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Nutrition for liver disease


Proper nutrition for liver disease plays the most important role that cannot be compared with the effect of any drug. Those who suffer from this disease have been convinced from their own experience that errors in nutrition, as a rule, cause aggravation: pain, nausea and other unpleasant sensations appear.
The liver takes part in the exchange of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, it produces bile necessary for digestion. Therefore, therapeutic nutrition for diseases of the liver and biliary tract should be aimed at creating the maximum possible peace for this organ and at the same time providing the body with all the necessary nutrients. Sparing the liver is necessary first of all by observing the diet, excluding irritating foods from the diet. Nutrition depends on the nature of liver damage, and to an even greater extent - on the stage of the disease (acute or chronic). But in any case, frequent - 4-5 meals a day is recommended, at the same hours, then the liver copes better with its functions.
In acute inflammation of the liver (hepatitis) and acute inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), the main condition is boiled and mashed food. Vegetarian soups with mashed vegetables or cereals, milk and fruit soups, low-fat meats, cooked in the form of steam cutlets, dumplings, soufflé, meatballs, boiled chickens, low-fat fish are allowed; milk, cottage cheese (non-acidic, better than home cooking) and dishes from it; eggs in the form of omelets (2-3 per week); mild cheeses, butter. Of porridge, oat and buckwheat in mashed form are preferred. Vegetables are consumed raw and boiled, but always mashed, ripe fruits and berries in the form of juices and dishes from them; very useful infusion of rose hips. Bread - white, dried.

In the chronic course of diseases of the liver and gall bladder, the same products are used, but not in pureed form. Meat and fish can be eaten not only boiled, but also baked. The amount of fat in the diet increases due to vegetable oil, which is added to salads, vegetable and cereal side dishes, and cereals. As seasoning, sour cream is allowed. You can eat white and black bread, but dried or yesterday. Appetizers choose not spicy, non-smoked and not too salty (low-fat ham, soaked herring, boiled sausage). Refuse only from fried, cold dishes, ice cream, legumes, sorrel, spinach, radish, radish, turnip, pastry and strong coffee.
However, under all these conditions, nutrition should be complete, that is, contain all the main nutrients. Malnutrition, imbalance in the ratio of basic products adversely affect liver function. It is not necessary to increase the amount of easily absorbed carbohydrates, especially sugar, and to limit proteins in the diet, because both in acute and in chronic hepatitis and cholecystitis, the body needs animal proteins. It is from them that proteins of tissues, blood, and enzymes are synthesized in the liver. With a lack of proteins, severe liver function disorders can develop. Proteins protect it from the damaging effects of various drugs and poisons.
The daily protein requirement for liver and biliary tract disease is 100-120 g. Of these, at least half should be animal proteins that are found in meat, fish, cottage cheese and dairy products.

Do not sharply limit fats. They increase the caloric content of the diet, the taste of dishes, improve the metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins - A, D, E, K.
The most favorable combination should be 2/3 of animal fats and 1/3 of vegetable fats. The total amount of fat should be 80-100 g. If you use a mixture of animal and vegetable fats, the therapeutic effect will be better than with a diet that contains only animal or vegetable fats. In addition, vegetable oil normalizes metabolism in the liver, metabolism in the body as a whole, it has a good choleretic agent. With a delay in the outflow of bile, it is recommended to increase the total amount of fat to 120 g, half of which should be given in the form of vegetable fats. Hardly digestible fats are contraindicated: lard, fatty meats - pork, lamb, geese, ducks.
The liver plays a huge role in the metabolism of carbohydrates. Their content in the diet should correspond to the physiological norm - 400-450 g. For simple carbohydrates (sugar, jam, honey, etc.) should be 50-100 g. Eating more carbohydrates leads to increased fat deposition in the liver cells. It is necessary to enrich nutrition with vitamins, consume rosehip broth, yeast drink, juices.
If there is a need to strengthen the choleretic properties of food, it is necessary to increase the number of vegetables, fruits, and additionally introduce vegetable oil.
If the condition deteriorates with diarrhea, stool, the amount of fat must be reduced to 50-60 g. In this case, exclude products that act laxatively - pure milk, honey, jam, etc. When prone to constipation, add prunes, dried apricots, figs, raisins, beets, pumpkin, plums, etc.

If your appetite disappears, you need to eat more fruits, berries, salads, juices. Proteins at this time are best obtained through dairy products, mild cheese, cottage cheese, eggs, boiled fish.
With portal hypertension, salt-free bread, raisins, prunes, figs, dried apricots are useful. Fluid intake at this time should be limited.
With liver disease, it is difficult to answer unambiguously how long a diet should be followed. For example, after suffering Botkin’s disease, it is necessary to adhere to clinical nutrition for up to six months - this gives a well-known guarantee from the transition of the disease to a chronic form. In chronic liver disease, success largely depends on clinical nutrition.

