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Food and basic food substances


The most important condition for nutrition is the correct combination of all nutrients in the human diets. These substances can be divided into six groups: 1) proteins, 2) fats, 3) carbohydrates, 4) vitamins, 5) mineral substances, 6) water. They must be introduced in quantities that completely cover all the waste of the body in both quantitative and qualitative terms.
In the human body, oxidation processes (compounds with oxygen) of various food substances - proteins, fats, carbohydrates, which are accompanied by the formation and release of heat - are continuously occurring. This heat is necessary for all life processes, it is spent on heating the inhaled air, on maintaining the body temperature. Thermal energy also provides the activity of the muscular system. The more muscle movements a person performs, the more he produces losses, which require more food to cover.
The need for more food is expressed in thermal units - calories. Caloric content of food is the amount of energy that is formed in the body as a result of the assimilation of food. Calorie is the amount of heat needed to heat 1 liter (large calorie) and 1 mL (low calorie) of water at 15 degrees Celsius, one degree. Each gram of protein and every gram of carbohydrates of any food, when burned in the body, forms heat, equal in quantity to 4 kcal, and when burning 1 g of fat, 9 kcal is formed.
The daily energy expenditure within the same age group is individual. It depends on the physical development of a person, the state of his nervous and endocrine systems, the intensity of movements, labor, the general state of the body.
Food for the body is not only a source of energy. It is a building material for cells of organs and systems. In addition, it serves as a source of heat, improves the resistance of the body to adverse effects of external and internal factors, improves the working capacity of the organism. Getting into the digestive canal, it is digested. Her constituents - proteins, fats, and carbohydrates - are split into less complex substances, which are absorbed by the walls of the intestine and enter the bloodstream. Blood carries them to all organs and tissues of the body and nourishes the entire body.
Full nutrition should contain in the diet all the main food substances: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, water - in optimal proportions, it should meet the physiological needs and capabilities of the organism of both a healthy and a sick person.
PROTEINS
Protein is the material from which the human body builds its own tissues. This is a complex chemical compound that consists of simple elements called amino acids. Protein is also necessary for the production of enzymes, hormones in the body and the preservation of resistance to unfavorable factors. The protein is supplied to the organism by such foods as milk, cheese, cottage cheese, eggs, meat, fish, i.e. products of animal origin. Proteins of animal origin are "full" proteins, since they contain all the amino acids necessary for the formation of tissues of the human body. In products of vegetable origin (potatoes, flour, cereals, vegetables, peas, beans), proteins are also contained, but they do not possess all the amino acids necessary for the formation of body proteins. Therefore, vegetable proteins are considered "inferior". In order for plant proteins to be well used by the body, they must be combined in human food with proteins of animal origin, replenishing their nutritional value.
Prolonged shortage of high-grade proteins in the diet worsens the state of health and causes a disturbance in the vital activity of the body. For example, a deficiency of proteins can cause a decrease in the body's resistance to various infectious diseases, leads to a delay in development, contributes to the occurrence of anemia and other diseases.
Proteins play a big role in regulating blood pressure. The need for an organism in proteins depends on the age and physiological state of the organism. The body of children, adolescents and pregnant women needs more protein (relative to body weight) than the adult body. A baby needs four times more protein per kilogram of body weight (than an adult who needs one gram of protein per kilogram of weight). On average, an adult should receive about 75 to 90 grams of protein per day.
The most important sources of protein are foods such as meat, fish, eggs, cottage cheese, milk, cheese, bread, potatoes, beans, soy, peas.
It is very important in food to diversify food, because only such food provides the body with all the necessary amino acids. To make proteins well digested and digested, cooking is of great importance. When cooking and frying meat or fish, protein substances vary greatly. Products that are steamed, lose less extractive (odorous and flavoring) substances than those that are cooked in water.
Protein content in 100 g of the product
Meat - 14-20; fish - 12-16; eggs - 10,8; cheese - 30; milk - 5,0; bread - 5-10; potatoes - 1.7; beans - 19.6; soybean - 34; peas - 19.7.
