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Nutrition for liver diseases


Proper nutrition in liver disease plays the most important role, which cannot be compared with the action of any drug. The one who suffers from this disease, on his own experience, was convinced that errors in nutrition, as a rule, cause aggravation: there is pain, nausea and other unpleasant sensations.
The liver is involved in the metabolism of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, it produces the necessary bile for digestion. Therefore, therapeutic nutrition in diseases of the liver and biliary tract should be aimed at creating the maximum possible rest for this organ and at the same time providing the body with all the necessary nutrients. It is necessary to spare the liver, first of all, by observing the diet, excluding irritating foods from the diet. Nutrition depends on the nature of the liver damage, and even more so on the stage of the disease (acute or chronic). But in any case, frequent treatment is recommended - 4-5 meals a day, at the same time, then the liver copes better with its functions.
In acute inflammation of the liver (hepatitis) and acute inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), the main condition is boiled and pureed food. Vegetarian soups with mashed vegetables or cereals, milk and fruit soups, lean meats prepared in the form of steam cakes, dumplings, souffles, meatballs, boiled chicken, low-fat fish are allowed; milk, cottage cheese (non-sour, home-made better) and dishes made from it; eggs in the form of omelets (2-3 per week); non-sharp cheeses, butter. From porridge preference is given to oatmeal and buckwheat in shabby form. Vegetables consume raw and boiled, but surely grated, ripe fruits and berries in the form of juices and dishes from them; very useful infusion of wild rose. Bread - white, dried.

In the chronic course of diseases of the liver and gallbladder use the same products, but not in a wiped form. Meat and fish can be eaten not only boiled, but also baked. The amount of fat in the diet increases due to vegetable oil, which is added to salads, vegetable and cereal side dishes, cereals. As a seasoning for the dishes allowed sour cream. You can eat white and black bread, but dried or yesterday. Snacks are chosen not hot, not smoked and not too salty (low-fat ham, soaked herring, boiled sausage). They refuse only fried, cold dishes, ice-cream, legumes, sorrel, spinach, radish, radish, turnip, pastry and strong coffee.
However, under all these conditions, nutrition should be complete, that is, contain all the main nutrients. Poor nutrition, imbalance in the ratio of main products adversely affect liver function. It is not necessary to increase the amount of easily absorbed carbohydrates, especially sugars, and to limit proteins in the diet, because both in acute and chronic hepatitis and cholecystitis, the body needs animal proteins. It is from them that proteins of tissue, blood, and enzymes are synthesized in the liver. With a lack of protein can develop severe disorders of the liver. Proteins protect it from the damaging effects of various drugs, poisons.
The daily protein requirement for liver and biliary tract diseases is 100-120 g. Of these, at least half must be animal proteins, which are found in meat, fish, cottage cheese and dairy products.

You should not sharply limit and fats. They increase the caloric content of the diet, the taste of food, improve the exchange of fat-soluble vitamins - A, D, E, K.
The most favorable is the combination of 2/3 animal fats and 1/3 vegetable fats. The total amount of fat should be 80-100 g. If you use a mixture of animal and vegetable fats, the therapeutic effect will be better than with a diet that contains only animal or vegetable fats. In addition, vegetable oil normalizes metabolism in the liver, the metabolism in the body as a whole, it has a good choleretic agent. When delaying the outflow of bile is recommended to increase the total amount of fat to 120 g, half of them give in the form of vegetable fats. Hard to digest fats are contraindicated: lard, fatty meats - pork, lamb, geese, ducks.
The liver plays a huge role in the metabolism of carbohydrates. Their content in the diet should meet the physiological norm - 400-450 g. For simple carbohydrates (sugar, jam, honey, etc.) should be 50-100 g. Consuming more carbohydrates leads to an increased deposition of fat in the liver cells. It is necessary to enrich the food with vitamins, to use broth hips, yeast drink, juices.
If there is a need to strengthen the choleretic properties of food, it is necessary to increase the number of vegetables, fruits, and add vegetable oil.
When the condition worsens in case of diarrhea, fatty stools, the amount of fat should be reduced to 50-60 g. In this case, exclude products that act laxly - milk in its pure form, honey, jam, etc. Prune, dried apricots, figs, raisins, beets, pumpkins, plums, etc.

If you lose your appetite, you need to eat more fruits, berries, salads, juices. Proteins at this time it is better to get at the expense of dairy products, not sharp cheese, cottage cheese, eggs, boiled fish.
When portal hypertension is useful salt-free bread, raisins, prunes, figs, dried apricots. Liquid intake at this time should be limited.
When liver disease is difficult to answer unequivocally, how much time should follow a diet. For example, after the transferred illness of Botkin, it is necessary to adhere to therapeutic nutrition until six months - this gives a well-known guarantee against the transition of the disease to the chronic form. In chronic liver disease, success largely depends on clinical nutrition.

