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Nutrition and essential nutrients


The most important condition for nutrition is the correct combination of all nutrients in the daily diet of a person. These substances can be divided into six groups: 1) proteins, 2) fats, 3) carbohydrates, 4) vitamins, 5) minerals, 6) water. They must be introduced in quantities that fully cover all the waste of the body, both in quantitative and qualitative terms.
In the human body, oxidation processes (combining with oxygen) of various food substances - proteins, fats, carbohydrates - are continuously carried out, which are accompanied by the formation and release of heat. This heat is necessary for all life processes, it is spent on heating the inhaled air, to maintain body temperature. Thermal energy also provides the activity of the muscular system. The more muscle movements a person performs, the more he produces losses, which require more food to cover.
The need for more food is expressed in heat units - calories. The caloric content of food is the amount of energy that is formed in the body as a result of the absorption of food. A calorie is the amount of heat needed to heat 1 liter (large calorie) and 1 ml (calorie) of water having a temperature of 15 degrees Celsius, one degree. Each gram of protein and each gram of carbohydrates of any food, when burned in the body, produces heat equal to 4 kcal, and when burning 1 g of fat, 9 kcal is formed.
Daily energy consumption within the same age group is individual. It depends on the physical development of a person, the state of his nervous and endocrine systems, the intensity of movements, labor, and the general condition of the body.
Food for the body is not only a source of energy. It is a building material for cells of organs and systems. In addition, it serves as a source of heat, helps to increase the body’s resistance to the adverse effects of external and internal factors, and improves the body’s performance. Getting into the digestive canal, it is digested. Moreover, its constituent parts - proteins, fats, and carbohydrates - are split into less complex substances that are absorbed by the intestinal walls and enter the blood. The blood carries them through all organs and tissues of the body and nourishes the entire body.
A full diet should contain all the main nutrients in the diet: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, water - in optimal proportions, it should meet the physiological needs and capabilities of the organism of both healthy and sick people.
PROTEINS
Protein is the material from which the human body builds its own tissues. This is a complex chemical compound that consists of simple elements called amino acids. Protein is also necessary for the production of enzymes in the body, hormones and maintaining resistance to adverse factors. The body supplies proteins such as milk, cheese, cottage cheese, eggs, meat, fish, i.e., animal products. Proteins of animal origin are "complete" proteins, as they contain all the amino acids necessary for the formation of tissues of the human body. Products of plant origin (potatoes, flour, cereals, vegetables, peas, beans) also contain proteins, but they do not have all the amino acids necessary for the formation of body proteins. Therefore, plant proteins are considered “defective”. In order for plant proteins to be well utilized by the body, they must be combined in human food with animal proteins that supplement their nutritional value.
Long-term lack of full-fledged proteins in the diet worsens the state of health and causes a breakdown of the body’s vital activity. For example, the lack of proteins can cause a decrease in the body's resistance to various infectious diseases, leads to a delay in development, contributes to the occurrence of anemia and other diseases.
Proteins play a big role in regulating blood pressure. The body's need for proteins depends on the age and physiological state of the body. The body of children, adolescents, and pregnant women needs more protein (relative to body weight) than the body of an adult. An infant needs four times more protein per kilogram of body weight (than an adult who needs one gram of protein per kilogram of weight). On average, an adult should get about 75 to 90 grams of protein per day.
The most important sources of protein are foods such as meat, fish, eggs, cottage cheese, milk, cheese, bread, potatoes, beans, soybeans, peas.
It is very important in the diet to diversify food, because only such food provides the body with all the necessary amino acids. In order for proteins to be well digested and assimilated, the method of cooking is very important. When boiling and roasting meat or fish, protein substances change greatly. Products that are steamed lose less extractive (odorous and flavoring) substances than those boiled in water.
CONTENTS PROTEIN IN 100 G PRODUCT
Meat - 14-20; fish - 12-16; eggs - 10.8; cheese - 30; milk - 5.0; bread - 5-10; potatoes - 1.7; beans - 19.6; soya - 34; peas - 19.7.
