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Manifestation of genes
What determines the need and the moment of the gene manifestation? It is believed that the main influence on the activation or suppression of genes capable of causing the disease is due to the conditions of the internal environment, the internal climate. Genes are found in the nuclei of cells. The cytoplasm of the cell surrounds the nucleus, from where the genes conduct a symphony of life. The microclimate of the cytoplasm affects the genes. And what affects the cytoplasm of the cell? The blood surrounding the cell. What affects the composition of the blood? The food you eat; emotions that you are experiencing; thoughts that come to your mind; toxins that you accumulate.
All these different influences can "turn on" and "turn off" genes. Emotional and emotional states, the effect of ambient temperature, humidity, light, sound, radiation and even the atmosphere of communication - friendly or hostile - all this determines which genes are "turned on" and which molecular processes occur as a result of this. Most of all, our internal chemical environment is affected by food. Science, which studies the influence of food on the manifestation of genes, is called nutriogenomics.
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins University recently discovered that sulforaphane, a sulfur compound contained in broccoli seeds, suppresses the manifestation of some cancer genes. They isolated this compound from the broccoli seeds and prepared from it an additive that promises to be an effective means of preventing cancer.
Nutrigenomics demonstrates that food not only "becomes what you are", supplying building material to form the architecture of your body, managing the production of products that accelerate or reduce metabolism, depending on the needs of your body. It affects the manifestation of good and bad genes. To the saying "We are what we eat," judging by everything, we should add "Our cells behave the way our food indicates them." Food supplies information about the environment to the doors of our Pentagon - intestinal lymphoid tissue. If the environment is inflamed, food, perhaps, informs the intestine that it should be prepared to repel aggression.
Nutrigenomics gives hope to people who believe that genes determine fate. It has long been known that if people lead a healthy lifestyle, they can neutralize the influence of certain genes that they inherited from their ancestors. The genetic predisposition to this or that disease does not mean that this disease will certainly develop.
Nutrigenomics provides us with an effective means by which we can change our own future.
Physicians can identify specific genetic trends by simply collecting information. For example, if one of your parents had heart attacks before the age of fifty, the same can happen to you. By maintaining a healthy lifestyle, you can minimize the likelihood of this development. "Turning on" and "turning off" genes for the sake of saving your life can take too long if you have already had heart attacks. In this case, faster actions are required. Medications and procedures can support your health for a short period. Over time, if you want to achieve a lasting effect, you may need to disable genes. A competent detoxification program is an excellent way to start this process.
With the help of detoxification, you optimize the manifestations of your genes in a simple and effective way. By changing your metabolism, lowering the levels of blood acidity, inflammation and stress, and also reducing the amount of toxins your body is exposed to, you will improve the condition of the cells on which the gene expression depends.
The principle of an individual set of genes indicates that the modern approach when prescribing medicines "the same dose for everyone" is somewhat useless and partly dangerous. Amino acids contain small components - nucleotides, which perform large tasks. Nucleotides of a certain type, if they are in the gene, send a signal to the liver to produce an enzyme that speeds up the assimilation of a particular medicine. The presence or absence of this kind of nucleotide explains why some people bleed to death, while in others the blood coagulates from the same dose of the hemostatic.
If this nucleotide is not available, it may take 10 times longer to remove the same drug. This increases the likelihood of an overdose. In some cases, this situation can be life threatening. Such small differences in gene sets of people are called nucleotide polymorphisms. Genetic analysis revealing this information is in principle available, but not covered by health insurance policies. The cost of DNA analysis will sooner or later decrease, and this direction in medicine will necessarily develop.
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Manifestation of genes
- Pleiotropic action of genes
Pleiotropia. This is the influence of one gene on the development of two or more signs (multiple gene action). Thus, DK Belyaev and AI Zheleznova found that in mink most of the mutations, accompanied by a change in the color of the hairline, are recessive and, due to pleiotropy, the fertility and viability of animals decrease. The phenomenon of pleiotropy is explained by the fact that the pleiotropic genes
- INTERACTION OF GENES
In the previous section, we considered the patterns of inter-allelic relationships, i.e. mutual relations between alleles of the same gene: dominance, incomplete dominance, codomination, a series of multiple alleles. However, a large number of characters are formed with the participation of several genes, the interaction of which has a significant effect on the phenotype and
- MAIN COMPLEX OF HYSTOCOMPOSITION GENES
Charles B. Carpenter Antigens that provide intraspecies differences of individuals are referred to as alloantigens, and when they are included in the process of rejection of allogeneic tissue transplants, they become known as histocompatibility antigens. Evolution fixed a single section of closely linked histocompatibility genes, whose products on
- Inactivation of suppressor genes
When transforming cells in culture, in most cases it turns out to be enough to activate one or (more often) two oncogenes for complete cell transformation. However, in real conditions, i.e. for the emergence of "spontaneous" human tumors, the activation of oncogenes, as a rule, is not enough. Uncontrolled cellular reproduction is prevented by suppressor genes. On the existence of suppressors
- STRUCTURE OF THE GENOM AND EXPRESSION OF HIV GENE
The importance of studying the structure of the HIV genome is due to the fact that at the heart of all the pathological processes that occur when a virus is infected is the expression of viral genes. A study of the structure of the genetic apparatus of HIV using molecular cloning revealed its complex organization and significant differences between isolates. The DNA of the provirus has 9283 pairs of nucleotides (bp) and is surrounded by long
- STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL PECULIARITIES OF GENES IN DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF CANCER
Karpukhin A.V.1, Bavykin A.S. 1, N.V. Apanovich 1, Korotaeva AA1, Shubin VP1, Syrtsev А.V.1, Pospekhova N.I.1, Loginova А.N.1, Peters M.V.2, Kashurnikov A.Yu.2 , Zenit-Zhuravleva Ye.G.1, Goncharova EA1, Gritsay A.N.,? Lyubchenko LN2, Matveev VB2, Tyulyandin S.A2. 1Medical genetic center of RAMS; 2Russian Cancer Research Center. Blokhin RAMS, Moscow Main
- Regulation of the actions of genes
Regulation of actions
- Effect of genes on behavior
To understand the biological grounds of psychology, one must have some idea of the role of heredity. Genetics of behavior, combining the methods of genetics and psychology, studies the inheritance of behavioral features (Plomin, Owen & McGuffin, 1994). As we know, many physical characteristics - growth, bone structure, hair and eye color, etc., are hereditary. Genetics of behavior
- Mechanisms of gene damage
The mutation of one pair of nucleotides can be characterized as a "substitution", when one purine base is replaced by another (one pyrimidine base - for another), or as a "switch" when one class of nucleotides is replaced by another. The loss or insertion of one or more nucleotides is called fallout or inclusion, respectively. Change in some pairs of nucleotides is
- EXPRESSION OF GENES OF RESISTANCE AND MARKERS OF CHEMISTRY IN THE TUMOR BREAST TREATMENT IN THE PROCESS OF NEOADYAVANT CHEMOTHERAPY
N.V. Litvyakov, E.V. Denisov, E.Yu. Garbukov, M.M. Tsyganov, V.V. Volkomorov, M.K. Merzlyakova, M.V. Khalyuzova, E.M. Slonimskaya, N.V. Cherdyntseva Research Institute of Oncology SB RAMS, Tomsk The task of the study. Study of expression in breast tumor tissue before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (HACT) of MDR: MDR1, BCRP, BCRP1, LRP1, GSTP1,
- Types of interaction of non-allelic genes
Types of interaction of non-allelic