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Gene expression


What determines the need and the moment of the manifestation of the gene? It is believed that the main influence on the activation or suppression of genes that can cause disease, have the conditions of the internal environment, the internal climate. Genes are found in the nuclei of cells. The cytoplasm of the cell surrounds the nucleus, from where the genes conduct the symphony of life. The microclimate of the cytoplasm affects the genes. And what affects the cytoplasm of the cell? The blood surrounding the cell. What affects the composition of the blood? The food you eat; the emotions that you experience; thoughts that come to your mind; toxins that you accumulate.
All of these different influences can “turn on” and “turn off” genes. Mental and emotional states, the effects of ambient temperature, humidity, light, sound, radiation, and even the atmosphere of communication — friendly or hostile — all determine which genes are “turned on” and which molecular processes occur as a result of this. Food affects our internal chemical environment the most. The science that studies the effect of food on the manifestation of genes is called nutrigenomics.
Researchers at Johns Hopkins University recently found that sulforaphane, a sulfur compound found in broccoli seeds, inhibits the manifestation of some cancer genes. They isolated this compound from the seeds of broccoli and prepared an additive from it, which promises to be an effective means of preventing cancer.

Nutrigenomics demonstrates that food is not only “becoming what you are,” supplying building material to shaping the architecture of your body, controlling the production of products that speed up or reduce metabolism, depending on the needs of your body. It affects the manifestation of good and bad genes. To the statement "We are what we eat," apparently, we should add "Our cells behave as our food tells them." Food supplies environmental information to the doors of our Pentagon - intestinal lymphoid tissue. If the environment is inflamed, the food may inform the intestine that it should prepare to repel aggression.
Nutrigenomika gives hope to people who believe that genes determine fate. It has long been known that if people lead a healthy lifestyle, they can neutralize the influence of certain genes that they inherited from their ancestors. Genetic predisposition to a particular disease does not mean that the disease will certainly develop.
Nutrigenomics provides us with an effective means by which we can change our own future.
Doctors can identify certain genetic trends by simply collecting information. For example, if one of your parents had heart attacks before the age of fifty, the same thing could happen to you. Leading a healthy lifestyle, you can minimize the likelihood of such a development. “Turning on” and “turning off” genes to save your life can take too long if you have already had heart attacks. In this case, faster actions are required. Medications and procedures can support your health for a short period. Over time, if you want to achieve a long-term effect, you may need to turn off genes. A competent detoxification program is an excellent tool to start this process.
With detoxification, you optimize the manifestations of your genes in a simple and effective way. By changing your metabolism, reducing levels of blood acidity, inflammation and stress, as well as reducing the number of toxins that your body is exposed to, you will improve the condition of the cells on which gene expression depends.
The principle of an individual set of genes suggests that the modern approach when prescribing drugs “the same dose for all” is partly useless and partly dangerous. Amino acids contain small components - nucleotides that perform large tasks. Nucleotides of a certain type, if they are in the gene, send a signal to the liver to develop an enzyme that accelerates the absorption of a specific drug. The presence or absence of this type of nucleotide explains why some people bleed to death, while others clot the blood from the same dose of hemostat.
If this nucleotide is missing, it may take 10 times longer to remove the same drug. This increases the likelihood of overdose. In some cases, this situation may be life threatening. Such small differences in human gene sets are called nucleotide polymorphisms. Genetic analysis revealing this information is in principle available, but not covered by health insurance policies. The cost of DNA analysis will sooner or later decrease, and this trend in medicine will definitely develop.

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Gene expression

  1. Pleiotropic effect of genes
    Pleiotropy. This is the effect of a single gene on the development of two or more signs (the multiple action of a gene). So, DK Belyaev and A.I. Zheleznova found that in minks most of the mutations, accompanied by a change in the color of the hair, are recessive and due to pleiotropy, fertility and viability of animals are reduced. The phenomenon of pleiotropy is explained by the fact that the pleiotropic genes
  2. GENE INTERACTION
    In the previous section, we considered patterns of inter-allelic relationships, i.e. mutual relations between alleles of the same gene: domination, incomplete dominance, codominance, a series of multiple alleles. However, a large number of signs are formed with the participation of several genes, the interaction of which significantly affects the characteristics of the phenotype and
  3. MAIN COMPLEX OF HISTOCOMPATIBILITY GENES
    Charles B. Carpenter (Charles B. Carpenter) The antigens that provide intraspecific differences of individuals are designated as alloantigens, and when they are involved in the rejection of allogeneic tissue grafts, they become known as tissue compatibility (histocompatibility) antigens. Evolution has consolidated a single region of tightly linked histocompatibility genes, whose products are
  4. Inactivation of suppressor genes
    When transforming cells in culture, in most cases it is enough to activate one or (more often) two oncogenes for the complete transformation of the cell. However, in real conditions, i.e. for the emergence of “spontaneous” human tumors, activation of oncogenes is usually not enough. Suppressor genes prevent uncontrolled cell multiplication. On the existence of suppressors
  5. STRUCTURE OF THE GENOME AND EXPRESSION OF HIV GENES
    The importance of studying the structure of the HIV genome is due to the fact that the basis of all pathological processes occurring during infection with a virus is the expression of viral genes. The study of the structure of the genetic apparatus of HIV using molecular cloning revealed its complex organization and significant differences between isolates. Provirus DNA has 9283 nucleotide pairs (bp) and is surrounded by long
  6. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF GENES IN DIAGNOSTIC AND TREATMENT OF CANCER
    Karpukhin A.V.1, Bavykin A.C.1, N.V. Apanovich1, Korotaeva A.A.1, Shubin V.P.1, Syrtsev A.V.1, Pospekhova N.I.1, Loginova A.N.1, Peters M.V.2, Kashurnikov A.Yu.2 , Zenit-Zhuravleva E.G.1, Goncharova E.A.1, Gritsay A.N.,? Lyubchenko L.N.2, Matveev V.B.2, Tylyandin S.A2. 1Medical Genetic Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences; 2Russian Cancer Research Center. Blokhina RAMS, Moscow Main
  7. Gene regulation
    Action regulation
  8. The influence of genes on behavior
    To understand the biological basis of psychology, one must have some idea of ​​the role of heredity. Genetics of behavior, combining methods of genetics and psychology, studies the inheritance of behavioral features (Plomin, Owen & McGuffin, 1994). As we know, many physical characteristics — height, bone structure, hair and eye color, etc. — are hereditary. Behavior genetics
  9. Gene damage mechanisms
    A mutation of one pair of nucleotides can be described as a "substitution" when one purine base is replaced by another (one pyrimidine base is replaced by another), or as a "switch" when one class of nucleotides is replaced by another. The loss or insertion of one or several nucleotides is called loss or inclusion, respectively. The change of some nucleotide pairs is
  10. EXPRESSION OF RESISTANCE GENES AND MARKERS OF CHEMICAL SENSITIVITY IN THE MAMMARY GLAND TUMOR IN THE PROCESS OF NON ADDITIONAL CHEMOTHERAPY
    N.V. Litvyakov, E.V. Denisov, E.Yu. Garbukov, M.M. Tsyganov, V.V. Volkomorov, M.K. Merzlyakova, M.V. Khalyuzov, E.M. Slonimskaya, N.V. Cherdyntseva Research Institute of Oncology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Tomsk Exploring the expression in the mammary gland tumor tissue before treatment and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAAT) of multidrug resistance (MDR) genes: MDR1, BCRP, BCRP1, LRP1, GSTP1,
  11. Types of interaction of nonallelic genes
    Types of non-allelic interaction
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