FATS
Food fats are necessary for the body not only as a source of energy. Fats are involved in regenerative processes, being a structural part of cells and their membrane systems; serve as solvents of vitamins A, E, D and promote their absorption. Improving the taste properties of food, fats increase its nutritional value. In addition, they contribute to the development of immunity and help the body retain heat and protect the protein from burning. Fats are found in many foods of animal and vegetable origin. Their biological value is different. Insufficient intake of fat in the body can lead to disruption of the central nervous system, changes in the skin, kidneys, organs of vision, etc. However, excessive consumption of fat leads to fullness, contributing to the appearance of various diseases (atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension). In the diet should include fats, vegetable and animal. Fats of animal origin are more valuable, as some of them, for example, butter, contain vitamins.
The average need for an adult in fat is 80-100 g per day, including vegetable - 25-30 g.
In food, at the expense of fat, 33% of the daily energy value of the diet should be provided, which according to modern data is optimal. When burning, 1 g of fat forms 9 kcal.
Fat is contained in sufficient quantities in foods such as brains, hearts, eggs, liver, butter, cheese, meat, lard, poultry, fish, and milk. Vegetable fats are also valuable, especially in the nutrition of the elderly, as they do not contain cholesterol. Skillful use of fats in cooking is of paramount importance. In clinical nutrition it is recommended to put butter in a ready dish before serving to the patient. The fats added to the prepared food are easier to digest and absorb by the body than those with which the products are soaked in the process of their preparation. When frying over high heat, the chemical composition of fats changes, and the resulting substances irritate the biliary tract and gallbladder. Therefore, in cases of liver disease fried foods are contraindicated. For frying, it is not recommended to use butter, it is better to use vegetable oils or ghee. Butter at high temperature decomposes, and vitamin A contained in it dies.

CARBOHYDRATES
Carbohydrates are the main source of energy. Due to carbohydrates, the body receives about 2/3 of thermal energy. Each gram of carbohydrate provides 4 kcal of energy. Most carbohydrates in the form of sugar and starch are found in foods of plant origin. For example, in sugar carbohydrates make up almost 90%, in potato starch 70-80%. A lot of carbohydrates found in pasta, rice, buckwheat groats, rolls, rye bread. In fresh vegetables a little carbohydrates. The composition of vegetables and fruits in large quantities include water and fiber, which is almost not digested. Undigested fiber particles enhance intestinal peristalsis and protect against constipation. A lot of fiber is found in vegetables, fruits and wholemeal products. With therapeutic nutrition, fiber is sometimes consumed in large quantities. For example, in the treatment of obesity, the body must be given non-nutritious, non-nutritive, but bulky and eliminating hunger food. On the contrary, with gastric ulcer and other diseases, when the stomach and other organs of the digestive tract cannot be irritated, the amount of fiber is reduced to a minimum. Fiber helps to eliminate cholesterol from the body, so it needs to enrich the anti-sclerotic rations.
Overcooked carbohydrates are absorbed into the blood in the form of sugar. In order to maintain a certain ratio of sugar in the blood, most of the carbohydrates, it is desirable to introduce into the body in the form of starch. In this case, due to the slow breakdown of starch in the digestive tract, the resulting sugar is gradually absorbed into the blood. However, if it is necessary for the tissues to get sugar quickly, for example, with a strong mental or physical strain, with weakened cardiac activity, then it is recommended to consume a lot of sugar, sometimes it is injected directly into the blood. Sugar, especially glucose, the body absorbs quickly and easily.
The value of carbohydrates in therapeutic nutrition is very high. If the diseased body cannot normally absorb proteins or fats, then carbohydrates should form the basis of nutrition at this time. For diseases of the heart or liver, carbohydrates such as sugar, honey, glucose, fruit juice and some others are recommended to the patient.
