Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead || Next >> |
Talk about calories.
Most people losing weight today carefully calculate the caloric content of the food eaten, but they do it completely in vain, because the caloric content of the food eaten by and large does not affect anything. Surprised?
It's not about the amount of the food itself, but about its qualitative composition, in the proportions of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Mainly carbohydrates. It is they who, when they enter the body, are converted into glucose, which, on the one hand, gives us energy, and on the other, it raises the level of sugar in the blood and encourages the formation of a fatty layer.
I believe that the theory of weight loss, based on a low-calorie diet, is undoubtedly the biggest scientific fallacy in the field of dietology. This simplified hypothesis has no real scientific basis. Recall the story.
In 1930, two American doctors from the University of Michigan, Newborg and Johnston, put forward the idea in one of their publications that "obesity is most likely the result of eating calorie-rich foods." Since, at that time, there was not a single theory that scientifically explains the causes of excess weight, as soon as their work was published, it was immediately accepted as an undeniable scientific dogma. And even despite the many contradictions and discoveries of recent years, their theory has been included in the curriculum of medical institutions in many Western countries and continues to occupy a leading place there.
What are the calories that everyone talks about so much?
The amount of calories of a product is determined very simply: they burn it, in the so-called “caloric bomb” and measure the amount of heat released in calories. The most interesting thing is that in the caloric bomb you can even lay a stool, and it will equally give you the required number of calories. From this, however, it does not follow that the stool is a valuable food product, and the human body does not resemble a similar bomb. It does not burn everything there nor throw. Some products are partially digested, and some are not digested at all.
Several decades ago, Academician A.M. Ugolev published his famous theory of nutrition. The main point of this theory was as follows: the calorie content of the diet should correspond to the energy consumption of the body.
But time passed, and made some amendments to this provision. It turned out that the body of each person can differently absorb calories received from food, for example:
• A significant content of fiber (including soluble), can significantly reduce the absorption, and hence the intake of excess calories.
• Some trace elements contained in food affect the absorption of substances in the small intestine. For example, the scientific works of L. Fakambi showed that mature cheeses, characterized by a high content of calcium, retain some of the fats and prevent their absorption by the intestines. Accordingly, this part of the fat, and hence the calories, is not ingested, but goes along with the feces.
• Fats of different nature are sucked in different ways. For example, saturated animal fats are absorbed and converted into human fat much more easily than polyunsaturated vegetable fats, which practically do not participate in the formation of human fat.
• The intestinal absorption of carbohydrates, fats and proteins varies somewhat depending on the time of day, the season, and the chemical composition of other products that they encounter when they enter the intestine.
Thus, the basic position of the caloric theory of nutrition now looks like this: "The calorie content of the body absorbed by each organism in different ways the main part of the diet should correspond to the energy consumption of the organism."
Unfortunately, the caloric theory completely captured the minds of modern nutritionists, because it allowed in a convenient numerical form to evaluate the energy intensity of food. The fact that these figures can vary greatly among different people at the moment is of little interest to anyone.
So here. According to this theory, if the energy needs of a person are 2500 calories per day, and he consumes only 2,000 with food, then to cover a deficit of 500 calories, the human body will borrow this amount from the stored fat. As a result, weight loss will occur. And another situation. If a person consumes 3500 calories every day, instead of the 2500 he needs, then in this case, a surplus of 1000 calories will automatically be deposited in the form of fat reserve. As you can see, the arithmetic here is simple. It is because of the simplicity and accessibility of any calculation of the diet that the theory of calories is still used in its practice by many nutritionists.
But in this case, I would like to ask a question, how did the prisoners survive in concentration camps, who received from 200 to 400 calories per day with daily exhausting work? If this theory is correct, then, according to her, they would have to die within a few days, having spent all their stored fat reserves. Yes, they are very thin, but continued to live. And the inhabitants of besieged Leningrad? How many days they kept on a meager ration?
In the same way, you can ask yourself why some food lovers, who consume between 4,000 and 5,000 calories daily, do not suffer from obesity. Moreover, among them are many lean people. People even say about them: “Not in a horse feed.” According to this theory, these "gluttons" in a few years would have to gain weight in four hundred - five hundred kilograms. And how to explain that some people, reducing the amount of food consumed, and with it the calories, continue to gain weight?
