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Nutrition and essential nutrients


The most important condition for nutrition is the correct combination of all the nutrients in the daily ration of a person; moreover, they must be introduced in quantities that completely cover all body waste, both quantitatively and qualitatively.
In the human body, oxidation processes (combining with oxygen) of various food substances - proteins, fats, carbohydrates - are continuously carried out, which are accompanied by the formation and release of heat. This heat is necessary for all life processes, it is spent on heating the inhaled air, to maintain body temperature. Thermal energy also provides the activity of the muscular system. The more muscle movements a person performs, the more he produces losses, which require more food to cover.
The need for more food is expressed in heat units - calories. Currently, according to the international measurement system (SI), the energy value of food is expressed in joules (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ). The caloric content of food is the amount of energy that is formed in the body as a result of the absorption of food. Calorie is the amount of heat that is needed to heat 1 liter (large calorie) and 1 ml (calorie) of water having a temperature of 15 degrees Celsius, by one degree. Each gram of protein and each gram of carbohydrates of any food, when burned in the body (during oxidation), produces heat in an amount equal to 4 kcal, and when burning 1 g of fat, 9 kcal is formed. Knowing the magnitude of the need for energy, it is possible to determine the need for essential nutrients - proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Important for the life of the body are also minerals, vitamins and water.
Squirrels.
Proteins are of particular importance in nutrition. The main manifestations of life are connected with their action: metabolism, muscle contraction,
nerve irritability, ability to grow and reproduce, and even thinking. They are contained in all tissues and body fluids, being their main component. Proteins are composed of various amino acids that determine their biological significance. Some of the amino acids are formed in the body. They are called interchangeable amino acids. Others enter the body only with food. These amino acids are called essential amino acids. For a physiologically full-fledged vital activity of the body, it is necessary to have all the essential amino acids in food. Inadequate content in the food of at least one essential amino acid leads to a decrease in the biological value of proteins and may be the cause of protein deficiency, despite the sufficient amount of protein in the diet. Essential amino acids are mainly found in animal products: in milk, cottage cheese, meat, fish, eggs.
However, the human body can not do without proteins of plant origin, which are contained in bread, cereals and vegetables, which are mainly composed of essential amino acids. Proteins of animal products in combination with proteins of plant origin provide the body with substances necessary for its development and functioning.
An average human body needs an average of 1-1.2 grams of protein per 1 kg of body weight. This means that a person weighing 70-75 kg should receive from 70 to 90 g of protein per day.
If the intensity of physical labor increases, so does the body's need for protein. The average daily rate of an adult human protein is considered to be 90-100 g per day, moreover, 55% of it should be provided with animal protein.
The most important sources of protein are meat, fish, eggs, cheese, milk, bread, potatoes, beans, soybeans, peas.
Proteins in the diet can not be replaced by any other substances.
Fat
The physiological significance of fats is very diverse. They are a source of energy and surpass the energy of all other substances. Fats are involved in recovery processes, being a structural part of the cells and their membrane systems; serve as solvents of vitamins A, E, D and promote their absorption. Improving the taste of food, fats increase its nutritional value. In addition, they contribute to the development of immunity and help the body to keep warm.
Insufficient intake of fat in the body can lead to disruption of the central nervous system, changes in the skin, kidneys, organs of vision, and others. Animals that received a fat-free diet were less resistant to life and longer.
The composition of fat and its attendant substances revealed such vital components of nutrition as polyunsaturated fatty acids, lecithin, vitamins A, E, etc.
The average need for an adult in fat is 80-100 g per day, including vegetable - 25-30 g.
In food, at the expense of fat, 33% of the daily energy value of the diet should be provided, which according to modern data is optimal. Per 1000 kcal accounts for 37 g of fat.
Fat is contained in sufficient quantities in foods such as brains, hearts, eggs, liver, butter, cheese, meat, lard, poultry, fish, and milk. Vegetable fats are also valuable, especially in the nutrition of the elderly, as they do not contain cholesterol.
Carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates are the main source of energy. On average, they account for 50 to 70% of the daily caloric intake. Each gram of carbohydrate provides 4 kcal of energy. The need for carbohydrates depends on the energy waste of the body.
For people engaged in mental or light physical labor, the daily need ranges from 300 to 500 g. For those who are engaged in physical labor and athletes, it is much higher. Inclined to fat, you can reduce the amount of carbohydrates in the diet without compromising health.
Vegetable products are the richest in carbohydrates: bread, cereals, pasta, potatoes. Pure carbohydrate is sugar.

