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Food in the acute phase of the disease
The main requirements for nutrition in the acute period of the disease are:
- full provision of the physiological needs of the body for energy, in the main nutrients, vitamins, minerals and trace elements;
- introduction to the diet of the most complete protein in an amount corresponding to the physiological norm (70-80 g);
- inclusion in the diet of 60 g of animal and 30 g of vegetable fat;
- restriction of the content in the diet of carbohydrates (especially simple to 30 g), salt, liquid;
- Exclusion from the diet of spicy, salty foods, extractives, strong drinks, strong natural coffee, tea;
- fractional frequent meals (5-6 meals per day).
Indications for prescribing therapeutic nutrition.
The active phase of rheumatism, activity III degree, I attack with carditis, polyarthritis, when characteristic allergic and inflammatory phenomena occur in the joints, heart, fever.
The main goals of clinical nutrition are the restoration of disturbed metabolic processes, especially carbohydrate and water-salt, when with an increase in vascular permeability, there is a delay in the tissues of fluid and salt, the body becomes less vitamins. Under bed rest, the nutritional value should be up to 1800-2000 kcal due to a significant decrease in carbohydrates - 200-250 g (30 g of sugar), protein limit - 80 g (60-65% - of animal origin) and fat - 80 g (30% - vegetable). Table salt is limited to 4-5 g (given to the patient's hands).
With a deficiency of vitamins in the diet (especially in winter and spring periods), use the broth of rose hips, fruits, vegetables, their juices.
CULINARY FOOD PROCESSING
Meals are prepared without salt. 4 g of it is issued on the hands of the patient. The total amount of liquid (including the first dish) is about 1 l. Meat and fish are given in boiled or slightly toasted form after boiling, the vegetables should be well boiled.
Meal 5-6 times a day. Exclude meat and fish broths.
An example nutritional menu in the acute, active phase of rheumatism is given below.
After the elimination of acute events, usually in 1-2 weeks, i.e., during the subacute phase of rheumatism in the diet, the amount of protein is somewhat increased, primarily due to dairy products and fat. Restriction of salt to 4-5 g (only on the hands) and free fluid is maintained. Nutrition enriched with vitamins. The increase in proteins and vitamins in the diet contributes to an increase in the body's defenses and tissue restoration in the areas of damage. In the diet it is necessary to increase the amount of potassium,
especially when treated with hormones. Due to dairy products the calcium content increases. With the deterioration of the diet is again limited, mainly due to carbohydrates. Unloading vegetable and fruit days and diets with a high content of potassium salts at the expense of potatoes, dried apricots, raisins, prunes, fresh vegetables and fruits are useful.
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Food in the acute phase of the disease
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