ones eat a lot, but remain slim. It is believed that they, on the contrary, have increased metabolism, and excess calories from food are "burned out." Can I envy?
When the extra pounds do not want to drop, many blame the slow metabolism in everything.
But in vain. In fact, this view is not entirely true. If you have a slow metabolism (metabolism), this does not mean that you are destined to be complete.
Speaking in understandable language, the metabolism is the intensity with which the body spends the nutrients contained in food, turning them into energy (calories). So, a person with a fast metabolism consumes incoming calories faster and, therefore, to some extent, may be less prone to excessive weight.
The main factor determining your metabolism is your physique. The more muscle mass, the faster will be the energy expenditure, that is, the metabolism. That's why in men it is, on average, 10-20% higher than that of women. Heredity and hormones are important factors that determine your metabolism. The human psyche, stress, diet, exercise and medication can also have a significant effect on the metabolism. I'm not talking about some endocrine diseases.
Observations showed that the metabolism is determined already at the birth of a person. But, if you have a slow metabolism by nature, this does not mean that you are destined to be complete!
So, we have to admit that there is still a hereditary nature in obesity. If a part of your close relatives has problems with being overweight, then there is a chance that you will have them too. And this is quite an understandable fact, since you can have a similar structure of the digestive system, certain metabolic features and the level of work of the endocrine glands. But does it mean that this is a verdict?
Often, my patients feel that if they are obese in their family, it means that they will have the same fate. They say to me: "Doctor, maybe all this is useless? After all, in our family everything is thick, which means I can not get rid of it either! "
To this I reply to them that I, too, have been fat since my childhood, and yet what, and I also have a pronounced heredity. But I understood the causes of obesity, found a mechanism for normalizing weight, achieved complete recovery and now only watch for myself. I do some uncomplicated rules, and my weight does not grow. Moreover, already many of my patients with a weighed heredity after weight loss perfectly keep the result. So you can argue with nature! To do this, you just need to understand and accept one truth for yourself. We are different!
And this is not determined by the completeness with which it will be easy to cope. This is determined by the genetic characteristics of our body. It's just like being a man of another race.
Call it whatever you want, caste, clan. I like the word family more. Family of people with similar genetic characteristics of the body. Perhaps, even we had one very distant ancestor.
It does not matter, you have lost weight, as, for example, I or still continue to struggle with excess weight. We are one from birth!
Maybe it surprises you what I'm talking about, and you've never thought about it before. Now many people, and even doctors, obesity is perceived, rather, as a product of human debauchery and laziness, than a specific genetically determined, metabolic disease. After all, most often the doctor is just limited by the advice to lose weight, and the question of how to do it, advises less to eat and move more. Good advice, but there's not much use for it. You are advised to "escape from a heart attack", at a time when it is difficult even for you to tie your shoelaces.
But what I want to tell you next will even more amaze you.
I affirm with full responsibility that the genetic feature that unites all of us is not punishment, but a great gift that people simply could not use for many years. What, surprised !?
The fact is that we all lived and live according to the laws of life, invented for ordinary people. It should be accepted that this is not our life and our rules and traditions. Following them, we inevitably doomed ourselves to a disturbance of the balance of metabolism, only one manifestation of which is overweight. We suffer from this weight, the mass of concomitant diseases, not understanding why this happens. And only when you realize yourself as a member of another community, another family, everything falls into place.
Now let's go back to what I told and asked to remember you at the very beginning of this chapter. All of us are united by one genetically incorporated property, which I was not afraid to call a gift. We all have a slow metabolism.
"What's so good about it?" - you say.
Observations showed that the metabolism is determined at the birth of a person. But if you have a slow metabolism by nature, this does not mean that you are destined to be complete! Of course, you can go the simplest classical way - to lose weight, increasing muscle mass and simultaneously affecting the body to accelerate metabolism, not to let it "calm down" - it is possible. Such a strategy in the treatment of obesity in the old manner is used by most dieticians. But in this case you will have to "run from weight" all your life, and it costs you to "stop" even for a second as the weight starts to grow rapidly. And there are many examples of this.