With diabetes mellitus, carbohydrates, and especially sugar, are almost not given. In the case of rheumatism and various inflammations, the consumption of carbohydrates, especially sugar, is also limited. The daily requirement of carbohydrates ranges from 300 to 500 g. For enhanced nutrition or, if desired, the weight of carbohydrates can be given up to 600 g per day, but not more. Each gram of carbohydrate delivers 4 kcal. For therapeutic purposes, the amount of carbohydrates in food can be significantly reduced: a bed patient can be given up to 120-150 g, and a walking patient can be given up to 250-300 g per day.
Getting too much carbohydrates, the body stores them in the form of fat.
In order to preserve carbohydrates, the products must be steamed or in a small amount of water. Sugar is easier digested and absorbed by the body than starch, as it dissolves faster in water. The average daily rate of sugar and other sweets ranges from 80-100 g.
Excessive amounts of carbohydrates in the diet violate the correct ratio of the main parts of food, which, in turn, leads to metabolic disorders, reduced protein intake, water retention in the body, the formation of elevated levels
fat, which is deposited, almost does not participate in metabolic processes.



Carbohydrates are rich in sugar, honey, cereals, flour, vegetables, especially potatoes, fruits. The most easily absorbed carbohydrates, which are in sugar, honey, fruit, milk.

CONTENT OF CARBOHYDRATES IN 100 G OF PRODUCTS
Rye Bread - 42-45; wheat bread - 43-50; buckwheat - 64; semolina - 70; rice - 72; sugar - 75-90; honey - 95-99; potatoes - 20; white cabbage - 5; watermelon - 9; carrots - 7-8; beets - 10; grapes - 17; apples - 11.
VITAMINS
For the normal functioning of the body, it is necessary that the diet contains vitamins - substances that do not supply the body with energy, but are absolutely necessary to maintain life. They direct and accelerate metabolic processes. The body does not produce vitamins. They come or with food, or in the form of synthetic drugs. Natural vitamins are more beneficial for the body than synthetic drugs.
The amount of vitamins consumed must meet the needs of the body. Prolonged lack of vitamins in the diet leads to avitaminosis. But more often there are hypovitaminosis, the development of which is associated with a lack of vitamins in food. This is especially observed in the winter-spring months.
Vitamins are divided into two groups: water soluble - soluble in water and fat soluble - only in fats. The group of fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, K. The water soluble vitamins are C (ascorbic acid) and B vitamins (Bl, B2, PP, and others).

Vitamin A affects the growth of the body, its resistance to infections. It is necessary to maintain normal vision, condition of the skin and mucous membranes. Lack of vitamin A causes the so-called night blindness, which is especially dangerous for drivers of vehicles. A person in twilight quickly loses orientation, does not clearly see objects, his visual reactions are slowed down. With a lack of vitamin A, hair loss, fragility or oily seborrhea is observed, the skin of the face becomes rough, dry, has a painful appearance and no cream in this case will not help until the gap in the diet has been filled.
Contains vitamin A in large quantities in fish oil, cream, butter, egg yolk, liver, milk.
In some plant products: carrots, peppers, lettuce, spinach, tomatoes, green peas, apricots, parsley, green onions, rose hips and sea buckthorn. However, we must bear in mind that vitamin A, like other fat-soluble vitamins, is much better absorbed along with fat, for which it is useful to use products containing carotene in various combinations with oil.
Vitamin A and carotene are well preserved in food when cooked on low heat without access of air.
Vitamin D promotes bone formation and stimulates the growth of the body. With a lack of vitamin D in food, the body’s normal absorption of calcium and phosphorus is disturbed, leading to rickets. The greatest amount of vitamin D is found in fish oil, egg yolk, liver, and fish eggs. Vitamin D is found in milk and butter in a small amount.
Vitamin K is involved in tissue respiration, contributes to the preservation of normal blood clotting. Lack of it may occur when diseases of the digestive system or when taking various antibacterial drugs. Vitamin K is found mainly in tomatoes, green parts of plants, spinach, cabbage, nettles.
