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NUTRITION IN SUGAR DIABETES
With mild and moderate severity of diabetes mellitus, the appropriate diet is the main therapeutic factor. In more severe cases, nutrition is an essential complement to drug treatment.
Diabetes mellitus is a very common disease, in which all types of metabolism are violated: carbohydrate, protein, fat, mineral, water.
At the heart of diabetes is insulin deficiency, which leads to increased blood sugar and its appearance in the urine. This is due to the fact that the pancreas produces an inadequate amount of a hormone - insulin, which regulates carbohydrate metabolism in the body. The cause of the disease can be direct damage to the pancreas (tumor, trauma, infection, sclerosis of the gland vessels in elderly people) and hereditary causes. With hereditary predisposition to the disease, provoking moments can be overeating, sweets abuse, nervous overexertion, viral infection. Diabetes can develop after measles, influenza and other viral diseases. With mild diabetes, nutrition is the only method of treatment. It is necessary to strictly adhere to an approximate one-day list of products in accordance with the daily calorie intake, take food at least 5-6 times a day. Daily caloric content and nutritional value (protein, fat, carbohydrate content) of a one-day diet should always be the same.
This excludes sharp fluctuations in blood sugar levels and prevents the development of cardiovascular diseases.
Every patient with diabetes needs to know what his normal weight should be. In order to determine it, you need to take 100 from the growth figure. For example, with an increase of 172 cm, the weight will be 172-100 = 72 kg. A patient with diabetes should regularly monitor their weight. Once a month you need to check it. As the weight increases, insulin sensitivity decreases.
Food is taken at strictly defined hours. Deviations from the set time should not exceed 15-20 minutes. The most rational mode is the following: first breakfast at 8-9 hours, lunch at 11-12, lunch at 14-15, lunch at 17, dinner first at 19, dinner at 21-22 hours. A strict diet prevents the onset of hypoglycemia, which usually occurs 3-4 hours after the introduction of insulin.
Full nutrition is necessary for children with diabetes. When making the menu, it is necessary to include more buckwheat and oat cereals, cottage cheese, vegetables, fruits in the baby's food, distribute carbohydrates correctly during the day, timing the introduction of carbohydrates to the hours of maximum insulin action. Food should be sufficient in volume. Such food provides normal physical and mental development and is well perceived by children.
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NUTRITION IN SUGAR DIABETES
- Diabetic nutrition with liver and gall bladder diseases
Nutrition in the treatment of this disease should improve metabolic processes, which are disturbed by diabetes and liver and gallbladder diseases. In the diet of diabetics, products that improve liver function, increase bile secretion and promote the normalization of bowel activity are introduced. From food excluded products that hamper the work of the liver. In the menu it is recommended to include milk and
- Nutrition for diabetes mellitus with concomitant diseases
Nutrition for diabetes mellitus with concomitant
- Nutrition for diabetes without concomitant diseases
Nutrition for diabetes mellitus without accompanying
- Nutrition in diabetes mellitus with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (gastritis, peptic ulcer of the stomach or duodenum)
In nutrition with diabetes mellitus with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, it is necessary to comply with all the requirements that are imposed on diabetic nutrition. At the same time it is necessary to spare gastric mucosa. In order to avoid mechanical, chemical and thermal irritation, all dishes are cooked in boiled and grated form and steamed. A mode of a food fractional - 5-6 times a day. RECOMMENDED
- Coma in diabetes mellitus
The labile course of diabetes in children causes frequent metabolic disorders, the highest degree of which is coma. They can also develop in children with newly emerging and timely not diagnosed diabetes. Depending on the genesis and clinical picture of diabetes mellitus, the following comas are distinguished: 1) diabetic (hyperglycaemic,
- EMERGENCY CONDITIONS IN SUGAR DIABETES
Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of chronic hyperglycemia, the development of which is determined by genetic and exogenous factors. There are two main pathogenetic types of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus type I - "insulin-dependent" (10-20% of the ballroom). The disease occurs in childhood or adolescence, the development of the disease is rapid, moderate or severe, a tendency to ketoacidosis,
- Emergency conditions for diabetes mellitus
Urgent conditions in diabetes mellitus occur with the development of: | diabetic ketone coma; | Diabetic hyperosmolar coma; | Diabetic lactatacidemic coma; | Hypoglycemic conditions. Features of the course of diabetes in children: | diabetes in children is always insulin-dependent; | The course of diabetes in children is labile. To the risk of development
- Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy (O24).
Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy is so important in obstetrics that it is isolated as part of the 15th grade, while the rest of the endocrine pathology is fixed among extragenital diseases. This is due to the fact that metabolic and hormonal changes, characteristic of physiological pregnancy, have a diabetogenic effect and increase the need for insulin, especially in II and III
- THE PROBLEM OF SUGAR DIABETES IN PREGNANCY
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent extragenital diseases in pregnant women. A significant increase in the incidence of diabetes in the population and a corresponding increase in the number of births in women with this pathology, along with high rates of perinatal mortality and a large number of complications of pregnancy, pose the problem of diabetes in a number of topical issues
- Definition, features of pathogenesis in diabetes mellitus
Atherosclerotic lesions of arteries of large, medium and small caliber in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are defined as diabetic macroangiopathies. The appearance of a special term for atherosclerosis in people with diabetes is due to its early development and malignant course in such patients. It was found that at the same degree of dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes develops
- Heart failure in diabetes mellitus
The term "diabetic cardiomyopathy" was first proposed in 1954 to refer to cardiac changes preceding CHD. Pathogenesis The pathogenesis of metabolic cardiomyopathy in diabetes mellitus is multifactorial, the defeat of the cardiovascular system is caused by complex metabolic disturbances arising in connection with absolute or relative insulin deficiency and violation
- Features of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
With type 2 diabetes, fasted hyperglycemia and, after a nutritional load, is undoubtedly an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, but the effect of dyslipidemia on the risk of coronary heart disease in the overall structure of risk factors appears to dominate . According to the 3rd National Health and Nutrition Examination in the United States, 69% of patients with diabetes mellitus have lipid metabolism disorders (V. Stender et al., 2000). In these patients
- ATHEROSCLEROSIS WITH SUGAR DIABETES
ATHEROSCLEROSIS WITH SUGAR
- The course of pregnancy and childbirth in diabetes mellitus.
Despite the achievements in obstetric care for patients with diabetes, the frequency of gestosis in these women remains without significant changes. This fact is very important, because with severe forms of gestosis, the outcome of pregnancy and childbirth for the mother and fetus is significantly impaired. Perinatal mortality in combination with diabetes with gestosis reaches 38%. For patients with diabetes severe forms of late
- Nutrition for patients with diabetes mellitus in mild form with excessive mass. Caloric content is reduced to 1800-2000 calories
PRODUCT SET FOR DAY Bread white 150 g Potatoes 250 g. Vegetables (except potatoes) 50 g. Croup of semolina 50 g. Rice or buckwheat 50 g. Meat or fish 120 g. Egg 2 pieces. Milk 0.5 liters. Kefir 200 g. Butter 20 g. Apples 200 g. Flour 5 g. Xylitol 30 g. Tea 1. Sour cream. 15. EXAMPLE MENU ON WEEK MONDAY. First breakfast: omelette, xylitol tea. Lunch:
- Nutrition for patients with diabetes mellitus in mild form with normal weight, receiving hypoglycemic agents - 2500 calories
PRODUCT SET FOR DAY Bread white 300 g. Vegetables (except potatoes) 150 g. Potatoes 500 g. Groats semolina 50 g. Rice groats or buckwheat. Meat or fish 120 g. Egg 3 pieces. Milk 500 g. Kefir or curdled milk 200 g. Butter 20 g. Apples 400 g. Xylitol 30. EXAMPLE MENU ON WEEK MONDAY First breakfast: scrambled eggs, xylitol tea. Second breakfast: rice porridge. Lunch: soup
- The course of diabetes during pregnancy, during childbirth and in the postpartum period.
The development of characteristic changes in metabolic processes and the state of pregnant DM patients can be conditionally divided into three periods. However, it must be remembered that in some cases the clinical picture may not correspond to the statistical one, characteristic for a particular period, but be absolutely the opposite. The first period lasts until the 16th week. It is characterized by
- Nutrition for patients with mild diabetes mellitus with liver and gallbladder diseases with normal body weight who receive hypoglycemic preparations (2,500 calorie diet)
PRODUCT SET FOR DAY Bread black 300 g Potatoes 100 g. Vegetables 800 g. Buckwheat, oat or pearl barley 50 g. Meat (beef of II category or chicken) 160 g. Meat broth 300 g. Protein of egg 2 pieces. Curd skim 200 g Milk 600 g. Kefir or curdled milk 200 g. Butter 25 g. Vegetable oil 25 g. Sausage diet 50 g. Sugar 20 g.
- a state of chronic hyperglycemia, which can develop as a result of exposure to many exogenous and genetic factors, often complementary. Classification (according to WHO, 1985) A. Clinical classes. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: a) in individuals with normal body weight; b) in obese individuals. Diabetes mellitus associated with
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia and disorders of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, which are accompanied by absolute or relative insufficiency of action and / or secretion of insulin. Therefore, although diabetes in its origin is an endocrine disease, its main manifestations reflect the pathology of metabolism. EPIDEMIOLOGY. Diabetes mellitus is found among