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Food and basic food substances

The most important condition for nutrition is the correct combination of all nutrients in the daily diet of man, and they must be introduced in quantities that completely cover all the waste of the body in both quantitative and qualitative terms.
In the human body, oxidation processes (compounds with oxygen) of various food substances - proteins, fats, carbohydrates, which are accompanied by the formation and release of heat - are continuously occurring. This heat is necessary for all life processes, it is spent on heating the inhaled air, on maintaining the body temperature. Thermal energy also provides the activity of the muscular system. The more muscle movements a person performs, the more he produces losses, which require more food to cover.
The need for more food is expressed in thermal units - calories. At present, according to the international measurement system (SI), the energy value of food is expressed in joules (1 kcal = 4,184 kJ). Caloric content of food is the amount of energy that is formed in the body as a result of the assimilation of food. Calorie is the amount of heat needed to heat 1 liter (large calorie) and 1 mL (low calorie) of water at 15 degrees Celsius, one degree. Each gram of protein and every gram of carbohydrates of any food when burned in the body (during oxidation) generates heat, equal in quantity to 4 kcal, and when burning 1 g of fat, 9 kcal is formed. Knowing the magnitude of the energy requirement, you can determine the requirements for the basic nutrients - proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Minerals, vitamins and water are also important for the life of the body.
Proteins are of particular importance in nutrition. With their action, the main manifestations of life are connected: metabolism, muscle contraction,
irritability of nerves, ability to grow and multiply, and even thinking. They are contained in all tissues and fluids of the body, being their main component. Proteins consist of a variety of amino acids that determine their biological significance. Some of the amino acids are formed in the body itself. They are called interchangeable amino acids. Others enter the body only with food. These amino acids are called essential amino acids. For the physiologically valuable life of the organism, it is necessary to have all essential amino acids in food. Insufficient food content in at least one essential amino acid leads to a decrease in the biological value of proteins and may cause protein deficiency, despite the sufficient amount of protein in the diet. Irreplaceable amino acids are found mainly in products of animal origin: in milk, cottage cheese, meat, fish, eggs.
However, the human body can not do without proteins of vegetable origin, which are contained in bread, cereals and vegetables, which mainly include interchangeable amino acids. Proteins of animal products in combination with proteins of plant origin provide the body with substances necessary for its development and life.
The body of an adult person on average needs to get about 1-1.2 g of protein per 1 kg of body weight with food. This means that a person weighing 70-75 kg should receive from 70 to 90 grams of protein per day.
If the intensity of physical labor increases, the needs of the organism in the protein also increase. The average daily protein norm of an adult is considered to be 90-100 g per day, 55% of it should be provided by an animal protein.
The most important sources of protein are meat, fish, eggs, cheese, milk, bread, potatoes, beans, soy, peas.
Proteins in nutrition can not be replaced by any other substances.
The physiological significance of fats is very diverse. They are a source of energy and surpass the energy of all other substances. Fats participate in the recovery processes, being a structural part of cells and their membrane systems; serve as solvents of vitamins A, E, D and promote their assimilation. Improving the taste of food, fats increase its nutritional value. In addition, they contribute to the development of immunity and help the body to keep warm.
Inadequate intake of fat in the body can lead to a violation of the central nervous system, changes in the skin, kidneys, organs of vision, etc. Animals that received a fat-free diet showed less endurance and longevity.
In the composition of fat and its accompanying substances, vital nutrients such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, lecithin, vitamins A, E, etc. have been identified.
The average need of an adult in fat is 80-100 g per day, including vegetable - 25-30 g.
In food, due to fat, 33% of the daily energy value of the diet should be provided, which according to modern data is optimal. At 1000 kcal, 37 grams of fat is needed.
Fats in sufficient quantity are contained in such food products as brains, heart, eggs, liver, butter, cheese, meat, lard, poultry, fish, milk. Valuables are also valuable, especially in the nutrition of older people, since they do not contain cholesterol.
Carbohydrates are the main source of energy. On average, they account for 50 to 70% of the daily caloric intake. Each gram of carbohydrates provides 4 kcal of energy. The need for carbohydrates depends on the energy expenditure of the body.
In people engaged in mental or easy physical labor, the daily requirement ranges from 300 to 500 g. For those engaged in manual labor and athletes, it is much higher. Inclined to fullness, it is possible to reduce the amount of carbohydrates in food rations without compromising on health.
The most rich in carbohydrates are plant products of bread, cereals, pasta, potatoes. A pure carbohydrate is sugar.

