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The basic principles of nutrition in hypertension


Compliance with appropriate nutrition, along with pharmacological treatment, is an extremely important factor in the treatment of hypertension. It would not be an exaggeration to say that with an increase in blood pressure, proper medical nutrition forms the basis of treatment, and the following basic principles are taken into account:
- strict compliance of the energy value of the diet with the energy consumption of the body, and in obesity, the mandatory reduction of the energy value of the diet to reduce body weight;
- anti-sclerotic diet;
- a significant limitation of salt up to its exclusion during exacerbation of the disease;
- exclusion of products and dishes exciting cardiovascular system (strong meat, fish, mushroom broths, strong tea, coffee);
- enrichment of the diet with potassium, magnesium, vitamins C, P and group
AT;
- restriction of products that cause increased gas formation and bloating of the intestines (legumes, carbonated drinks, etc.);
- schazhenie kidneys by limiting meat, fish, mushrooms, essential oils, oxalic acid, spices;

- moderate restriction of free fluid;
- adherence to 4-5 meals a day with the exception of abundant meals.
The implementation of these principles and the choice of food depends on the stage of hypertension, associated diseases, in particular atherosclerosis and obesity, and such complications as circulatory failure.

During exacerbation of hypertensive disease of the I — IIA stage (the initial period of the disease), food is not salted during cooking. At the table, food can be salted at the rate of 5 g of salt per day.
When exacerbation of hypertensive disease IIB - IIIIA stage, food is prepared without salt and not salted with food during a meal for 4-6 weeks. Salt in the hands do not give.
In hypertension in combination with atherosclerosis, the amount of salt in food depends on the stage of hypertension, in case of insufficiency of the kidneys in the diet, protein is restricted, especially protein of meat, and in obesity, the amount of flour, cereal, pasta, sugar and fats is reduced.
In hypertensive crises, fasting days are prescribed for 2 days: rice - compote, apple, from dried fruit, vegetables, fruit and vegetable, dairy, cottage cheese, potato.
In case of persistent exacerbation of hypertensive disease, food enriched in magnesium salts from wheat bran, oatmeal, buckwheat, pearl barley and wheat groats, carrots, and dried fruit is recommended for several days. in porridge, cooked borsch with mucous decoction of 100 g of bran, salt exclude, limit the fluid to 600-700 g per day.
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The basic principles of nutrition in hypertension

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