FATS
Nutritional fats are necessary for the body not only as a source of energy. Fats participate in the recovery processes, being a structural part of cells and their membrane systems; serve as solvents of vitamins A, E, D and promote their assimilation. Improving the taste of food, fats increase its nutritional value. In addition, they contribute to the development of immunity and help the body to keep heat and protect the protein from burning. Fats are found in many food products of animal and vegetable origin. Their biological value is different. Inadequate intake of fat in the body can lead to a violation of the central nervous system, changes in the skin, kidneys, eyes, etc. However, excessive consumption of fat leads to a fullness, contributing to the emergence of various diseases (atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension). In the diet must necessarily include fats vegetable and animals. Fats of animal origin are more valuable, as some of them, for example, butter, contain vitamins.
The average need of an adult in fat is 80-100 g per day, including vegetable - 25-30 g.
In food, due to fat, 33% of the daily energy value of the diet should be provided, which according to modern data is optimal. When burning 1 g of fat, 9 kcal are formed.
Fats in sufficient quantity are contained in such food products as brains, heart, eggs, liver, butter, cheese, meat, lard, poultry, fish, milk. Valuables are also valuable, especially in the nutrition of older people, since they do not contain cholesterol. The skillful use of fats in cooking is of great importance. In medical nutrition, it is recommended to put butter in a ready dish before serving the patient. Fats added to the prepared food are easier to digest and assimilated by the body than those which impregnate the products during their preparation. When fried on high heat changes the chemical composition of fats, and the resulting substances irritate the bile duct and gall bladder. Therefore, when liver diseases are contraindicated fried foods. For roasting is not recommended to use butter, it is better to use vegetable oils or melted butter. Butter at high temperature decomposes, and the vitamin A contained in it is destroyed.

CARBOHYDRATES
Carbohydrates are the main source of energy. Due to carbohydrates, the body receives about 2/3 of the heat energy. Each gram of carbohydrates provides 4 kcal of energy. Most carbohydrates in the form of sugar and starch are found in food of vegetable origin. For example, in sugar, carbohydrates account for almost 90%, in potato starch, 70-80%. Many carbohydrates are found in pasta, rice, buckwheat, bread, rye bread. In fresh vegetables, a little carbohydrates. The composition of vegetables and fruits in large quantities include water and fiber, which is almost not digested. Particles of undigested fiber strengthen peristalsis of the intestines, protect against constipation. A lot of fiber is found in vegetables, fruits and in products from wholemeal flour. With dietary nutrition, cellulose is sometimes used in large quantities. For example, in the treatment of obesity, the body needs to give an uneaten, non-calorie, but voluminous and eliminating the feeling of hunger food. On the contrary, with gastric ulcer and other diseases, when the stomach and other organs of the digestive tract can not be irritated, the amount of fiber is reduced to a minimum. Fiber promotes the excretion of cholesterol from the body, so it needs to enrich anti-sclerotic diets.
The digested carbohydrates are absorbed into the blood in the form of sugar. In order to maintain a certain ratio of sugar in the blood, most of the carbohydrates it is desirable to introduce into the body in the form of starch. In this case, due to the slow digestion of starch in the digestive tract, the formed sugar is gradually absorbed into the blood. However, if it is necessary for the tissues to get the sugar fast, for example with strong mental or physical stress, with weakened cardiac activity, then it is recommended to consume a lot of sugar, sometimes it is injected directly into the blood. Sugar, especially glucose, the body absorbs easily and quickly.
The importance of carbohydrates in the therapeutic diet is very great. If the diseased organism can not properly digest proteins or fats, then the basis of nutrition at this time should be carbohydrates. In diseases of the heart or liver, the patient is recommended carbohydrates such as sugar, honey, glucose, fruit juice and some others.
