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With mild to moderate diabetes mellitus, the appropriate diet is the main therapeutic factor. In more severe cases, nutrition is an essential complement to drug treatment.
Diabetes mellitus is a very common disease in which all types of metabolism are disturbed: carbohydrate, protein, fat, mineral, water.
Diabetes mellitus is based on insulin deficiency, which leads to an increase in blood sugar and its appearance in the urine. This is due to the fact that the pancreas does not produce enough hormones - insulin, which regulates the carbohydrate metabolism in the body. The cause of the development of the disease can be direct damage to the pancreas (tumor, trauma, infection, vascular sclerosis of the gland in the elderly) and hereditary causes. With a hereditary predisposition to the disease, provoking moments can be overeating, abuse of sweets, nervous strain, viral infection. Diabetes can develop after measles, flu, and other viral diseases. With a mild form of diabetes, nutrition is the only treatment. It is necessary to strictly adhere to the approximate one-day list of products in accordance with the daily calorie intake, take food at least 5-6 times a day. The daily caloric value and nutritional value (protein, fat, carbohydrate content) of a daily diet should always be the same.
This eliminates sudden fluctuations in blood sugar and prevents the development of cardiovascular disease.
Every diabetes patient needs to know what his normal weight should be. In order to determine it, you need to subtract 100 from the growth figure. For example, with a growth of 172 cm, the weight will be 172 - 100 = 72 kg. A person with diabetes should regularly monitor his weight. Once a month you need to check it. With an increase in mass, insulin sensitivity decreases.
Food is taken at strictly defined hours. Deviations from the set time should not exceed 15-20 minutes. The most rational regime is the following: first breakfast at 8-9 hours, second breakfast at 11-12, lunch at 14-15, afternoon tea at 17, dinner the first at 19, dinner the second at 21-22 hours. A strict diet prevents the onset of hypoglycemia, which usually occurs 3-4 hours after administration of insulin.
Nutrition is also necessary for children with diabetes. When preparing the menu, it is necessary to include more buckwheat and oatmeal, cottage cheese, vegetables, fruits in the child’s diet, properly distribute carbohydrates during the day, timed the introduction of carbohydrates to the hours of maximum insulin action. Food should be sufficient in volume. Such nutrition provides normal physical and mental development and is well accepted by children.
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- Nutrition for diabetes with diseases of the liver and gall bladder
Nutrition in the treatment of this disease should improve metabolic processes that are disturbed by diabetes and diseases of the liver and gall bladder. Products that improve liver function, enhance bile secretion, and help normalize intestinal activity are introduced into the diet of a diabetic. Foods that impede liver function are excluded from nutrition. It is recommended to include milk and
- Nutrition for diabetes with concomitant diseases
Nutrition for diabetes with concomitant
- Nutrition for diabetes without concomitant diseases
Nutrition for diabetes without concomitant
- Nutrition for diabetes mellitus with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (gastritis, peptic ulcer of the stomach or duodenum)
In the diet for diabetes with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, it is necessary to comply with all the requirements for the nutrition of a diabetic. However, it is necessary to spare the gastric mucosa. In order to avoid its mechanical, chemical, and thermal irritation, all dishes are cooked in a boiled and steamed form. The fractional diet is 5-6 times a day. RECOMMENDED
- Coma for diabetes
The labile course of diabetes in children causes frequent metabolic disorders, the highest degree of which are coma. They can also develop in children with newly arising and timely diagnosed diabetes mellitus. The following coma is distinguished depending on the genesis and clinical picture of diabetes mellitus: 1) diabetic (hyperglycemic,
- EMERGENCY CONDITIONS IN DIABETES MELLITUS
Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of chronic hyperglycemia, the development of which is determined by genetic and exogenous factors. There are two main pathogenetic types of diabetes mellitus. Type I diabetes mellitus is “insulin-dependent” (10-20% of points). The disease occurs in childhood or adolescence, the development of the disease is rapid, the course is moderate or severe, a tendency to ketoacidosis,
- Emergency conditions for diabetes
Emergency conditions for diabetes arise with the development of: ¦ diabetic ketonemic coma; ¦ diabetic hyperosmolar coma; ¦ diabetic lactatacidemic coma; ¦ hypoglycemic conditions. Features of the course of diabetes in children: ¦ diabetes in children is always insulin-dependent; ¦ the course of diabetes in children is labile. At risk of development
- Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy (O24).
Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy is so important in obstetrics that it is isolated in the 15th grade, while the rest of the endocrine pathology is fixed among extragenital diseases. This is due to the fact that metabolic and hormonal changes characteristic of physiological pregnancy have a diabetic effect and increase the need for insulin, especially in II and III
- PROBLEM OF SUGAR DIABETES DURING PREGNANCY
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common extragenital diseases in pregnant women. A significant increase in the incidence of diabetes among the population and a corresponding increase in the number of births in women with this pathology, along with high rates of perinatal mortality and a large number of pregnancy complications, put the problem of diabetes in a number of pressing issues
- Definition, features of the pathogenesis of diabetes
Atherosclerotic lesions of large, medium and small caliber arteries in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are defined as diabetic macroangiopathies. The emergence of a special term for atherosclerosis in people with diabetes is due to its early development and malignant course in such patients. It has been established that with the same degree of dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes develops
- Damage to the heart in diabetes
The term "diabetic cardiomyopathy" was first proposed in 1954 to refer to cardiac changes preceding CHD. Pathogenesis The pathogenesis of metabolic cardiomyopathy in diabetes mellitus is multifactorial, damage to the cardiovascular system is caused by complex metabolic disorders that occur due to absolute or relative insulin deficiency and impaired
- Features of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes.
In patients with type 2 diabetes, fasting hyperglycemia and after a food load is undoubtedly an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, but the effect of dyslipidemia on the risk of coronary heart disease in the overall structure of risk factors seems to dominate . According to the 3rd National Health and Nutrition Survey in the USA, 69% of patients with diabetes have lipid metabolism disorders (V. Stender et al., 2000). In these patients
- ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN SUGAR DIABETES
ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN SUGAR
- The course of pregnancy and childbirth with diabetes.
Despite the achievements in obstetric care for patients with diabetes, the frequency of gestosis in these women remains unchanged. This fact is very important, since in severe forms of gestosis, the outcome of pregnancy and childbirth for the mother and fetus is significantly worsened. Perinatal mortality with a combination of diabetes with gestosis reaches 38%. For patients with diabetes, severe forms of late
- Nutrition for patients with diabetes in mild overweight. Calorie reduced to 1800-2000 calories
PRODUCT SET FOR DAY White bread 150 g. Potato 250 g. Vegetables (except potatoes) 50 g. Semolina 50 g. Rice or buckwheat groats 50 g. Meat or fish 120 g. Egg 2 pieces. Milk 0.5 l. Kefir 200 g. Butter 20 g. Apples 200 g. Flour 5 g. Xylitol 30 g. Tea 1 g. Sour cream 15 g. SAMPLE MENU WEEKLY MONDAY Breakfast: scrambled eggs, tea with xylitol. Lunch:
- Nutrition for patients with diabetes mellitus in a light form with a normal weight, receiving hypoglycemic agents - 2500 calories
PRODUCT SET FOR DAY White bread 300 g. Vegetables (except potatoes) 150 g. Potatoes 500 g. Semolina 50 g. Rice or buckwheat groats. Meat or fish 120 g. Egg 3 pieces. Milk 500 g. Kefir or yogurt 200 g. Butter 20 g. Apples 400 g. Xylitol 30 g. SAMPLE MENU WEEKLY MONDAY Breakfast: scrambled eggs, tea with xylitol. Second breakfast: rice porridge. Lunch: soup
- The course of diabetes during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period.
The development of characteristic changes in metabolic processes and the condition of pregnant patients with diabetes can be divided into three periods. However, it must be remembered that in some cases the clinical picture may not correspond to the statistical characteristic of a particular period, but be completely opposite. The first period lasts until the 16th week. It is characterized
- Nutrition for patients with mild diabetes mellitus with diseases of the liver and gall bladder with normal body weight receiving sugar-lowering drugs (diet for 2500 calories)
PRODUCT SET FOR DAY Black bread 300 g. Potatoes 100 g. Vegetables 800 g. Buckwheat, oat or pearl barley 50 g. Meat (category II beef or chicken) 160 g. Meat broth 300 g. Egg white 2 pieces. Fat-free cottage cheese 200 g. Milk 600 g. Kefir or yogurt 200 g. Butter 25 g. Vegetable oil 25 g. Diet sausage 50 g. Sugar 20 g. EXAMPLES MENU DAY
- a state of chronic hyperglycemia, which can develop as a result of exposure to many exogenous and genetic factors, often complementing each other. Classification (according to WHO, 1985) A. Clinical classes. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a) in individuals with normal body weight; b) in individuals with obesity. Diabetes mellitus associated with
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia and disorders of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, which are accompanied by absolute or relative insufficiency of the action and / or insulin secretion. Therefore, although diabetes is an endocrine disease in its origin, its main manifestations reflect metabolic pathology. EPIDEMIOLOGY. Diabetes mellitus occurs among