Vitamin C is a great value for the body. Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, is actively involved in redox processes, affects carbohydrate and protein exchanges, increases the body's resistance to various infections.
With insufficient intake of vitamin C with food, increased fragility of small blood vessels, a tendency to hemorrhages on the skin and mucous membranes, bone fractures, and pustular diseases develop. The growth processes are slowed down, the secretion of gastric juice decreases, the motor function of the small intestine is weakened, the formation of a number of hormones is disturbed, the glycogen carbohydrate reserves are reduced in the liver, the gums swell,
loose teeth.
In the human body, vitamin C is not formed and does not accumulate, but enters the body with food. It is contained in many fresh vegetables and fruits. The richest fruits are wild rose, black currant, black chokeberry, sea buckthorn, gooseberry, citrus fruits, cabbage, potatoes, sweet peppers, sour apples. Vitamin C is soluble in water; it is easily destroyed by heating and exposure to alkalis, is oxidized when it comes into contact with certain metals (iron, copper), is destroyed by exposure to atmospheric oxygen and loses its beneficial properties. In the process of cooking and storage of vegetables and fruits up to 70% of it is destroyed. Bearing in mind these properties of vitamin C, you should observe the following rules for cooking:
1) clean the vegetables and prepare meals immediately before use;
2) to lay vegetables for boiling in boiling water, as it contains less oxygen;
3) cook vegetables in a sealed container;
4) to store cooked vegetable dishes for not more than 1.5 hours;
5) the liquid in which the vegetables were boiled, use for soups;
6) vegetables cooked for a vinaigrette or salad, especially in peeled form, should not be stored for a long time.
The need for an adult in vitamin C is 70-100 mg per day. In winter, vitamin C can be obtained with potatoes, as well as with fresh and sauerkraut.
The group of vitamins B consists of water-soluble, independent vitamins that take part in metabolic processes in the body, the process of blood formation, and also plays an important role in carbohydrate, fat and water metabolism. Vitamins of group B are growth promoters. With its deficiency, headaches, fatigue, feeling of weakness and muscle weakness, disorder of the digestive tract and nervous system, brittle nails appear.
Vitamins of this group are found in beer and baker's yeast, buckwheat and oat groats, rye bread, milk, meat, liver, egg yolk, cauliflower, barley groats, green peas, potatoes, hazelnuts and walnuts, peanuts. Especially rich in vitamin B1 products from wholemeal flour.
In the process of cooking products vitamin B1 is well preserved.
The body's need for vitamins is 1.5-2.0 mg per day and depends on energy consumption. Since vitamins of group B are well dissolved in water and are easily oxidized by air oxygen, to preserve them, it is necessary to avoid prolonged soaking of products, it is not recommended to leave them in air in a ground form.
Vitamin B2 deficiency is manifested in slowing growth, disorders of the skin and mucous membranes (formation of cracks, sores in the corners of the mouth, peeling of the skin, inflammation of the mucous eyes, etc.). Its deficiency leads to eye fatigue, weakening of visual acuity, photophobia arises. This vitamin is rich in kidneys, tongue, chicken meat, veal, beef, chicken eggs, milk, dairy products, buckwheat and oat groats and cereals from them, beans, peas, cabbage, spinach, dogrose, yeast, liver.
It is well preserved in the products in the process of their cooking.
Vitamin E is involved in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin E affects the activity of the endocrine glands, a positive effect on the course of pregnancy and fetal development. In the process of cooking food is preserved well. Most of this vitamin is found in corn, cabbage, green peas, eggs, meat and fish products, in vegetable oils, wheat, oats, rye, barley, parsley, celery, liver, kidneys, butter.