In case of diabetes, carbohydrates, and especially sugar, are almost not given. In the case of rheumatism and various inflammations, the use of carbohydrates, especially sugar, is also limited. The daily requirement of carbohydrates ranges from 300 to 500 g. For enhanced nutrition or if you want to increase the weight of carbohydrates, you can give up to 600 grams per day, but not more. Each gram of carbohydrates delivers 4 kcal. For therapeutic purposes, the amount of carbohydrates in food can be significantly reduced: lying down patient to give up to 120-150 g, and walking - up to 250-300 g per day.
Getting too much norm of carbohydrates, the body lays them in the form of fats.
Wishing to save carbohydrates, products should be cooked on steam or in a small amount of water. Sugar is easier to digest and assimilated by the body than starch, since it dissolves more quickly in water. The average daily norm of sugar and other sweets ranges from 80-100 g.
Excess amount of carbohydrates in the diet disrupts the correct ratio of the main parts of food, which in turn leads to a disruption in metabolism, a decrease in the delay in protein intake, a delay in the body of water, the formation of a high content
fat, which is deposited, almost does not participate in metabolic processes.



Carbohydrates are rich in sugar, honey, cereals, flour, vegetables, especially potatoes, fruits. The most easily digested carbohydrates, which are found in sugar, honey, fruits, milk.

Carbohydrate content in 100 g of products
Rye bread - 42-45; Wheat bread - 43-50; Buckwheat groats - 64; croup of semolina - 70; rice - 72; sugar - 75-90; honey - 95-99; potatoes - 20; white cabbage - 5; watermelon - 9; carrots - 7-8; beet - 10; grapes - 17; apples - 11.
VITAMINS
For normal life of the body it is necessary that the composition of the diet included vitamins - substances that do not supply the body with energy, but are absolutely necessary for the maintenance of life. They direct and accelerate the processes of metabolism. The body does not produce vitamins. They come either with food, or in the form of synthetic drugs. Natural vitamins are more useful for the body than synthetic drugs.
The amount of vitamins consumed must correspond to the needs of the body. Prolonged absence of vitamins in the diet leads to avitaminosis. But more often there are hypovitaminosis, the development of which is associated with a lack of vitamins in food. This is especially observed in the winter-spring months.
Vitamins are divided into two groups: water-soluble - dissolve in water and fat-soluble - only in fats. To the group of fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E, K. To water-soluble - vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and vitamins of group B (Bl, B2, PP and others).

Vitamin A has an effect on the growth of the body, on its resistance to infections. It is necessary to maintain normal vision, skin and mucous membranes. The lack of vitamin A causes the appearance of so-called night blindness, which is especially dangerous for drivers of vehicles. The person in the twilight quickly loses orientation, indistinctly sees objects, visual reactions are slowed down. With a deficiency of vitamin A, hair loss, fragility or oily seborrhea is noted, the skin of the face becomes rough, dry, has a painful appearance and no cream will help in this case until the nutritional gap is filled.
Contains vitamin A in large quantities in fish oil, cream, butter, egg yolk, liver, milk.
In some plant products: carrots, peppers, lettuce, spinach, tomatoes, green peas, apricots, parsley, green onions, hips and sea buckthorn. However, one should keep in mind that vitamin A, like other fat-soluble vitamins, is much better absorbed together with fat, for which it is useful to use products containing carotene in various combinations with oil.
Vitamin A and carotene are well preserved in foods when they are cooked on low heat without access to air.
Vitamin D promotes the formation of bone tissue and stimulates the growth of the body. If there is a lack of vitamin D in the food, the normal absorption by the body of calcium and phosphorus is violated, which leads to the appearance of rickets. The greatest amount of vitamin D is found in fish oil, egg yolk, liver, fish eggs. In milk and butter, vitamin D is contained in a small amount.
Vitamin K is involved in tissue respiration, contributes to the maintenance of normal blood clotting. Lack of it can occur with diseases of the digestive system or when taking various antibacterial drugs. Vitamin K is found mainly in tomatoes, in green parts of plants, spinach, cabbage, nettles.