Excessive amounts of carbohydrates violate the correct ratio of the main parts of the food, which, in turn, leads to metabolic disorders.
Vitamins.
Vitamins are substances that do not supply the body with energy, but are absolutely necessary in minimum quantities to sustain life. They are irreplaceable, because they are not synthesized or almost not synthesized, they are not produced by the cells of the body. Vitamins come or with food, which contains, or in the form of synthetic drugs. They regulate, direct and accelerate the metabolic processes.
Vitamins are divided into two large groups: water soluble and lipid soluble.
The group of fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, K.
Vitamin A affects the growth of the body, its resistance to infections. It is necessary to maintain normal vision, condition of the skin and mucous membranes. Contains vitamin A in large quantities in fish oil, cream, butter, egg yolk, liver. Some vegetable products: carrots, lettuce, spinach, tomatoes, green peas, apricots, oranges - contains carotene - provitamin A, which in the body turns into vitamin A.

Vitamin D promotes bone formation and stimulates the growth of the body. With a lack of vitamin D in food, the body’s normal absorption of calcium and phosphorus is disturbed, leading to rickets. The greatest amount of vitamin D is found in fish oil, egg yolk, liver, and fish eggs. Vitamin D is found in milk and butter in a small amount.
Vitamin K is involved in tissue respiration, contributes to the preservation of normal blood clotting. This vitamin is synthesized in the body by intestinal bacteria. Lack of it may occur when diseases of the digestive system or when taking various antibacterial drugs. Vitamin K is found mainly in tomatoes, green parts of plants, spinach, cabbage, nettles.
The group of water-soluble vitamins include vitamin C and vitamins of group B.
Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, is actively involved in redox processes, affects carbohydrate and protein metabolism, increases the body's resistance to various infections.
This vitamin is found in many fresh vegetables and fruits. The richest fruits are wild rose, black currant, black chokeberry, sea buckthorn, gooseberry, citrus fruits, cabbage, potatoes, leafy vegetables.
The group of vitamins B consists of 15 active, water-soluble, independent vitamins that participate in the body's metabolic processes, blood formation, and also plays an important role in carbohydrate, fat and water metabolism. Vitamins of group B are growth stimulants. Vitamins of this group are found in beer and baker's yeast, buckwheat and oatmeal, rye bread, milk, meat, liver, egg yolk, green parts of plants.
Vitamin E (tocopherol) refers to fat-soluble vitamins. It affects the activity of the endocrine glands, the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, provides intracellular metabolism. Vitamin E has a positive effect on the course of pregnancy and fetal development. Most of this vitamin is found in corn kernels, carrots, cabbage, green peas, eggs, meat and fish products, in cow and olive oil.
Prolonged lack of vitamins in the diet leads to avitaminosis. But more often there are hypovitaminosis, the development of which is associated with a lack of vitamins in food; This is especially observed in the spring and winter months. When hypovitaminosis increases fatigue, there is a weakness, apathy, reduced performance, decreases the body's resistance.
There is a close relationship between the action of individual vitamins. Lack of food in one of the vitamins leads to metabolic other substances; only with proper nutrition vitamins have the proper effect.
Minerals.
The food must contain minerals that are part of the cells and tissues of the body and are involved in various metabolic processes. Calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, chlorine, sodium salts are macroelements, they are needed daily in relatively large amounts, as well as iron, zinc, manganese, chromium, iodine, and fluorine. which are needed in very small quantities, so they are called trace elements. Trace elements enter the human body with products of animal and vegetable origin. For example, iodine is rich in sea foods; zinc is the richest in cereals, yeast, legumes, and liver; Copper and cobalt are found in beef liver, kidneys, chicken egg yolk, honey.
The mineral composition of berries and fruits is very diverse. They have a lot of potassium, iron, copper, phosphorus. And all these minerals are perfectly digested. In addition, they are low-calorie, they lack fats and cholesterol, a lot of vitamin C - all this makes them indispensable in the diet of people suffering from many diseases: hypertension, circulatory disorders, kidney damage, especially with the formation of edema. Potassium contained in these products enhances the excretion of fluids from the body.
Good absorption of food by the body depends on its skillful preparation, appearance, variety of the menu. It is very important what the food looks like, whether the table is beautifully laid. From one pleasant type of dish, gastric juice begins to actively stand out, and the entire digestive system is prepared at the time of the meal.
You can not eat very hot and very cold food. The temperature of hot dishes should be no more than 60 degrees, cold - not less than 10 degrees.
In certain diseases, for example, in diabetes, food must contain not only certain foods, but the entire daily diet must have an established chemical composition. It is necessary to observe a certain menu, each dish of which is prepared according to prescribed norms and with appropriate culinary processing.
Medical nutrition at home has its own characteristics, because you have to take into account that the patient’s appetite is usually lowered, and the list of products in his menu is limited, and condiments are prohibited. Nevertheless, diet food dishes can be very tasty if they are prepared with knowledge of the matter.