Excess amount of carbohydrates breaks the correct ratio of the main parts of food, which, in turn, leads to a metabolic disorder.
Vitamins are substances that do not supply the body with energy, but are absolutely necessary in minimum quantities to sustain life. They are irreplaceable, because they are not synthesized or almost not synthesized, not produced by the cells of the body. Vitamins come either with food in which they are contained, or in the form of synthetic drugs. They regulate, direct and accelerate the processes of metabolism.
Vitamins are divided into two large groups: water-soluble and fat-soluble.
The group of fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, K.
Vitamin A has an effect on the growth of the body, on its resistance to infections. It is necessary to maintain normal vision, skin and mucous membranes. Contains vitamin A in large quantities in fish oil, cream, butter, egg yolk, liver. In some plant products: carrots, lettuce, spinach, tomatoes, green peas, apricots, oranges - contains carotene - provitamin A, which in the body turns into vitamin A.

Vitamin D promotes the formation of bone tissue and stimulates the growth of the body. If there is a lack of vitamin D in the food, the normal absorption by the body of calcium and phosphorus is violated, which leads to the appearance of rickets. The greatest amount of vitamin D is found in fish oil, egg yolk, liver, fish eggs. In milk and butter, vitamin D is contained in a small amount.
Vitamin K is involved in tissue respiration, contributes to the maintenance of normal blood clotting. This vitamin is synthesized in the body by intestinal bacteria. Lack of it can occur with diseases of the digestive system or when taking various antibacterial drugs. Vitamin K is found mainly in tomatoes, in green parts of plants, spinach, cabbage, nettles.
The group of water-soluble vitamins include vitamin C and B vitamins.
Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, actively participates in oxidation-reduction processes, affects carbohydrate and protein metabolism, increases the body's resistance to various infections.
This vitamin is found in many fresh vegetables and fruits. The most rich are the fruits of dog rose, black currant, chokeberry, sea-buckthorn, gooseberries, citrus, cabbage, potatoes, leafy vegetables.
The group of vitamins B consists of 15 active, water-soluble, independent vitamins, which take part in the processes of metabolism in the body, the process of hematopoiesis, and also plays an important role in carbohydrate, fat and water metabolism. B vitamins are growth stimulants. Vitamins of this group are found in beer and baker's yeast, buckwheat and oatmeal, rye bread, milk, meat, liver, egg yolk, green part of plants.
Vitamin E (tocopherol) refers to fat-soluble vitamins. It affects the activity of the endocrine glands, the exchange of proteins, carbohydrates, provides intracellular metabolism. Vitamin E has a beneficial effect on the course of pregnancy and fetal development. Most of this vitamin is found in corn kernels, in carrots, cabbage, green peas, eggs, meat and fish products, in cow and olive oil.
Prolonged absence of vitamins in the diet leads to avitaminosis. But more often there are hypovitaminosis, the development of which is associated with a lack of vitamins in food; this is especially observed in the spring and winter months. With hypovitaminosis, fatigue increases, weakness, apathy, decreased efficiency, the resistance of the organism decreases.
Between the action of individual vitamins there is a close relationship. The lack of food in one of the vitamins causes a violation of the exchange of other substances; only with proper nutrition vitamins have the proper effect.
In the food must necessarily contain mineral substances that are part of the cells and tissues of the body and participate in a variety of metabolic processes. The main mineral substances that are necessary for the sick and healthy include calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, chlorine, sodium salts are macro-elements, they are needed daily in relatively large quantities, as well as iron, zinc, manganese, chrome, iodine, fluorine , which are necessary in very small quantities, so they are called trace elements. Microelements enter the human body with products of animal and vegetable origin. So, for example, iodine is rich in sea products; zinc is most rich in cereals, yeast, legumes, liver; Copper and cobalt are found in beef liver, kidney, egg yolk, honey.
The mineral composition of berries and fruits is very diverse. They contain a lot of potassium, iron, copper, phosphorus. And all these mineral substances are perfectly absorbed. In addition, they are low-calorie, they lack fat and cholesterol, a lot of vitamin C - all this makes them indispensable in the diet suffering from many diseases: hypertension, circulatory disorders, kidney damage, especially with the formation of edema. Potassium contained in these products, increases the release of fluid from the body.
Good digestion of food by the body depends on its skillful preparation, appearance, variety of menus. It is very important how the food looks, whether the table is beautifully laid. From one pleasant type of dish, gastric juice begins to be actively allocated, and the entire digestive system is prepared by the time of meal.
You can not eat very hot and very cold food. The temperature of hot dishes should not be more than 60 degrees, cold - not lower than 10 degrees.
In certain diseases, for example, with diabetes, food should contain not only certain foods, but the entire daily diet should have the established chemical composition. It is necessary to observe a certain menu, each dish of which is prepared according to the stipulated norms and with the appropriate culinary processing.
Health food at home has its own characteristics, because you have to take into account that the patient's appetite is usually lowered, and the list of products in his menu is limited, and seasonings are prohibited. Nevertheless, the dishes of dietary cuisine can be very tasty, if they are cooked with knowledge of the matter.