Suppose that with an everyday norm of 2500 calories, a person consumes such an amount of food for a long time. But if suddenly this number of calories is reduced to 2000, then the body begins to compensate for the missing amount due to reserve fat. Weight loss occurs. This is logical.
But after that, the body under the action of the survival instinct quickly, within a few days, adapts itself to this level of incoming calories. Included are not visible, at first glance, the protective functions and reserves of the body. The body temperature may slightly decrease, the heart will beat a little less, movements will become a little slower and more economical. And the person will live in peace farther by only 2000 calories. At the same time, weight loss naturally stops. But that is not all.
The fact is that our body, as a result of evolution, has gained experience of survival, which is aimed at creating reserves. If he continues to be given only 2,000 calories, he will simply lower his energy requirements to, say, up to 1,700 calories, and the difference of 300 calories will still be put in reserve. And here is a paradoxical thing, although a person eats less (and his body, respectively, gets less calories), he begins to slowly recover. Some decrease is followed by restoration, and even excess of initial weight. Moreover, for all this process will occur in different ways. That is why it is impossible to offer a low-calorie diet, not interested in its composition and not knowing the characteristics of the reactions to it of the body of a particular person.
To begin with, the process of consuming any food can be divided into three components:
1. Mechanical processing (grinding).
And there is not a single person who has all these stages going through the same way.
It depends on many factors, but the bottom line is that one person will ultimately absorb 99% of the nutrients, while the other will have no more than 30%. In one person, these substances will go to replenish energy needs, while the other will be deposited in the form of fat. No wonder today, many progressive nutritionists say: "to lose weight, you need not only to reduce the caloric intake, but also in a special way to change its composition." This is the basis of the modern approach to the treatment of obesity.
If excessive calorie intake would indeed be a universal cause of overweight, then the simplest and most natural way to cure this disease would be to simply reduce the amount of food consumed. It would be enough to count the number of calories that this person usually eats, and offer him a diet in which these calories contain ten percent less. And he should lose weight!?
But not everything is so simple. A simple reduction in calories can not beat obesity. This fails even when the calorie deficit is very significant. Although many of my colleagues are still trying to count calories, despite the fact that it is quite tiresome even for a nutritionist, and the results of such calculations are very approximate. After all, even foods with the same name can have different calories.
Weight loss with a simple low-calorie diet is observed only at the very beginning of its use. After some time, long before reaching the desired weight, the process stops, despite the further, very strict, adherence to the diet. This situation is familiar to many of those who have ever tried to lose weight.
But if it's still easier for you or you are more accustomed to count calories, then I want to warn you of one mistake.
Some Russian and foreign nutritionists advise to switch to meals in 2000 kcal. I do not advise doing this in any way.
First, losing weight, even if it is, it is incredibly long - stretched for many years.
Secondly, in the case of low metabolism, these 2000 kcal may well not lead to weight loss at all. Recommendations restricting the diet to only 2000 kcal should be considered an unnecessary reinsurance, only detrimental to the process of losing weight.
Well and, thirdly, the most important thing - according to American researchers, with a caloric intake of 2000 kcal, weight loss occurs not due to fat, but due to loss of tissues without fat (that is, due to muscles). It causes fatigue, hair loss, skin changes, and depression.
In other words, a small decrease in calories is much more painful than a decrease in calories to 1000 kcal, and, moreover, all the body weight lost at the same time is quickly restored when switching to a normal diet.
People who monitor the physical form, usually calculate the calories in their diet. From the point of view of modern nutrition, and medical science in general, this is a fundamentally wrong approach - any diet should be based on a balance of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Fat intake should be minimized, but otherwise, for each individual person the emphasis in nutrition should be different.
That is, a modern approach to the problem of rational nutrition is not counting calories, but calculating an individual balanced diet for micro and macronutrients and at the same time creating optimal conditions for their digestibility! Their deficiency provokes overeating, as the body tries to compensate for the lack of certain substances. Therefore, it is necessary to organize the planned supply of all the necessary food components in sufficient quantities. The secret of weight return in compliance with any “book diets” is that, excluding certain foods from the diet, you don’t get the substances your body needs with them, and it compensates for their lack by spending its own reserves. But when you return to your former way of life, the organism that has survived the stress due to the diet begins to restore the consumed substances with double strength. And this is always - the return of even more weight than you lost. With him comes despair.