First of all, the important importance is the external design of dishes. Appetite, as a rule, excites fresh, freshly cooked food, and not heated yesterday.
It is very important to diversify food, then it will be both appetizing and healthier. It is a little imagination - and that pureed soup can be modified within a week. Once it is possible to add mashed boiled carrots into it, another time beets, the third - green peas. Or milk soup. It can be prepared from different types of cereals. In vegetable soups, all kinds of vegetables should be used, including zucchini, pumpkin, eggplants, turnips and other permitted vegetables. In the section "Recipes for preparing individual dishes at home" there are many useful recommendations.
It is very important that food used for medicinal purposes is not digested or roasted, however, there should not be anything half-baked in it.
In this regard, a few tips.
Porridges for dietary food cook longer than usual: from pearl barley for 2.5-3 hours, from buckwheat 1.5-2, from rice and oatmeal - 1-1.5 hours. You can cook porridge from ground grits. Then, for the readiness of pearl barley it takes about an hour, and rice, oatmeal and buckwheat take 40 minutes. The most economical semolina porridge (as well as semolina slimy soup) - 15 minutes is enough to make it. For 3-5 minutes you can cook porridge or slimy soup from products intended for baby food, and in particular rice, buckwheat, oatmeal. You can make flour from any cereal yourself - you just need a coffee mill. Steam patties should be cooked for 20 minutes. If 200 g of meat is boiled, it can be removed from the fire 40 minutes after the water boils; 500 g in about an hour and a half; 1 kg of meat after 2 hours. Young chicken is cooked for 1 hour, chicken - 25-30 minutes. Potatoes, carrots, beets and other vegetables are best cleaned before consumption; washed do not leave in water, otherwise the loss of mineral salts and vitamins is inevitable. Vegetables will be tastier if they are dipped in boiling water and removed from the heat in time: potatoes and carrots - in 20-25 minutes.
It is possible to improve the taste of dishes that are included in the salt-free diet by adding boiled and then slightly fried onions, sauces to the main course, and borscht — table vinegar or lemon, tomato juice. In medical nutrition mustard, horseradish, pepper, as a rule, are excluded. So that the food is not too fresh, you can fill it with lemon, vegetable or pomegranate juice.
Semi-liquid kissels, made from fresh or dried fruits and berries, canned fruits and berries, juices, milk, cream, are well combined with dishes of cereals, pasta, cottage cheese.
If sugar, honey, jam, sweets are forbidden, third courses are prepared with the addition of xylitol or sorbitol (no more than 30 g per day).
Meat and fish dishes are cooked in boiled form, but at the same time one should not overly evaporate meat or fish; It is necessary to leave part of the flavoring substances to preserve the taste of the product
To grind food, use a meat grinder or rub it through a sieve. However, in order to provide even greater friability of minced meat, porridge, they can, moreover, be thoroughly stirred, and in some dishes enter the beaten protein. To obtain a more tender porridge, the grits are pre-washed, dried in the oven, and then ground in a coffee grinder, and the cooked porridge is carefully knocked out.

At home, it is easy to cook food in a pair in an ordinary saucepan, into which some water is poured and a special stand or sieve is inserted upside down; when the water boils, the prepared product is placed on a stand or sieve and steamed, closing the pan with a lid. Also cooked and steam omelet; Omelet mass is placed in a cup or a mold, which is put in a pot of boiling water.
These are the general principles for the preparation of therapeutic food.
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Nutrition and essential nutrients

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    The most important condition for nutrition is the correct combination of all the nutrients in the daily ration of a person; moreover, they must be introduced in quantities that completely cover all body waste, both quantitatively and qualitatively. In the human body, oxidation processes (combining with oxygen) of various food substances - proteins, fats, carbohydrates - continuously
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