PRODUCTS
recommended for patients with acute hepatitis and cholecystitis without exacerbation, cirrhosis of the liver in the stage of compensation, cholelithiasis without concomitant bowel disease.
Recommended:
wheat bread and rye yesterday's pastries, crackers and dry biscuits; soups milk, fruit, vegetable broth with cereals and vegetables; lean meats (beef, rabbit, etc.), poultry (chicken, turkey) and fish (pike perch, cod, bream, perch, saffron, silver hake) in pieces or in chopped form; jam or steamed, allowed roasting after pre-boiling; low-fat sausages and ham, soaked herring; various vegetables raw, boiled and baked;


salads from raw and cooked vegetables and fruits;
crumbly cereals of various cereals, cooked in water with the addition of milk, steam and baked puddings and casseroles, boiled noodles, finely chopped macaroni, horns;
eggs (no more than 1 piece per day), steamed and baked protein omelets; with good tolerance, up to 2 soft-boiled eggs, steam and baked omelets 2-3 times a week are allowed (except for patients with cholelithiasis);
milk in its natural form and in dishes or fermented milk drinks non-acidic; fresh non-acid cottage cheese in its natural form or casseroles, Krupenik, cheesecakes, lazy dumplings, soufflé; non-sharp varieties of cheese (Russian, Yaroslavl, Uglich);
sweet varieties of berries and fruits, raw and in dishes, lemon, black currant with good tolerance, sugar, honey, jam, jams from ripe and sweet fruits and berries, marmalade;
parsley and dill in small quantities, bay leaf, cinnamon, cloves, vanilla, white sauce with a small amount of sour cream or tomato juice without toasting flour, fruit and berry sauces;
tea and coffee are not strong without milk and with milk; decoction of dogrose, fruit, berry, vegetable juices;
Butter and vegetable oil are added to ready-made meals without frying. Vegetable oil should be at least 30% of the total amount of fat.
Excluded from the diet

fresh bread, puff pastry and pastry, pies, cakes, fatty meats (pork, lamb, duck, goose) and fish (beluga, keta, sturgeon, sturgeon), fatty and smoked sausages, liver, kidneys, brains, canned, fried dishes, salted fish, fat cottage cheese, salted and spicy fat, hard-boiled eggs, scrambled eggs, pork, mutton, beef tallow, margarine, cooking oils, sorrel, spinach, radish, radish, onion, garlic, pickled vegetables, meat, fish, mushroom decoctions, okroshka, green soup, mustard, pepper, horseradish, chocolate, ice cream, black coffee, cocoa, cold and alcoholic beverages.
Medical nutrition contains 100-110 g of proteins, 100 g of fats, 450 g of carbohydrates, 8 g of salt, up to 2 liters of fluid per day. Mass daily ration to 3.4 kg. Calorie content - up to 3000 kcal.
Foods and dishes that intensify the bile secretion, the excretory function of the stomach, pancreas, irritating the liver and are rich in cholesterol are excluded. Unground food, boiled in water or steamed. Cereal dishes can be baked in the oven, meat and fish dishes are baked after boiling. Food is taken 4-5 times a day.
SAMPLE MENU FOR A WEEK
MONDAY
First breakfast: cottage cheese with milk, buckwheat porridge crumbly with butter, tea with milk.
The second breakfast: an apple.
Lunch: vegetarian vegetable soup, noodles with boiled meat, apple jelly.


Tea time: tea, biscuits.
Dinner: boiled fish with mashed potatoes, a glass of mineral
water.
For the night: a glass of kefir.
TUESDAY
First breakfast: pasta with meat, tea with milk.
Second breakfast: cottage cheese with milk.
Lunch: potato soup with “Hercules” grits, stuffed cabbage with boiled meat and rice, berry jelly.
Safe, an apple.
Dinner: milk rice porridge, non-sharp cheese, a glass of mineral
water.
For the night: a glass of kefir.
WEDNESDAY
First breakfast: boiled fish, milk oatmeal, tea with milk.
The second breakfast: cabbage or homemade cottage cheese.
Lunch: milk soup with vermicelli, boiled meat with stewed carrots, dried fruit compote.
Tea time: tea with lemon, biscuits.


Dinner: buckwheat cereal, mineral water.
For the night: kefir.
THURSDAY
First breakfast: protein omelette steam, rice milk porridge, tea with milk.
The second breakfast: cottage cheese with sour cream.
Lunch: vegetarian borscht, boiled meat with mashed potatoes, dried fruit compote.
Tea time: tea with lemon, biscuits.
Dinner: boiled pasta with butter, non-spicy cheese, mineral
water.
For the night: kefir.
FRIDAY
First breakfast: a salad of raw carrots and apples, steam meat patties, baked in milk sauce, tea.
The second breakfast: baked apple.
Lunch: potato soup, boiled fish with stewed cabbage, fresh fruit (apples or plums).
Safe, the broth hips, cookies.


For the night: kefir.
SATURDAY
First breakfast: herring with boiled potatoes, tea with lemon. The second breakfast: an apple.
Lunch: vegetarian cabbage from fresh cabbage, steam cutlets with pasta, dried fruit compote.
Safe, the broth hips, cookies.
Supper: omelette protein steam, cheese cakes with sour cream, mineral water.
For the night: kefir.
SUNDAY
First breakfast: steam cutlets with buckwheat porridge, tea with lemon.
The second breakfast: carrot puree with jam.
Lunch: vegetarian soup, cottage cheese pudding, baked apple. Snack: berry jelly.
Dinner: milk semolina porridge with prunes, mineral water.
For the night: kefir.
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