There is a close relationship between the action of individual vitamins. Lack of food in one of the vitamins results in a metabolic disorder of other vitamins. A full diet should be balanced not only in calories. It is necessary to strive to obtain all the important vitamins mainly through food. If the caloric intake is provided mainly through the use of products of animal and vegetable origin, rich in proteins, fats and carbohydrates, then the source of vitamins are mainly vegetables and fruits, which are also used as medical foods. Especially significant is their role in the prevention and treatment of colds and flu. Systematic consumption of fruits and vegetables increases a person’s resistance to many unfavorable factors, both internal, external and external, therefore it is necessary to eat more berries, fruits, vegetables in the raw state or to prepare from them dishes that do not require heat treatment - salads, cold soups, cocktails, juices.
MINERAL SUBSTANCES AND WATER
The food must contain minerals that are part of the cells and tissues of the body. They are necessary for the normal assimilation of food, the formation of the skeleton, the production of hormones, proper blood formation, the work of the cells of the nervous system, the development and activity of the endocrine glands, etc. Their significance is very great, without them the human body could not exist, could not function . Чтобы обеспечить организму ежедневную доставку минеральных веществ в достаточном количестве, надо знать источники и содержание в них этих элементов. К основным минеральным веществам относятся кальций, калий, натрий, фосфор, магний, железо, медь.
Кальций необходим для правильного роста и развития организма, нормальной работы сердца, свертываемости крови, а также правильного формирования мышц, нервов и скелета. Почти 90 % всего кальция, который содержится в организме, находится в костной ткани.



Длительное отсутствие кальция в питании приводит к серьезным изменениям в организме, вызывая такие болезни как кариес зубов, рахит, декальцинация костей. В результате дефицита кальция нередко появляются боли в суставах, ошибочно принимаемые за ревматизм.
Содержится кальций во многих продуктах животного и растительного происхождения, но усваивается из них неодинаково. В растительных продуктах кальций содержится в труднорастворимых соединениях, которые усваиваются плохо. Лучше всего кальций усваивается из молока и молочных продуктов, где он находится в соединении с белком. Поэтому так важно употреблять их в ежедневном рационе достаточное количество.
Фосфор - вещество, которое подобно кальцию, необходимо для построения костей и зубов. Он входит также в состав кровяных шариков, нервных тканей мозга и других тканей организма. Фосфор входит в состав разнообразных продуктов питания. Наибольшее его количество находится в мясе, яичном желтке, рыбе, сырах, овсяной и гречневой крупах, бобовых, орехах, овощах, хлебных изделиях, а также в мозгах, печени и почках.
Магний участвует в обмене веществ, вместе с кальцием и фосфором участвует в формировании скелета, повышает и улучшает деятельность кишечника, повышает желчеотделение, участвует в передаче нервного возбуждения. В основном магний содержится в пшенице, ржи, гречке, просе, ячмене, овсе.
Железо играет важную роль в восстановительных процессах организма и является составной частью гемоглобина. Дефицит его в питании может вызвать малокровие (анемию). Для людей очень важно достаточное поступление железа с продуктами питания, так как запасы его в организме ограничены. Дневная норма железа составляет для детей и подростков 6-15 мг, для взрослых - 12-15 мг.
В наибольших количествах железо содержится в печени, почках, рыбе, яйцах, фасоли, черном хлебе, бобовых, овсяной, гречневой и перловой крупах, зеленой части растений и фруктах.
Калий и натрий играют важную роль в процессах водно-солевого обмена и регуляции давления.
Потребность организма в натрии удовлетворяется потреблением повареной соли, добавляемой к пище. В среднем человек нуждается в 5- 10 г соли в день. Однако, это количество бывает недостаточным при выполнении тяжелой физической работы, или в жаркое время года, так как человек, потея, теряет большие количества соли с потом, доходящие иногда до 20 г в сутки. Нехватка натрия лучше всего восполняется более соленой пищей или солеными напитками. Как недобор, так и избыток соли ведет к расстройствам организма. В результате недостаточного потребления соли появляется чувство слабости, тошнота, усталость, жажда, мышечные спазмы, падает аппетит. Избыток соли создает излишнюю нагрузку органов кровообращения и выделительных органов, ведет к задержке воды в организме, увеличивает жажду. В продуктах питания, особенно растительного происхождения, солей натрия содержится немного.
