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Nutrition for liver diseases


Proper nutrition with liver disease plays the most important role, which can not be compared with the action of any medication. Those who suffer from this disease, on their own experience, made sure that errors in nutrition, as a rule, cause exacerbation: there is pain, nausea and other unpleasant sensations.
The liver takes part in the metabolism of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, it produces the necessary bile for digestion. Therefore, therapeutic nutrition for diseases of the liver and biliary tract should be aimed at creating the greatest possible peace for this body and, at the same time, provide the body with all the necessary nutrients. Lapping the liver is necessary first of all by observing the diet, excluding the irritating food from the diet. Nutrition depends on the nature of the liver damage, and even more so on the stage of the disease (acute or chronic). But in any case it is recommended frequent - 4-5 meals a day, at the same time, then the liver copes better with its functions.
With acute inflammation of the liver (hepatitis) and acute inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), the main condition is boiled and mashed food. Permitted are vegetarian soups with mashed vegetables or cereals, dairy and fruit soups, low-fat varieties of meat cooked in the form of steam cutlets, dumplings, souffle, meatballs, boiled chicken, fish of low-fat varieties; milk, cottage cheese (non-acidic, better home-made) and meals from it; eggs in the form of omelets (2-3 per week); cheesy cheeses, butter. Of cereals, preference is given to oatmeal and buckwheat in the garbled form. Vegetables consume raw and boiled, but necessarily wiped, ripe fruit and berries in the form of juices and dishes from them; infusion of rose hips is very useful. Bread - white, dried.

In chronic course of liver and gall bladder diseases, the same products are used, but not in the garbled form. Meat and fish can be eaten not only boiled, but also baked. The amount of fat in the diet increases due to vegetable oil, which is added to salads, vegetable and cereal side dishes, porridges. As a seasoning for dishes, sour cream is allowed. You can eat white and black bread, but dried or yesterday. Appetizers choose not sharp, not smoked and not too salty (a low-fat ham, the soaked herring, the boiled sausage). Refuse only from fried, cold dishes, ice cream, beans, sorrel, spinach, radish, radish, turnips, dough and strong coffee.
However, under all these conditions, the food should be full, that is, contain all the main food substances. Insufficient nutrition, imbalance in the ratio of basic foods adversely affect liver function. You do not need to increase the amounts of easily absorbed carbohydrates, especially sugars, and limit the protein in the diet, because in both acute and chronic hepatitis and cholecystitis, the body needs animal proteins very much. It is from them that the proteins of tissues, blood, enzymes are synthesized in the liver. With a lack of proteins, severe liver function disorders can develop. Proteins protect it and from the damaging effects of various drugs, poisons.
The daily need for protein in liver and biliary tract diseases is 100-120 g. Of these, not less than half must be animal proteins, which are contained in meat, fish, cottage cheese and dairy products.

Do not sharply limit fat. They increase the calorie content of the diet, taste the dishes, improve the metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins - A, D, E, K.
The most favorable is the combination of two thirds of animal fats and one third of plant fats. The total amount of fat should be 80-100 g. If you use a mixture of animal and vegetable fats, the curative effect will be better than with a diet that contains only animal or vegetable fats. In addition, vegetable oil normalizes metabolism in the liver, metabolism in the body as a whole, it has a good cholagogue. When the outflow of bile is delayed, it is recommended to increase the total amount of fats to 120 g, of which half is given as fats of vegetable origin. Contraindicated difficult to digest fats: fat, fatty meats - pork, lamb, geese, ducks.
The liver plays a huge role in the metabolism of carbohydrates. Their content in the diet should correspond to the physiological norm - 400-450 g. For simple carbohydrates (sugar, jam, honey, etc.) should be 50-100 g. The use of more carbohydrates leads to an increased deposition of fat in the liver cells. It is necessary to enrich the food with vitamins, use broth of dogrose, yeast drink, juices.
If there is a need to strengthen the cholagogue properties of food, it is necessary to increase the amount of vegetables, fruits, and additionally introduce vegetable oil.
If the condition worsens with diarrhea, oily stool, the amount of fat should be reduced to 50-60 g. In this case, exclude products that act laxatively - pure milk, honey, jam, etc. If prone to constipation, add prunes, dried apricots, figs, raisins, beets, pumpkins, plums, etc.

If you lose your appetite, you need to eat more fruits, berries, salads, juices. Proteins at this time is better to get at the expense of dairy products, neostroygo cheese, cottage cheese, eggs, boiled fish.
With portal hypertension, salt-free bread, raisins, prunes, figs, dried apricots are useful. The use of liquid at this time should be limited.
With liver disease, it is difficult to answer unequivocally how long it is necessary to follow a diet. For example, after Botkin's disease, it is necessary to adhere to a diet for six months - this gives a certain guarantee from the transition of the disease into a chronic form. In chronic liver disease, success largely depends on therapeutic nutrition.