First of all, the external design of dishes is of no small importance. Appetite, as a rule, excites fresh, freshly cooked food, and not heated yesterday.
It is very important to diversify the food, then it will be both appetizing and useful. A little imagination - and the same rubbed soup can be modified within a week. Once in it it is possible to add the wiped boiled carrots, another time to a beet, the third - a green peas. Or milk soup. It can be prepared from different types of cereals. In vegetable soups, you need to use all kinds of vegetables, including zucchini, pumpkin, eggplant, turnip and other allowed vegetables. In the section "Recipes for preparing individual dishes at home" many useful recommendations are given.
It is very important food used for medicinal purposes, not to digest and not to overfeed, but at the same time there should not be anything half-baked in it.
In this regard, a few tips.
Porridges for dietary nutrition are cooked longer than usual: from pearl barley 2,5-3 hours, from buckwheat 1,5-2, from rice and oatmeal - 1-1,5 hours. You can cook porridge from grinded cereals. Then it takes about an hour to prepare the pearl barley, and rice, oats and buckwheat - 40 minutes. The most economical on time semolina porridge (as well as manic slimy soup) - for its preparation it is enough 15 minutes. For 3-5 minutes you can cook porridge or slimy soup from products intended for baby food, and in particular rice, buckwheat, oatmeal. You can make flour from any grains yourself - you only need a coffee mill. Steam cutlets should be cooked for 20 minutes. If 200 g of meat is boiled, it can be removed from the fire in 40 minutes after the water boils; 500 g - about an hour and a half; 1 kg of meat after 2 hours. Chicken is cooked for 1 hour, chicken for 25-30 minutes. Potatoes, carrots, beets and other vegetables are best cleaned before consumption; washed do not leave in water, otherwise the loss of mineral salts and vitamins is inevitable. Vegetables will be more delicious if they are lowered into boiling water and removed from the fire in time: potatoes and carrots in 20-25 minutes.
To improve the taste of the dishes that are included in the salt-free diet, you can add to the second dish boiled, and then slightly roasted onions, sauces, borscht - table vinegar or lemon, tomato juice. In medical nutrition mustard, horseradish, pepper, as a rule, are excluded. To the food was not too fresh, it can be seasoned with lemon, vegetable or pomegranate juice.
With dishes from cereals, pasta, cottage cheese, semi-liquid jelly, prepared from fresh or dried fruits and berries, fruit and berry preserves, juices, milk, cream are well combined.
If sugar is prohibited, honey, jam, candy, third meals are prepared with the addition of xylitol or sorbitol (no more than 30 grams per day).
Meat and fish dishes are cooked in a boiled form, but do not eat meat or fish excessively evaporate; it is necessary to leave a part of the gustatory substances in order to preserve the taste of the product.
To grind food use a meat grinder or wipe it through a sieve. However, in order to provide even greater friability of minced meat, porridge, they can, in addition, mix well, and in some dishes, inject whipped protein. To get a more delicate porridge, the cereal is pre-washed, dried in the oven, and then grinded in a coffee grinder, the prepared porridge is carefully knocked out.

At home, it's easy to cook steamed food in an ordinary pan, in which a little water is poured and a special stand or a sieve is placed upside down; when the water boils, the prepared product is placed on a stand or sieve and cooked on a steam, closing the pan with a lid. Just cook and steam omelet; omelet mass is placed in a cup or mold, which is put in a pot of boiling water.
These are the general principles of preparing therapeutic food.
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Food and basic food substances

  1. Food and basic food substances
    The most important condition for nutrition is the correct combination of all nutrients in the daily diet of man, and they must be introduced in quantities that completely cover all the waste of the body in both quantitative and qualitative terms. In the human body, there are continuous processes of oxidation (compounds with oxygen) of various food substances - proteins, fats, carbohydrates, which
  2. Food and basic food substances
    The most important condition for nutrition is the correct combination of all nutrients in the daily diet of man, and they must be introduced in quantities that completely cover all the waste of the body in both quantitative and qualitative terms. In the human body, there are continuous processes of oxidation (compounds with oxygen) of various food substances - proteins, fats, carbohydrates, which
  3. Food and basic food substances
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