Vitamin C. Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, is very important for the organism, it actively participates in oxidation-reduction processes, affects carbohydrate and protein metabolism, increases the body's resistance to various infections.
With insufficient intake of vitamin C with food, increased fragility of small blood vessels develops, a tendency to hemorrhage on the skin and mucous membranes, fractures of bones, pustular diseases. The growth processes slow down, the secretion of gastric juice decreases, the motor function of the small intestine diminishes, the formation of a number of hormones is disrupted, the stores of glycogen carbohydrate decrease, the gums swell,
teeth are loosened.
In the human body, vitamin C is not formed and does not accumulate, but enters the body with food. It is found in many fresh vegetables and fruits. The most rich are the fruits of dog rose, black currant, black ashberry, sea-buckthorn, gooseberries, citrus, cabbage, potatoes, sweet peppers, apples of acid varieties. Vitamin C dissolves in water; it is easily destroyed by heating and alkali, oxidized by contact with certain metals (iron, copper), is destroyed by the action of air oxygen and loses its useful properties. In the process of cooking and storing vegetables and fruits, up to 70% of it is destroyed. Bearing in mind these properties of vitamin C, the following rules for cooking should be observed:
1) clean vegetables and prepare meals immediately before consumption;
2) to lay vegetables for cooking in boiling water, since it contains less oxygen of air;
3) cook vegetables in a sealed container;
4) cooked vegetable dishes should not be stored for more than 1.5 hours;
5) the liquid in which vegetables were cooked, used for soups;
6) vegetables, cooked for vinaigrette or salad, especially in a refined form, do not store for a long time.
The need for an adult in vitamin C is 70-100 mg per day. In winter, vitamin C can be obtained with potatoes, as well as with fresh and sauerkraut.
The group of vitamins B consists of water-soluble, independent vitamins, which take part in the processes of metabolism in the body, the process of hematopoiesis, and also plays an important role in the carbohydrate, fat and water metabolism. B vitamins are growth stimulants. With its lack, there are headaches, fatigue, a sense of weakness and muscle weakness, frustration of the digestive tract and nervous system, brittle nails.
Vitamins of this group are found in beer and baker's yeast, buckwheat and oatmeal, rye bread, milk, meat, liver, egg yolk, cauliflower, barley, green peas, potatoes, walnuts and walnuts, peanuts. Particularly rich in vitamin B1 products from wholemeal flour.
In the process of cooking food, vitamin B1 is kept well.
The need for an organism in vitamins is 1.5-2.0 mg per day and depends on energy consumption. Since the vitamins of group B are highly soluble in water and easily oxidized by air oxygen, it is necessary to avoid prolonged soaking of products to preserve them, it is not recommended to leave them on air in a crushed form.
Insufficiency of vitamin B2 is manifested in growth retardation, disorders of cutaneous and mucous membranes (the formation of cracks, ulcers in the corners of the mouth, skin peeling, inflammation of the mucous eyes, etc.). Its lack leads to rapid fatigue of the eyes, weakening of visual acuity, and photophobia develops. This vitamin is rich in kidneys, tongue, chicken meat, veal, beef, chicken eggs, milk, dairy products, buckwheat and oatmeal and porridge from them, beans, peas, cabbage, spinach, dogrose, yeast, liver.
It is well preserved in foods in the course of their cooking.
Vitamin E is involved in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin E affects the activity of the endocrine glands, favorably affects the course of pregnancy and fetal development. During the culinary processing of products is maintained well. Most of this vitamin is found in corn kernels, cabbage, green peas, eggs, meat and fish products, in vegetable oils, wheat, oats, rye, barley, parsley, celery, liver, kidneys, butter.