How to organize your food according to this new concept?
| << Ahead || Next >> |
| = Go to tutorial content = |
Talk about calories.
- Calories calories
Why so far failed to lose weight for everyone? We have already stressed that the reason for this lies in the erroneous or inaccurate ideas about metabolism, about the mechanisms of accumulation and consumption of fat reserves. Mistakes give rise to doubts, and doubts make us stop in indecision. And one of these very common misconceptions is to think that the more satisfying a product is, the more
- About depression in general. Let's talk?
This is what I want to draw your attention to now ... How do we experience bodily diseases? When we do not intend to be ill at your pleasure, of course. At the first sign of a cold, we climbed into a hot bath, had tea with raspberries and honey, poured mustard into our socks, drank a glass or two of vodka with pepper, covered ourselves warmly, and in the morning — like cucumbers! To whom such concern for themselves, swallow a couple or two
The value of products continue to be measured in calories. Calorie is the same unit of measure as an inch or yard. Low calorie is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram (20 drops) of water by one degree. A large calorie is the amount of heat required to heat 1 kg (about 2.25 pounds) of water per degree Celsius. Heat and energy are considered equivalents and
- Calories: who how much?
Once I watched a scientific film about healthy eating, production, it seems, the BBC. The journalist asked the passers-by the same question: “What is calorie?”, And no one could answer. Everyone said: this is something that is in the products. There are a lot of them in chocolate, but nobody knew exactly what it really is. I admit, I also learned the scientific definition only when I began to be seriously interested.
- About diseases in general. Let's talk frankly?
I have my own secret of health, I want to share it with you. Let us imagine a situation: a throat started to wheeze, an awkwardness in our nose and vigor somewhere gone - it seems we caught the flu and get sick? Our conjectural thoughts about this: 1. That's disgusting! Again sneeze and cough, and this nasty runny nose! I hate to hurt! 2. Oh, again I get sick! How my health started! Of course, with such
- As soon as I want to talk to my spouse, he starts screaming. What should I do?
I am afraid to be wrong and do not know how to start a conversation so that from the very beginning he would not take an unpleasant turn. If someone is constantly on his guard, this is a sure sign that he feels that he is being accused of something. Check to see if you are hoping in your heart that you will manage to make your husband understand something in order to prove to him that you are right. What is the purpose of your conversation with him? Maybe,
- What should I do when I want to talk to my husband, and to him with me - no?
I have the impression that I am talking to a wall. Because of this, I often refrain from talking to him. When a person is completely withdrawn into himself, it speaks of his fear of losing self-control. In men, as a rule, it is a fear to show their sensitivity and vulnerability. Outwardly, they look calmly, restrain their emotions, wishing thereby to give the impression of a person
- When I want to talk to my wife, she starts to object, and I immediately go to myself.
Why is it that I am not only unable to express my opinion, but even lose my voice? Your reaction indicates that you have a sense of fear. You really want your spouse to hear you, and at the same time you yourself think that what you are talking about is not so important for her. That is why she does not want to listen to you. What you fear happens to you.
- Food with reduced calorie (1800-2000 calories)
Food with reduced calorie (1800-2000 calories) is recommended for patients with diabetes, with overweight, exceeding the normal by 29-49%. The daily caloric content in this case is also limited, but without disturbing the ratio of the main ingredients of the food - proteins, fats and carbohydrates. PRODUCT SET FOR THE DAY Bread black 150 g. Potato 70 g. Vegetables (except potatoes) 550 g. Krupa
- Food with reduced calorie (900-1000 calories)
Low-calorie food is recommended for patients with diabetes mellitus who have an increased body mass exceeding the normal one by 60–100% (grade III — IV obesity). The main thing in this diet is to reduce the daily caloric content to 900-1000 calories due to a substantial decrease in the amount of fat in the diet and an increase in proteins. It is recommended to include in the menu more vegetables, first of all cabbage,
- High calorie diet (3500-3600 calories)
A high calorie diet is recommended for an exhausted, debilitated patient. PRODUCT SET FOR THE DAY Bread black 500 g. Potato 450 g. Vegetables (except potatoes). Buckwheat, oatmeal, barley 70 g. Beef II category 220 g or Chicken II category 220 g. Boiled sausage low-fat varieties 60 g. Eggs 1 piece. Cottage cheese non-fat 200 g. Cheese Russian 50 g. Milk 400 g.