I suggest another way. Limit the intake of nutrients to the level of its slow metabolism. In this case, you do not have to keep yourself in good shape all the time, and everything will gradually fall into place.
After all, each of the people have their own "life hours". In some, they go very fast, and they quickly live their lives, others very slowly. Have you heard about the syndrome of emotional burnout, when work leads to emotional emptiness, physical and mental fatigue? Do you know such an expression - "burned at work"? Have you ever been surprised by the unexpected untimely death of yet not very active people?
Just their "hours of life" went much faster than ordinary people, and therefore, and their metabolism was much higher.
We have the opposite. Our "watches" are slow, and if we manage to follow the rhythm of these "hours" in our lives, live according to the laws of their time, we will not only lose weight forever and will be able to easily maintain a normal weight, we will increase our life expectancy significantly compared to ordinary people . I would even call it a kind of philosophy of a healthy lifestyle of all potential and overt fat people.
Are you ready for this? Do you agree to give up a habitual, settled way of life in exchange for health and longevity? However, who said that your life from this will be worse ?!
I am often asked the question: "Well, doctor, I now have to keep a diet all my life?".
I want to stress right away that this is not a diet in the traditional sense of the term, since you will not have any tough prohibitions. It's just a healthy lifestyle around the world with minimal rules for combining products.
Of course, one can not even think of anything at all, but then there is a very high probability that the entire result in the metabolism reorganization, which we have achieved with such difficulty, will be lost. Your weight will start to increase again, and not because someone so wants, but because this is the genetic adjustment of your body.
Recent studies of Israeli scientists indirectly confirm my words. You can even say that they allow you to reconsider some of the earlier ideas about a "healthy weight". According to their data, extra pounds (within reason!) Kgs not only do not harm health, but prolong life!
A new study, conducted by the doctors of the Jerusalem hospital in conjunction with the American Institute of Health, showed that despite the fact that the level of BMI 25-27 is already considered a sign of extra pounds, its owners live longer than those whose weight is normal!
Since 1963, scientists have observed medical indicators of 10232 Israeli men in different "weight category". It turned out that 48% of people whose BMI was within the range of 25 to 27 "crossed" the 80-year boundary, and 26% survived to 85 years. These indicators are even better than those who follow the normal weight with the help of diets and sports lifestyle. Among those whose BMI level was higher (from 27 to 30), up to 80 years 45% of men survived, up to 85 - 23%.
At the same time, Israeli and American doctors continue to insist that individuals with a BMI above 30 are at risk. It is in this category that mortality is highest.
Scientists from the University of Washington (St. Louis, USA) found that taking a low-calorie balanced diet leads to a decrease in the thyroid hormone T3 concentration. This hormone is responsible for body temperature, metabolism in cells, and affects the formation of free radicals. All these factors are considered important indicators of aging. A low-calorie diet also reduces the mediator content of inflammation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -alpha. The author of the work Luigi Fontana and his colleagues believe that a simultaneous decrease in the concentration of T3 and TNF can slow down the aging process.
Once you can overcome the habitual stereotype of life, limit the supply of nutrients to the rate of your metabolism and even a little lower, your body will immediately begin to consume more energy and the metabolism will come to an ideal balance. Life will go on the basis of a genetically predisposed, slowed-down scenario. Moreover, to notice this decrease in energy consumption will be quite difficult on the surface. This can be manifested only in a small decrease in body temperature. Sometimes only a couple of degrees.
I sometimes hear from my patients that they suddenly started to freeze their hands and feet, and even in summer, in the heat. Or if a person used to sweat, he does not feel it now.
Even at times experiencing hunger, you are completely immune from any violations that can be caused by ordinary people.
You can boldly limit your diet to 1500 and even 1000 Kcal per day and, at the same time, will feel fine. I say this confidently because I myself have long tried not to exceed this amount of food, although I spend a lot of energy on constant consultations, lecturing and regular exercise in the gym.
All this can be called a hypothesis that requires further study and reflection, or you can just laugh at it. Everyone decides this for himself. But, whatever you decide, know - we are from birth one team, one family!
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We are different!
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