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Nutrition for diabetes mellitus


INTRODUCTION
With mild and moderate diabetes, a suitable diet is the main therapeutic factor. In more severe cases, nutrition is an essential complement to medication.
Diabetes mellitus is a very common disease in which all types of metabolism are disturbed: carbohydrate, protein, fat, mineral, water.
The basis of diabetes is insulin deficiency, which leads to an increase in blood sugar and its appearance in the urine. This is due to the fact that the pancreas produces an insufficient amount of the hormone - insulin, which regulates carbohydrate metabolism in the body. The cause of the disease can be direct damage to the pancreas (tumor, trauma, infection, vascular sclerosis in the elderly) and hereditary causes. When a hereditary predisposition to the disease provoking moments may be overeating, the abuse of sweets, nervous tension, viral infection. Diabetes can develop after measles, flu, and other viral diseases. In the mild form of diabetes, nutrition is the only method of treatment. It is necessary to strictly adhere to the approximate one-day list of products in accordance with the daily calorie intake, to eat at least 5-6 times a day. The daily caloric and nutritional value (protein, fat, carbohydrate content) of a one-day ration should always be the same.
This eliminates sharp fluctuations in blood sugar levels and prevents the development of cardiovascular diseases.
Every diabetic patient needs to know what his normal weight should be. In order to determine it, you need to subtract 100 from the growth figure. For example, with a height of 172 cm, the weight will be 172 - 100 = 72 kg. A diabetic patient should regularly monitor their weight. Once a month you need to check it. With increasing mass, insulin sensitivity decreases.
Food is taken at strictly certain hours. Deviations from the set time should not exceed 15-20 minutes. The most rational mode is the following: the first breakfast is at 8-9 o'clock, the second breakfast is at 11-12, lunch is at 14-15, afternoon snack at 17, dinner is first at 19, dinner is second at 21-22. Strict diet prevents hypoglycemia, which usually occurs 3-4 hours after insulin administration.
Good nutrition is necessary for children with diabetes. In drawing up the menu, it is necessary to include more buckwheat and oatmeal, cottage cheese, vegetables, and fruits in the child’s diet, properly distribute carbohydrates during the day, timing the introduction of carbohydrates to the hours of maximum insulin action. Food should be sufficient in volume. Such nutrition provides normal physical and mental development and is well perceived by children.
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Nutrition for diabetes mellitus

  1. Nutrition in diabetes with liver and gallbladder diseases
    Nutrition in the treatment of this disease should improve metabolic processes that are disturbed by diabetes mellitus and diseases of the liver and gallbladder. In the diet of diabetic products are introduced that improve the functioning of the liver, enhancing biliary excretion and contributing to the normalization of intestinal activity. Food that prevents the liver from working is excluded from the diet. It is recommended to include milk in the menu.
  2. Nutrition for diabetes with concomitant diseases
    Food for diabetes with concomitant
  3. Food for diabetes without concomitant diseases
    Food for diabetes without concomitant
  4. Nutrition for diabetes with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (gastritis, peptic ulcer or duodenal ulcer)
    In nutrition for diabetes with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, it is necessary to comply with all the requirements that apply to diabetic nutrition. However, it is necessary to spare the gastric mucosa. In order to avoid mechanical, chemical and thermal irritation, all dishes are cooked in boiled, shabby form and steamed. Dietary fractional - 5-6 times a day. RECOMMENDED
  5. Coma with diabetes
    The labile course of diabetes in children causes frequent metabolic disorders, the highest degree of which are comatose states. They can also develop in children with newly emerged and not diagnosed diabetes in a timely manner. Depending on the genesis and clinical picture in diabetes mellitus, the following comas are distinguished: 1) diabetic (hyperglycemic,
  6. EMERGENCY CONDITIONS FOR DIABETES MELLITUS
    Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of chronic hyperglycemia, the development of which is determined by genetic and exogenous factors. There are two main pathogenetic types of diabetes. Type I diabetes mellitus is “insulin-dependent” (10–20% of points). The disease occurs in childhood or adolescence, the progression of the disease is rapid, moderate or severe over time, susceptibility to ketoacidosis,
  7. Emergency conditions for diabetes
    Emergency conditions in diabetes mellitus occur during the development of: ¦ diabetic ketonemic coma; ¦ diabetic hyperosmolar coma; ¦ diabetic lacticidecidemic coma; ¦ hypoglycemic conditions. Features of diabetes in children: ¦ diabetes in children is always insulin-dependent; ¦ the course of diabetes in children is labile. To risk group
  8. Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy (O24).
    Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy is so important in obstetrics that it is allocated as part of the 15th grade, while the rest of the endocrine pathology is recorded among extragenital diseases. This is due to the fact that metabolic and hormonal changes inherent in physiological pregnancy have a diabetic effect and increase the need for insulin, especially in II and III
  9. PROBLEM OF DIABETES MELLITUM IN PREGNANCY
    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent extragenital diseases in pregnant women. A significant increase in the incidence of diabetes among the population and a corresponding increase in the number of births in women with this pathology, along with high rates of perinatal mortality and a large number of pregnancy complications, put the problem of diabetes mellitus in a number of topical issues
  10. Definition, features of pathogenesis in diabetes mellitus
    Atherosclerotic lesions of the arteries of large, medium and small caliber in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are defined as diabetic macroangiopathies. The emergence of a special term for atherosclerosis in people with diabetes is due to its early development and malignant course in such patients. It is established that with the same degree of dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes develops
  11. Heart disease in diabetes
    The term "diabetic cardiomyopathy" was first proposed in 1954 to refer to cardiac changes preceding IHD. Pathogenesis Pathogenesis of metabolic cardiomyopathy in diabetes is multifactorial, damage to the cardiovascular system is caused by complex metabolic disorders arising from absolute or relative insulin deficiency and disorder
  12. Features of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    In diabetes mellitus type 2, hyperglycemia on an empty stomach and after a food load is undoubtedly an independent risk factor for IHD, but the effect of dyslipidemia on the risk of IHD seems to dominate the overall structure of risk factors [39]. According to the 3rd National Health and Nutrition Study in the United States, 69% of patients with diabetes mellitus have impaired lipid metabolism (V. Stender et al., 2000). In these patients
  13. Atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus
    Atherosclerosis at Sugar
  14. During pregnancy and childbirth with diabetes.
    Despite advances in obstetric care for patients with diabetes, the frequency of gestosis in these women remains unchanged. This fact is very important, since in severe forms of gestosis, the outcome of pregnancy and childbirth for the mother and fetus significantly worsens. Perinatal mortality when combined with diabetes with preeclampsia reaches 38%. For patients with diabetes, severe forms of the late
  15. Nutrition for diabetics in a light form with overweight. Calorie reduced to 1800-2000 calories.
    PRODUCT SET FOR THE DAY Bread white 150 g. Potatoes 250 g. Vegetables (except potatoes) 50 g. Semolina 50 g. Rice buckwheat or 50 g. Meat or fish 120 g. Egg 2 pieces. Milk 0.5 liters. Kefir 200 g. Butter, 20 g. Apples 200 g. Flour 5 g. Xylitol 30 g. Tea 1 g. Sour cream 15 g. APPROXIMATE MENU FOR A WEEK MONDAY First breakfast: scrambled eggs, tea with xylitol. Lunch:
  16. Food for patients with diabetes in a mild form with a normal weight, receiving hypoglycemic agents - 2500 calories
    PRODUCT SET FOR THE DAY White bread 300 g. Vegetables (except potatoes) 150 g. Potatoes 500 g. Semolina 50 g. Rice or buckwheat. Meat or fish 120 g. Egg 3 pieces. Milk 500 g. Kefir or yogurt 200 g. Butter, 20 g. Apples 400 g. Xylitol 30 g. EXAMPLE MENU FOR A WEEK MONDAY First breakfast: scrambled eggs, tea with xylitol. The second breakfast: rice porridge. Lunch: soup
  17. The course of diabetes during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period.
    The development of characteristic changes in metabolic processes and the state of pregnant patients with diabetes can be divided into three periods. However, it must be remembered that in some cases the clinical picture may not correspond to the statistical, characteristic for a particular period, and be completely opposite. The first period lasts until the 16th week. It is characterized
  18. Meals for patients with diabetes mellitus of mild severity with diseases of the liver and gall bladder with normal body weight, receiving hypoglycemic drugs (diet on 2500 calories)
    PRODUCT SET FOR THE DAY Bread black 300 g. Potato 100 g. Vegetables 800 g. Buckwheat, oatmeal or barley 50 g. Meat (category II beef or chicken) 160 g. Meat broth 300 g. Protein eggs 2 pieces. Cottage cheese skim 200 g. Milk 600 g. Kefir or yogurt 200 g. Butter 25 g. Vegetable oil 25 g. Sausage dietetic 50 g. Sugar 20 g. EXAMPLE MENU NADEN
  19. DIABETES
    - A state of chronic hyperglycemia, which can develop as a result of exposure to many exogenous and genetic factors that often complement each other. Classification (according to WHO, 1985) A. Clinical.classes. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a) in patients with normal body weight; b) in obese individuals. Diabetes associated with
  20. Diabetes
    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia and disorders of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, which are accompanied by absolute or relative insufficiency of action and / or insulin secretion. Therefore, although diabetes is an endocrine disease in its origin, its main manifestations reflect the pathology of metabolism. EPIDEMIOLOGY. Diabetes is found among
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