PRODUCTS
recommended by patients with acute hepatitis and cholecystitis without exacerbation, cirrhosis in the stage of compensation, cholelithiasis without concomitant bowel disease.
Recommended:
wheat bread and rye yesterday's baking, crackers and dry biscuits; soups, dairy, fruit, on vegetable broth with cereals and vegetables; low-fat varieties of meat (beef, rabbit, etc.), poultry (chicken, turkey) and fish (pike perch, cod, bream, perch, navaga, silver hake) with a piece or in chopped form; jam or steamed, baking is permitted after pre-digestion; Low-fat sausages and ham, soaked herring; various vegetables in raw, boiled and baked form;


salads from raw and boiled vegetables and fruits;
crumbly porridge from various cereals, cooked on water with the addition of milk, puddings and casseroles, steam and baked, boiled vermicelli, finely chopped pasta, horns;
eggs (not more than 1 piece per day), protein omelettes steamed and baked; with good tolerance, up to 2 soft-boiled eggs are allowed, steam and baked omelets 2-3 times a week (except for patients with cholelithiasis);
Milk in kind and in dishes or sour-milk drinks are non-acidic; fresh non-acid cottage cheese in its natural form or casseroles, gherkins, cheesecakes, lazy vareniki, soufflé; mild cheeses (Russian, Yaroslavl, Uglich);
sweet varieties of berries and fruits in raw form and in dishes, lemon, black currant with good tolerance, sugar, honey, jam, jams of ripe and sweet fruits and berries, marmalade;
greens of parsley and dill in small quantities, bay leaf, cinnamon, cloves, vanilla, white sauce with the addition of a small amount of sour cream or tomato juice without toasting, fruit and berry sauces;
tea and coffee are not strong without milk and with milk; broth of wild rose, fruit, berry, vegetable juices;
butter and vegetable oil is added to the prepared meals without frying. Vegetable oil should be at least 30% of the total amount of fats.
Excluded from the diet

fresh bread, puff and dough, pies, cakes, fatty meat (pork, lamb, duck, goose) and fish (beluga, chum, sturgeon, sturgeon), fatty and smoked sausages, liver, kidneys, brains, canned food, fried dishes, salted fish, fatty cottage cheese, salted and spicy fat, steep eggs, scrambled eggs, pork, lamb, beef fat, margarine, cooking fats, sorrel, spinach, radish, radish, onion, garlic, pickled vegetables, meat, fish, mushrooms broths, okroshka, cabbage soup, mustard, pepper, horseradish, chocolate, ice cream, black coffee, cocoa, cold and alcoholic drinks.
Therapeutic diet contains 100-110 g of proteins, 100 g of fats, 450 g of carbohydrates, 8 g of table salt, up to 2 l of liquid per day. Weight of daily ration to 3.4 kg. Caloric content - up to 3000 kcal.
Foods and dishes that enhance bile secretion, excretory function of the stomach, pancreas, irritating liver, rich in cholesterol are excluded. Food unmilled, boiled in water or cooked for a couple. Cereal dishes can be baked in the oven, meat and fish dishes are baked after boiling. Food is taken 4-5 times a day.
EXAMPLE MENU FOR A WEEK
MONDAY
The first breakfast: cottage cheese with milk, porridge buckwheat crumbly with butter, tea with milk.
Second breakfast: apple.
Lunch: Vegetarian vegetable soup, noodles with boiled meat, apple jelly.


Afternoon snack: tea, biscuits.
Dinner: fish boiled with mashed potatoes, a glass of mineral
water.
At night: a glass of kefir.
TUESDAY
First breakfast: pasta with meat, tea with milk.
Second breakfast: cottage cheese with milk.
Lunch: potato soup with "Hercules" cereal, cabbage rolls with boiled meat and rice, berry jelly.
Afternoon snack: an apple.
Dinner: rice milk porridge, cheese, mild, a glass of mineral
water.
At night: a glass of kefir.
WEDNESDAY
First breakfast: boiled fish, oat milk porridge, tea with milk.
Second breakfast: casserole from cabbage or cottage cheese.
Lunch: milk soup with vermicelli, boiled meat with stewed carrots, compote of dried fruits.
Afternoon snack: tea with lemon, biscuits.


Dinner: krupenik from buckwheat porridge, mineral water.
At night: kefir.
THURSDAY
The first breakfast: an omelette protein steam, rice milk porridge, tea with milk.
Second breakfast: cottage cheese with sour cream.
Lunch: borshch vegetarian, boiled meat with mashed potatoes, compote of dried fruits.
Afternoon snack: tea with lemon, biscuits.
Dinner: boiled pasta with butter, mild cheese, mineral
water.
At night: kefir.
FRIDAY
First breakfast: salad of raw carrots and apples, meat steak cutlets, baked under dairy sauce, tea.
The second breakfast: apple baked.
Lunch: potato soup, boiled fish with stewed cabbage, fresh fruit (apples or plums).
Afternoon snack: broth of dogrose, cookies.


At night: kefir.
SATURDAY
First breakfast: herring with boiled potatoes, tea with lemon. Second breakfast: apple.
Lunch: Vegetarian cabbage soup made from fresh cabbage, steamed parsley with vermicelli, compote of dried fruits.
Afternoon snack: broth of dogrose, cookies.
Dinner: omelette protein steam, sour cream with sour cream, mineral water.
At night: kefir.
SUNDAY
First breakfast: cutlets with buckwheat porridge, tea with lemon.
The second breakfast: mashed carrots with jam.
Lunch: Vegetarian borsch, curd pudding, baked apple. Afternoon snack: fruit jelly.
Supper: porridge semolina dairy with prunes, mineral water.
At night: kefir.
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