Between the action of individual vitamins there is a close relationship. The lack of one of the vitamins in the food causes a violation of the exchange of other vitamins. A full-fledged diet should be balanced not only by calorie content. It is necessary to strive to receive all important vitamins mainly through food. If the caloric content of food is provided mainly through the use of products of animal and vegetable origin rich in proteins, fats and carbohydrates, the source of vitamins are mainly vegetables and fruits, which are also used as therapeutic food products. Particularly significant is their role in the prevention and treatment of colds and influenza. Systematic consumption of fruits and vegetables increases the human resistance to many unfavorable factors, both internal and external, so in the season it is necessary to eat plenty of berries, fruits, vegetables in raw form or cook dishes that do not require heat treatment - salads, cold soups, cocktails, juices.
MINERAL SUBSTANCES AND WATER
In the food must necessarily contain mineral substances that are part of the cells and tissues of the body. They are necessary for the normal assimilation of food, the formation of the skeleton, the production of hormones, the right hemopoiesis, the work of the cells of the nervous system, the development and activity of the glands of internal secretion, etc. Their meaning is very great, without them the human body could not exist, could not function . Чтобы обеспечить организму ежедневную доставку минеральных веществ в достаточном количестве, надо знать источники и содержание в них этих элементов. К основным минеральным веществам относятся кальций, калий, натрий, фосфор, магний, железо, медь.
Кальций необходим для правильного роста и развития организма, нормальной работы сердца, свертываемости крови, а также правильного формирования мышц, нервов и скелета. Почти 90 % всего кальция, который содержится в организме, находится в костной ткани.



Длительное отсутствие кальция в питании приводит к серьезным изменениям в организме, вызывая такие болезни как кариес зубов, рахит, декальцинация костей. В результате дефицита кальция нередко появляются боли в суставах, ошибочно принимаемые за ревматизм.
Содержится кальций во многих продуктах животного и растительного происхождения, но усваивается из них неодинаково. В растительных продуктах кальций содержится в труднорастворимых соединениях, которые усваиваются плохо. Лучше всего кальций усваивается из молока и молочных продуктов, где он находится в соединении с белком. Поэтому так важно употреблять их в ежедневном рационе достаточное количество.
Фосфор - вещество, которое подобно кальцию, необходимо для построения костей и зубов. Он входит также в состав кровяных шариков, нервных тканей мозга и других тканей организма. Фосфор входит в состав разнообразных продуктов питания. Наибольшее его количество находится в мясе, яичном желтке, рыбе, сырах, овсяной и гречневой крупах, бобовых, орехах, овощах, хлебных изделиях, а также в мозгах, печени и почках.
Магний участвует в обмене веществ, вместе с кальцием и фосфором участвует в формировании скелета, повышает и улучшает деятельность кишечника, повышает желчеотделение, участвует в передаче нервного возбуждения. В основном магний содержится в пшенице, ржи, гречке, просе, ячмене, овсе.
Железо играет важную роль в восстановительных процессах организма и является составной частью гемоглобина. Дефицит его в питании может вызвать малокровие (анемию). Для людей очень важно достаточное поступление железа с продуктами питания, так как запасы его в организме ограничены. Дневная норма железа составляет для детей и подростков 6-15 мг, для взрослых - 12-15 мг.
В наибольших количествах железо содержится в печени, почках, рыбе, яйцах, фасоли, черном хлебе, бобовых, овсяной, гречневой и перловой крупах, зеленой части растений и фруктах.
Калий и натрий играют важную роль в процессах водно-солевого обмена и регуляции давления.
Потребность организма в натрии удовлетворяется потреблением повареной соли, добавляемой к пище. В среднем человек нуждается в 5- 10 г соли в день. Однако, это количество бывает недостаточным при выполнении тяжелой физической работы, или в жаркое время года, так как человек, потея, теряет большие количества соли с потом, доходящие иногда до 20 г в сутки. Нехватка натрия лучше всего восполняется более соленой пищей или солеными напитками. Как недобор, так и избыток соли ведет к расстройствам организма. В результате недостаточного потребления соли появляется чувство слабости, тошнота, усталость, жажда, мышечные спазмы, падает аппетит. Избыток соли создает излишнюю нагрузку органов кровообращения и выделительных органов, ведет к задержке воды в организме, увеличивает жажду. В продуктах питания, особенно растительного происхождения, солей натрия содержится немного.