При недостаточности в организме калия снижается давление крови и падает тонус мышц. Организм больше нуждается в калии, чем в натрии, так как калий необходим для деятельности мускулатуры сердца и кишечника.
Богаты калием картофель, морковь, капуста, петрушка, шпинат, бобовые, абрикосы, изюм, чернослив.

Для правильной жизнедеятельности организма необходимы и другие минеральные вещества, так называемые микроэлементы - кобальт, цинк, иод, фтор, марганец, медь.
Микроэлементы поступают в организм с пищей.
Иод необходим для выработки гормона щитовидной железы (тироксина). Этот гормон играет большую роль в обмене веществ. Для человека опасен не только дефицит иода, но и его избыток. В результате нехватки иода развивается зоб, излишек иода вызывает повышенную функцию щитовидной железы. Суточная потребность в иоде удовлетворяется при содержании его в пище и воде от 0,15 до 0,2 мг. Количество иода в продуктах зависит от содержания этого элемента в почве, воде, воздухе. Больше всего иода в приморских районах. Из продуктов питания самый крупный источник иода: морские рыбы, яйца и некоторые овощи. Поваренная соль, которая продается в магазинах также часто обогащается иодом.
Цинком богаты злаки, дрожжи, бобовые, печень; Copper and cobalt are found in beef liver, kidneys, chicken egg yolk, honey.
The mineral composition of berries and fruits is very diverse. В них много калия, железа, меди, фосфора и др. Причем все эти минеральные вещества прекрасно усваиваются. Особенно велико значение фруктов и ягод для тех, кто страдает нарушениями сердечно-сосудистой системы, в частности гипертонической болезнью, расстройствами кровообращения, поражением почек с образованием отеков. Калий, содержащийся в этих продуктах, усиливает выделение жидкости из организма.
Низкая калорийность, отсутствие жиров и холестерина, высокое содержание витамина С делают фрукты и ягоды и блюда из них незаменимыми в рационе больных атеросклерозом и другими заболеваниями.
Вода, составляющая почти 70 % веса человеческого тела, входит в состав каждой клетки организма. Вода растворяет пищевые вещества, поступающие в пищеварительный тракт, обеспечивает их
переваривание, всасывание и обмен веществ. Переваренные вещества могут попасть в кровь только будучи растворенными в жидкости. Вода регулирует правильное кровообращение и давление крови, способствует распределению в организм питательных веществ и выведению шлаков через почки, кожу и толстый кишечник. Мы поглощаем воду не только в виде жидкостей, она входит в состав всех продуктов питания. Больше всего воды содержится в овощах - до 90 %, меньше всего - в топленых жирах и сушеных продуктах.
В сутки человек должен получать 2-3 л воды, включая ту воду, которая содержится в пище.
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Nutrition and essential nutrients

  1. Nutrition and essential nutrients
    The most important condition for nutrition is the correct combination of all the nutrients in the daily ration of a person; moreover, they must be introduced in quantities that completely cover all body wastes both in quantitative and qualitative terms. In the human body, oxidation processes (combining with oxygen) of various nutrients - proteins, fats, carbohydrates - continuously
  2. Nutrition and essential nutrients
    The most important condition for nutrition is the correct combination of all the nutrients in the daily ration of a person; moreover, they must be introduced in quantities that completely cover all body wastes both in quantitative and qualitative terms. In the human body, oxidation processes (combining with oxygen) of various nutrients - proteins, fats, carbohydrates - continuously
  3. Nutrition and essential nutrients
    The most important condition for nutrition is the correct combination of all the nutrients in the daily ration of a person; moreover, they must be introduced in quantities that completely cover all body wastes both in quantitative and qualitative terms. In the human body, oxidation processes (combining with oxygen) of various nutrients - proteins, fats, carbohydrates - continuously
  4. Nutrition and biological value of basic foods
    The nutritional value of the product is determined by the content of nutrients (food and taste), the biological value - its amino acid intake, the presence of PUFA, vitamins, mineral salts and other biologically active substances. The main foods are bread, meat and meat products, fish and fish products, milk and dairy products, vegetables, berries, fruits and some others.
