Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead || Next >> |
Food in the acute phase of the disease
The main requirements for nutrition in the acute period of the disease are:
- full provision of the physiological needs of the body for energy, in basic nutrients, vitamins, minerals and trace elements;
- introduction to the diet of the most complete protein in an amount corresponding to the physiological norm (70-80 g);
- inclusion in the diet of 60 g of animal and 30 g of vegetable fat;
- restriction of the content in the diet of carbohydrates (especially simple to 30 g), salt, liquid;
- Exclusion from the diet of spicy, salty foods, extractives, strong drinks, strong natural coffee, tea;
- fractional frequent meals (5-6 meals per day).
Indications for the appointment of therapeutic nutrition.
The active phase of rheumatism, activity of the III degree, I attack with carditis, polyarthritis, when characteristic allergic and inflammatory phenomena occur in the joints, heart, fever.
The main goals of clinical nutrition are the restoration of disturbed metabolic processes, especially carbohydrate and water-salt, when with an increase in vascular permeability there is a delay in the tissues of fluid and salt, the body becomes less vitamins. Under bed rest, nutritional energy should be up to 1800-2000 kcal due to a significant decrease in carbohydrates - 200-250 g (30 g of sugar), protein limit - 80 g (60-65% of animal origin) and fat - 80 g (30% - vegetable). Table salt is limited to 4-5 g (given to the patient's hands).
With a deficiency of vitamins in the diet (especially in the winter and spring periods), use the broth of hips, fruits, vegetables, their juices.
CULINARY FOOD PROCESSING
Meals are prepared without salt. 4 g of it is issued on the hands of the patient. The total amount of liquid (including the first dish) is about 1 l. Meat and fish are given in boiled or slightly roasted form after boiling, vegetables should be well boiled.
Meal 5-6 times a day. Exclude meat and fish broths.
An example nutritional menu in the acute, active phase of rheumatism is given below.
After the elimination of acute events, usually in 1-2 weeks, that is, during the subacute phase of rheumatism in the diet, the amount of protein is somewhat increased, primarily due to dairy products and fat. Restriction of salt to 4-5 g (only on the hands) and free fluid is maintained. Nutrition enriched with vitamins. An increase in proteins and vitamins in the diet contributes to an increase in the body's defenses and tissue regeneration in the areas of damage. In the diet it is necessary to increase the amount of potassium,
especially when treated with hormones. Due to dairy products the calcium content increases. When the condition deteriorates, the diet is again limited, mainly due to carbohydrates. Unloading vegetable and fruit days and diets with a high content of potassium salts at the expense of potatoes, dried apricots, raisins, prunes, fresh vegetables and fruits are useful.
| << Ahead || Next >> |
| = Go to tutorial content = |
Food in the acute phase of the disease
- Approximate one-day menu for patients with rheumatism in the acute phase of the disease
First breakfast: soft-boiled eggs (2 pieces), oatmeal porridge, tea with milk. The second breakfast: an apple without sugar. Lunch: vegetarian soup without salt (half a serving), boiled meat with noodles, fruit jelly. Lunch: decoction of wild rose. Dinner: boiled fish, carrot cabbage cutlets, tea with milk. For the night: kefir. All day: white bread 100
- Standard means of treatment and prevention in the acute phase of the disease
Acetylsalicylic acid and other antiplatelet agents Convincing evidence of the effectiveness of acetylsalicylic acid was obtained in the KK-2 study. This study proved the additional beneficial effect of acetylsalicylic acid on the results of treatment with streptokinase. There are a limited number of contraindications to the use of acetylsalicylic acid: it should not
- Food with rheumatism with a small degree of activity, in the inactive phase
In this phase, nutrition is recommended with a moderately elevated protein content, moderate carbohydrate restriction and a normal fat content. The process of recovery from acute rheumatism can take several months. At the same time, the body retains an acute sensitivity to various adverse environmental influences and readiness for exacerbation. Recurrent rheumatism with low activity
- Nutrition during illness
Dr. Philip Norman writes: “Apparently, in modern medicine, the section on the problem of nutrition is the most confused. Textbooks on diseases are strikingly poor in any clear information on this subject. Their authors claim that physicians are supposedly sufficiently trained in dietetics. The instructions regarding the diet are usually accompanied by the recognition: “Of course, the diet must be carefully planned." The most obvious manifestation
- The basic principles of nutrition in hypertension
Compliance with appropriate nutrition, along with pharmacological treatment, is an extremely important factor in the treatment of hypertension. It would not be an exaggeration to say that with an increase in blood pressure, proper medical nutrition forms the basis of treatment, taking into account the following basic principles: - strict compliance of the energy value of the diet with the body's energy costs, and