PRODUCTS
recommended to patients with acute hepatitis and cholecystitis without exacerbation, cirrhosis of the liver in the stage of compensation, gallstone disease without concomitant bowel disease.
Recommended:
yesterday’s wheat and rye bread, crackers and dry biscuits; milk, fruit soups, on a vegetable broth with cereals and vegetables; low-fat varieties of meat (beef, rabbit, etc.), poultry (chicken, turkey) and fish (pike perch, cod, bream, perch, saffron cod, silver hake) in pieces or in chopped form; jam or steamed, baking is allowed after preliminary boiling; low-fat sausages and ham, soaked herring; various vegetables in raw, boiled and baked form;


salads from raw and boiled vegetables and fruits;
friable cereals from various cereals cooked on water with the addition of milk, steam and baked puddings and casseroles, boiled vermicelli, finely chopped pasta, horns;
eggs (no more than 1 piece per day), protein omelettes steamed and baked; with good tolerance, up to 2 soft-boiled eggs are allowed, steam and baked omelettes 2-3 times a week (except for patients with gallstone disease);
in-kind milk and non-acidic foods or fermented milk drinks; fresh non-acidic cottage cheese in its natural form or casseroles, groats, cheesecakes, lazy dumplings, souffle; mild cheese (Russian, Yaroslavl, Uglich);
sweet varieties of berries and fruits, raw and in dishes, lemon, blackcurrant with good tolerance, sugar, honey, jam, jams of ripe and sweet fruits and berries, marmalade;
parsley and dill in a small amount, bay leaf, cinnamon, cloves, vanilla, white sauce with a small amount of sour cream or tomato juice without frying flour, fruit and berry sauces;
tea and coffee are weak without milk and with milk; rosehip broth, fruit, berry, vegetable juices;
butter and vegetable oil are added to the finished dishes without frying. Vegetable oil should be at least 30% of the total amount of fat.
Excluded from the diet

fresh bread, puff and pastry, pies, cakes, fatty meats (pork, lamb, duck, goose) and fish (beluga, chum, sturgeon, stellate sturgeon), fatty and smoked sausages, liver, kidneys, brains, canned food, fried dishes, salted fish, fat cottage cheese, salted and spicy fat, steep eggs, scrambled eggs, pork, mutton, beef tallow, margarine, cooking fats, sorrel, spinach, radish, radish, onion, garlic, pickled vegetables, meat, fish, mushroom decoctions, okroshka, green cabbage soup, mustard, pepper, horseradish, chocolate, ice cream, black coffee, cocoa, cold and alcoholic drinks.
Clinical nutrition contains 100-110 g of protein, 100 g of fat, 450 g of carbohydrates, 8 g of sodium chloride, up to 2 liters of fluid per day. The daily diet weight is up to 3.4 kg. Calorie content - up to 3000 kcal.
Excludes foods and dishes that enhance bile secretion, excretory function of the stomach, pancreas, irritating liver, rich in cholesterol. Unmilled food, boiled in water or steamed. Cereals can be baked in the oven, meat and fish dishes are baked after boiling. Food is taken 4-5 times a day.
SAMPLE MENU WEEKLY
MONDAY
First breakfast: cottage cheese with milk, loose buckwheat porridge with butter, tea with milk.
Second breakfast: apple.
Lunch: vegetarian vegetable soup, noodles with boiled meat, apple jelly.


Snack: tea, cookies.
Dinner: boiled fish with mashed potatoes, a glass of mineral
water.
At night: a glass of kefir.
TUESDAY
First breakfast: pasta with meat, tea with milk.
Second breakfast: cottage cheese with milk.
Lunch: potato soup with Hercules grits, cabbage rolls with boiled meat and rice, berry jelly.
Snack: apple.
Dinner: milk rice porridge, mild cheese, a glass of mineral
water.
At night: a glass of kefir.
WEDNESDAY
First breakfast: boiled fish, oatmeal porridge, tea with milk.
Second breakfast: cabbage casserole or home-made cottage cheese.
Lunch: milk soup with vermicelli, boiled meat with stewed carrots, dried fruit compote.
Snack: tea with lemon, cookies.


Dinner: buckwheat cereal, mineral water.
At night: kefir.
THURSDAY
First breakfast: steam protein omelette, milk porridge, tea with milk.
Second breakfast: cottage cheese with sour cream.
Lunch: vegetarian borsch, boiled meat with mashed potatoes, dried fruit compote.
Snack: tea with lemon, cookies.
Dinner: boiled pasta with butter, mild cheese, mineral
water.
At night: kefir.
FRIDAY
First breakfast: a salad of raw carrots and apples, meat steaks, baked with milk sauce, tea.
Second breakfast: baked apple.
Lunch: mashed potato soup, boiled fish with stewed cabbage, fresh fruits (apples or plums).
Snack: broth of wild rose, cookies.


At night: kefir.
SATURDAY
First breakfast: herring with boiled potatoes, tea with lemon. Second breakfast: apple.
Lunch: vegetarian cabbage soup from fresh cabbage, steam cutlets with vermicelli, dried fruit compote.
Snack: broth of wild rose, cookies.
Dinner: steam protein omelette, cottage cheese pancakes with sour cream, mineral water.
At night: kefir.
SUNDAY
First breakfast: steam cutlets with buckwheat porridge, tea with lemon.
Second breakfast: mashed carrots with jam.
Lunch: vegetarian borsch, curd pudding, baked apple. Snack: berry jelly.
Dinner: semolina porridge with prunes, mineral water.
At night: kefir.
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