При недостаточности в организме калия снижается давление крови и падает тонус мышц. Организм больше нуждается в калии, чем в натрии, так как калий необходим для деятельности мускулатуры сердца и кишечника.
Богаты калием картофель, морковь, капуста, петрушка, шпинат, бобовые, абрикосы, изюм, чернослив.

Для правильной жизнедеятельности организма необходимы и другие минеральные вещества, так называемые микроэлементы - кобальт, цинк, иод, фтор, марганец, медь.
Микроэлементы поступают в организм с пищей.
Иод необходим для выработки гормона щитовидной железы (тироксина). Этот гормон играет большую роль в обмене веществ. Для человека опасен не только дефицит иода, но и его избыток. В результате нехватки иода развивается зоб, излишек иода вызывает повышенную функцию щитовидной железы. Суточная потребность в иоде удовлетворяется при содержании его в пище и воде от 0,15 до 0,2 мг. Количество иода в продуктах зависит от содержания этого элемента в почве, воде, воздухе. Больше всего иода в приморских районах. Из продуктов питания самый крупный источник иода: морские рыбы, яйца и некоторые овощи. Поваренная соль, которая продается в магазинах также часто обогащается иодом.
Цинком богаты злаки, дрожжи, бобовые, печень; Copper and cobalt are found in beef liver, kidney, egg yolk, honey.
The mineral composition of berries and fruits is very diverse. В них много калия, железа, меди, фосфора и др. Причем все эти минеральные вещества прекрасно усваиваются. Особенно велико значение фруктов и ягод для тех, кто страдает нарушениями сердечно-сосудистой системы, в частности гипертонической болезнью, расстройствами кровообращения, поражением почек с образованием отеков. Калий, содержащийся в этих продуктах, усиливает выделение жидкости из организма.
Низкая калорийность, отсутствие жиров и холестерина, высокое содержание витамина С делают фрукты и ягоды и блюда из них незаменимыми в рационе больных атеросклерозом и другими заболеваниями.
Вода, составляющая почти 70 % веса человеческого тела, входит в состав каждой клетки организма. Вода растворяет пищевые вещества, поступающие в пищеварительный тракт, обеспечивает их
переваривание, всасывание и обмен веществ. Переваренные вещества могут попасть в кровь только будучи растворенными в жидкости. Вода регулирует правильное кровообращение и давление крови, способствует распределению в организм питательных веществ и выведению шлаков через почки, кожу и толстый кишечник. Мы поглощаем воду не только в виде жидкостей, она входит в состав всех продуктов питания. Больше всего воды содержится в овощах - до 90 %, меньше всего - в топленых жирах и сушеных продуктах.
В сутки человек должен получать 2-3 л воды, включая ту воду, которая содержится в пище.
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Food and basic food substances

  1. Food and basic food substances
    The most important condition for nutrition is the correct combination of all nutrients in the daily diet of man, and they must be introduced in quantities that completely cover all the waste of the body in both quantitative and qualitative terms. In the human body, there are continuous processes of oxidation (compounds with oxygen) of various food substances - proteins, fats, carbohydrates, which
  2. Food and basic food substances
    The most important condition for nutrition is the correct combination of all nutrients in the daily diet of man, and they must be introduced in quantities that completely cover all the waste of the body in both quantitative and qualitative terms. In the human body, there are continuous processes of oxidation (compounds with oxygen) of various food substances - proteins, fats, carbohydrates, which
  3. Food and basic food substances
    The most important condition for nutrition is the correct combination of all nutrients in the daily diet of man, and they must be introduced in quantities that completely cover all the waste of the body in both quantitative and qualitative terms. In the human body, there are continuous processes of oxidation (compounds with oxygen) of various food substances - proteins, fats, carbohydrates, which
  4. Food and biological value of basic foodstuffs
    The nutritional value of the product is determined by the content of nutrients (food and flavor) in it, its biological value is its amino acid content, the presence of PUFA, vitamins, mineral salts and other biologically active substances. The main food products are bread, meat and meat products, fish and fish products, milk and dairy products, vegetables, berries, fruits and some others.