  5. The concept of hygienic nutrition. Nutrition norms Food products, their composition and energy value.
    Nutrition is a complex process of receipt, digestion, absorption and assimilation in the body of nutrients necessary to cover its energy expenditure, build and renew cells and tissues of the body, and regulate the physiological functions of the body. In hygiene, the term “good nutrition” is adopted, which means a food built on a scientific basis that can fully meet the need for
  6. RECOMMENDED SIZE CONSUMPTION OF FOOD SUBSTANCES
    Each country should use the recommended nutrient consumption values ​​for infants and young children, based on scientific data obtained by the international scientific community, as the basis for their methodological recommendations on nutrition and feeding for children. INTRODUCTION Recommended values ​​are discussed and compared in this and four subsequent chapters.
  7. Carcinogenic chemicals in food
    One of the oldest medical problems is Nutrition and Cancer. This is because food may contain carcinogenic chemicals (CXW) and their precursors. KHV sources primarily belong to industrial waste, thermal power plants, heating systems and transport. Migrating in the atmosphere, in the soil and water bodies, these carcinogens can get into food. Of such
  8. Food substances and their value.
    The human body consists of proteins (19.6%), fats (14.7%), carbohydrates (1%), mineral substances (4.9%), water (58.8%). He constantly spends these substances on the formation of energy necessary for the functioning of internal organs, maintaining heat and the implementation of all life processes, including physical and mental work. 1. Proteins These are complex organic compounds from
  9. Nomenclature of recommended nutrient intake values
    Several countries have adopted their own PRWV systems and use different term education systems (Table 8). The European Union uses population-based reference consumption values ​​(HDPE), and in the former Soviet Union, the term “physiological norms" of the PRWT used in this publication correspond to the reference nutrient intake values ​​shown in
  10. Effect on the body of purified nutrients
    During the entire evolution, the animal's organism consumed only natural food, which, with very few exceptions, was a complex of various substances. It is therefore not surprising that the mechanisms formed in the phylogenesis of metabolism suggest, on the one hand, the intake of the food substance in the natural form created by nature (and not separately proteins, carbohydrates, fats, iron,
  11. Hygienic regulation of harmful substances in the environment and food
    Hygienic regulation is mandatory for all toxic substances entering the human body from the environment - air, water, soil, food, materials in contact with food, etc. Any chemical substance is toxic under certain conditions of exposure. Toxicity - the ability of a substance to cause harm to a living organism. On the human body
  12. Food poisoning caused by chemical impurities
    This group of non-microbial food poisonings includes poisonings caused by pesticides, nitrites and other food additives with their increased content in products, impurities that have been converted to products from equipment, inventory, packaging, packaging films, etc. content in products Poisoning by nitrites. With constant
  13. Food contamination with foreign chemicals
    Foreign chemical substances (ChHV) are also called xenobiotics (from the Greek. Xenos - alien). They include compounds that are not intrinsic to a natural product in nature and quantity, but can be added to improve technology, preserve or improve product quality, or they can be formed in a product as a result of processing and storage, as well as
  14. Валеологическая оценка некоторых блюд и пищевых веществ
    Separate conversation deserve some dishes that are mandatory in the diet of many people. Soups in many families are considered almost as the main condition for a balanced diet. At the same time, however, it is impossible to find any satisfactory experimental or theoretical substantiation of such a view. Наоборот, есть много доказательств, показывающих, что суп в общепринятом
  15. The effect on the body of the wrong combination of nutrients
    In the process of evolution, the animal organism, as a rule, had the opportunity at each given moment to use only a homogeneous type of food: either predominantly carbohydrate (vegetable), or protein or protein-fat (animal). In the end, it stuck in the anatomical and physiological characteristics of a person when the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) turned out to be predominantly
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