- Nutrition as a factor in the preservation and promotion of health. Physiological norms of nutrition. The value of the individual components of food in human nutrition. The value of proteins in human nutrition, their norms and sources of entry into the body
Nutrition is one of the most active and important environmental factors, which has a variety of effects on the human body, ensures its growth, development, preservation of health, disability and optimal life expectancy. All this is provided by a daily, regulated meal with a certain set of foods. Foods are complex
- The basic principles of clinical nutrition in peptic ulcer
1. Providing a complete balanced diet; 2. Compliance with the diet; 3. To provide mechanical, chemical and thermal schazhenie stomach and duodenum. One of the most important moments of clinical nutrition is the observance of the mode of eating, which is even more significant than the composition of the diet itself. As soon as the food comes in contact with the gastric mucosa,
- Nutrition in Hypertensive Disease
POWER SUPPLY WITH HYPERTENSIVE
- Nutrition for gastric ulcer
Nutrition for ulcer disease
- NUTRITION AT DISEASES OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
Nutrition for cardiovascular diseases
- Food for gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer
In order to create maximum rest for the stomach and duodenum, you need to eat 5-6 times a day. It is necessary to eat food in small portions, slowly, slowly. At night, it is best to slowly drink a glass of warm milk. In order to eliminate pain and neutralize gastric juice, which irritates the gastric mucosa, you must also drink a glass of warm milk and eat
- Nutrition in diabetes mellitus with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (gastritis, peptic ulcer or duodenal ulcer)
In the diet for diabetes mellitus with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, it is necessary to comply with all the requirements that apply to the diabetic diet. However, it is necessary to spare the gastric mucosa. In order to avoid mechanical, chemical and thermal irritation, all dishes are cooked in boiled, shabby form and steamed. Dietary fractional - 5-6 times a day. RECOMMENDED
- Acute phase proteins
The acute phase response is characterized by a significant increase in the serum content of a number of proteins, which are called the acute phase proteins (Table 2.4). In humans, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, a-1-antitrypsin, cc-1-antihimotrypsin, etc. are counted among them. Only about 30 proteins. Table 2.4 The degree of increase in the content of proteins of the acute phase in
- Acute phase response
Any damage accompanied by noticeable disturbances of homeostasis, along with local inflammatory reactions, causes a number of complex systemic reactions caused by the involvement of the most important protective and regulatory systems of the body. These reactions are called the “acute phase response” (OOF). The most important manifestations of OOF associated with activation of the nervous, endocrine, immune and hematopoietic systems,
- Diagnosis of acute liver failure
The clinical diagnosis of acute liver failure cannot be made before the appearance of biochemical signs of dysfunction of the liver and central nervous system. Irritability, confusion and vomiting are early signs of CNS involvement. Initially, fever is often observed, and subsequently hypothermia. Ascites and peripheral edema reflect portal hypertension and
- The concept of hygienic nutrition. Nutrition norms Food products, their composition and energy value.
Nutrition is a complex process of receipt, digestion, absorption and assimilation in the body of nutrients necessary to cover its energy expenditure, build and renew cells and tissues of the body, and regulate the physiological functions of the body. In hygiene, the term “nutritious food” is adopted, which means a food built on a scientific basis, able to fully meet the need for
- Complications and treatment of acute renal failure
With established renal insufficiency, supportive treatment is applied: normalization and stabilization of the acid-base state and electrolyte balance and removal of toxic substances from the blood, while renal function is restored. Since the only therapy after renal failure is supportive, it is clear that the best treatment is primary prevention. Most
- Etiology of acute renal failure
Approximately 20% of critically ill patients develop acute renal failure; its frequency in this group of patients is five times higher than among all hospital patients. As with pneumonia, the etiology of renal failure varies greatly depending on whether this complication develops in or outside the hospital and how chronic the process is. For example,
- Unusual cases of acute abdominal pain
In 5-10% of cases of acute abdominal abdominal pain in elderly patients, a tumor is detected. It is not known why acute abdominal pain is often observed in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. (Before laparotomy, diabetic ketoacidosis should be excluded in all patients.) Sickle cell anemia can cause pain in the abdominal cavity due to ischemia or bowel infarction or
- Syndrome of acute upper airway obstruction
The leading symptom is inspiratory dyspnea. Etiology. Diseases leading to acute obstruction of the upper respiratory tract in children: laryngism, acute stenosing laryngotracheitis, laryngeal diphtheria, allergic laryngeal edema. Clinical manifestations. Symptoms (depending on the stage of the course) of acute obstruction: inspiratory dyspnea, participation in the breathing of auxiliary muscles, cyanosis,