  5. The concept of hygienically nutrition. Nutrition standards Food products, their composition and energy value.
    Nutrition is a complex process of ingestion, digestion, absorption and absorption in the body of nutrients necessary to cover its energy expenditure, the construction and renewal of cells and tissues of the body, the regulation of the physiological functions of the body. In hygiene, the term "nutrition" is used, meaning a diet built on scientific principles that can fully meet the need for
  6. RECOMMENDED VALUES OF FOOD CONSUMPTION
    Each country, as the basis of its guidelines for feeding and feeding children, should use the values ​​of nutrient intake recommended for infants and young children, based on scientific data received by the international scientific community. INTRODUCTION This and the four following chapters discuss and compare the recommended values
  7. Carcinogenic chemicals in food
    One of the oldest medical problems is "Nutrition and Cancer". This is due to the fact that the food can contain carcinogenic chemicals (KChV) and their predecessors. First of all, waste from industrial enterprises, thermal power stations, heating systems and transport belong to the sources of KHV. Migrating in the atmosphere, in the soil and water bodies, these carcinogens can get into food products. Of such
  8. Nutritional substances and their importance.
    The human body consists of proteins (19.6%), fats (14.7%), carbohydrates (1%), minerals (4.9%), water (58.8%). He constantly spends these substances on the formation of energy necessary for the functioning of internal organs, the maintenance of heat and the implementation of all life processes, including physical and mental work. 1.Belki This is a complex organic compound from
  9. Nomenclature of recommended values ​​of consumption of nutrients
    Several countries have adopted their own PRTR systems and use different term education systems (Table 8). The European Union uses population reference consumption values ​​(HDPE), and in the former Soviet Union the term "physiological norms" of the RVP used in this publication is consistent with the reference values ​​of nutrient intake shown in
  10. Effect on the body of purified food substances
    Throughout evolution, the animal's body consumed only natural food, which, with very few exceptions, consisted of complexes of various substances. Therefore, it is not surprising that the mechanisms of the metabolism formed in phylogeny suggest, on the one hand, the supply of food substance in a natural form created by nature (and not separately proteins, carbohydrates, fats, iron,
  11. Hygienic regulation of harmful substances in the environment and food products
    Hygienic regulation is mandatory for all toxic substances entering the human body from the environment - air, water, soil, food products, materials in contact with food, etc. Any chemical substance is toxic under certain conditions of exposure. Toxicity is the ability of a substance to harm a living organism. On the human body
  12. Food poisoning caused by chemical impurities
    This group of non-microbial food poisoning includes poisoning caused by pesticides, nitrites and other food additives, with their increased content in products, impurities that have passed into products from equipment, implements, packaging, packaging films, etc. Poisoning with nitrites and other food additives with increased content in products Poisoning with nitrites. With constant
  13. Pollution of food by foreign chemicals
    Alien chemicals (CHVV) are also called xenobiotics (from Greek henos - alien). They include compounds that, by their nature and quantity, are not inherent in a natural product, but can be added to improve technology, preserve or improve the quality of the product, or they can form in the product as a result of processing and storage, and
  14. Valeological evaluation of certain dishes and food substances
    Separate discussion deserve some dishes that are mandatory in the diet of many people. Soups in many families are considered almost as the basic condition of rational nutrition. However, it is impossible to find any satisfactory experimental or theoretical justification for such a view. On the contrary, there is much evidence showing that soup in the conventional
  15. Effect on the body of a wrong combination of nutrients
    В процессе эволюции животный организм, как правило, имел возможность в каждый данный момент употреблять лишь однородный вид пищи: либо преимущественно углеводистую (растительную), либо белковую или белково-жировую (животную). In the end, this was fixed in the anatomical and physiological features of man, when the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were mostly
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