Licensed books on medicine
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In order to enter the circulatory system, the foreign body must overcome the barrier between the surface of the body and the environment. In order for the first shell, facing both outward (skin) and inward (intestinal wall), to fulfill its protective function, filtering everything that penetrates inward, it must be intact and intact. Transportation after selection is carried out by the intestinal wall cells, their “bricks”. In a healthy intestine, the walls have a smooth surface, and there are no cracks between the “bricks” - the seams, as they say, are tight. These stitches, which are clearly visible in the microscope, perform an important task, not allowing anything undesirable to the body.
In simplified form, the picture is as follows. The human body protects what is inside it, from what is not supposed to be there, from everything alien. This goal is served by the whole army, which has at its disposal an effective weapon. One of the most delicate aspects of this complex operation is the exact identification of "one's own" and "someone else's". All life consists of three basic components - carbohydrates, proteins and fats (and some other substances, such as water, metals, minerals and salts). They in turn consist of amino acids (proteins), carbon and water (carbohydrates) and fatty acids (fats). The Universe is similar to Lego. Just a few different types of elements that, connecting with each other in different quantities and combinations, form billions of different things, and sometimes it is difficult to imagine that they consist of the same building blocks.
When we eat a piece of chicken, the digestive system of our body starts to work. Her task is to divide chicken meat into individual components. They are small enough to penetrate the blood through the intestinal wall. When these components are in the bloodstream, they will not stop. The secret police of the immune system is not able to determine the source of the origin of a component - whether it is a chicken, a nut or an energy drink.
It will soon be used to build some kind of tissue, perhaps a muscle.
But when a set of components that are still connected to each other (not fully digested) is large enough to be identified as a piece of chicken meat, and tries to penetrate beyond the wall, anxiety almost instantly rises, and a “shock and fear". Immune cells (lymphocytes) are released by a sticky agent (antibodies), which fixes a foreign substance (antigen). Killer cells join an alien substance and produce acidic juices on it, so corrosive that they dissolve everything they come into contact with.
When the intestinal microflora is damaged, the first thing you notice is frequent colds and ARVI and long-term treatment of sore throat and flu.
The defeat of toxins is at the beginning of the chain of events, culminating in damage to the intestinal walls, the formation of holes in them and the loss of impermeability to food particles.
This condition is called “leaky intestine”, and the complex of symptoms resulting from this condition is called “leaky bowel syndrome”. The first shell is constantly updated, and any gaps, wounds and injuries quickly fill and heal due to breeding cells and growing connective tissue. Stocks of bricks used for the construction of intestinal walls (glutamine) are not so abundant. In an environment in which the intestine becomes full of holes, its walls may never heal. It was in order for the intestines to be able to restore their health in the necessary conditions, I developed this program.
When it comes to making the most important decisions, especially those related to life and death, we rely on inner sense - intuition, and not on unreliable, indecisive brain.
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- PLASTIC OF THE WALL OF THE URINARY BUBBLE WITH THE PATTERN OF THE STOMACH (METHOD "SHELL")
Radiotherapy is often used to treat oncologic diseases. Normally, the bladder is able to withstand radiation doses of 7,000 rad without special consequences. In some patients, even after such doses, postradiation fibrosis occurs. The bladder shrinks, its capacity decreases significantly, which leads to an increase in intravesical pressure and, ultimately, to full
- Bowel disease. Infectious enterocolitis (dysentery, typhoid fever, cholera). Nonspecific ulcerative colitis. Crohn's disease. Ischemic bowel disease. Appendicitis. Colon cancer.
1. Macroscopic characteristics of the small intestine with cholera enteritis 1. a gray-yellow film tightly welded to the wall 2. ulceration of the mucous membrane 3. multiple hemorrhages 4. wall sclerosis 2. Elements of the pathogenesis of typhoid fever 1. bacteremia 2. bacteriochemia 3. cerebral swelling 4. exudative inflammation 5. hypersensitivity reaction in the lymphoid apparatus 3. Modern
- The role of the large intestine in the life of vegetarians and meat eaters (Mechnikov, Shatalov and the large intestine)
"For a long time, scientists could not understand what role the large intestine plays in our body. I. Mechnikov even considered that we simply do not need such an organ." "The fact that Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov underestimated the role of the large intestine is not surprising. Indeed, if the body receives essential amino acids with animal proteins, and the function of the large intestine is not
- Closed chest wall injury
Contusion of the soft tissues of the chest wall. The bruise of the soft tissues of the chest wall clinically proceeds as a bruise of any other localization. Extensive chest wall contusions can be accompanied by a sharp restriction of the respiratory excursion of the chest wall and impaired lung ventilation on the affected side, which leads in the early period to ONE, and later - to hypostatic pneumonia. First aid:
- The composition of the microflora of the colon. Functions of the microflora of the large intestine
The detailed composition of the intestinal microflora is given in Appendix 1. The entire intestinal microflora is divided into: - obligate (main microflora); - Optional part (conditional and saprophytic microflora); Bonded microflora. Bifidobacteria are the most significant representatives of obligate bacteria in the intestines of children and adults. They are anaerobic, they do not form a spore and
- Malformations of the trachea and bronchial walls.
The malformations of the structural elements of the wall of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles are morphologically associated with the absence, deficiency or disorganization of cartilage or elastic and muscle tissue. Malformations of the wall of the bronchi can be divided into limited and common. Limited defects of the tracheobronchial structures usually lead to local contractions of a particular segment.
- Aneurysm (protrusion of the wall) arteries
Causes Congenital or acquired as a result of atherosclerosis (or hypertension) protrusion of the artery walls, weakening of the vessel walls. Dissection (rupture of the vessel wall with the penetration of blood drops between the outer and inner layers of the arterial wall). Aneurysms of cerebral vessels are congenital, but in case of a complication they can cause cerebral hemorrhage. Aneurysm in the area of major
- local violation of ventricular wall contractility
Local violation of ventricular wall contractility is a phenomenon that has no analogy in the model of the preparation of skeletal muscle. A local violation of contractility may be due to ischemia, scar, hypertrophy or conduction disturbance. When the cavity decreases asymmetrically or incompletely with the contraction of the ventricle, the emptying of the ventricle is disturbed. Allocate the following local
- Hernia of the umbilical cord and the failure of the anterior abdominal wall
Pathophysiology Hernia of the umbilical cord and non-anterior abdominal wall dislocation are congenital anomalies characterized by underdevelopment of a part of the anterior abdominal wall, so that the intestine and other abdominal organs may bulge through a defect. These two diseases differ in localization, the presence of a hernial sac and concomitant anomalies (Table 44-3). Ultrasound allows you to make a diagnosis
- 1. PREPARATION AND USE OF THE "PHANTOMA" OF THE EXTERNAL ABDOMINAL WALL
The phantom of the anterior abdominal wall is a textbook that simulates the layered anatomical structure of the anterior abdominal wall. The formation of anatomical layers is carried out from available means, such as foam rubber, filament tissue, synthetic and rubber materials. For a more natural imitation of the abdominal wall, it is possible to fix tissues to a standard obstetric phantom. At
- Anatomy of the anterior abdominal wall
The anterior abdominal wall throughout, except for the white line, has the following layers: skin, subcutaneous fatty tissue, fasciae, muscles, preperitoneal tissue and peritoneum (Fig. 47). In the area of the white line muscles are absent. The thickness of the subcutaneous fat is 3-10 cm or more. Between its upper layer, adjacent to the skin, and the lower aponeurosis, there is a fascial sheet. In some cases, it is thickened and
- Plastic surgery of the front wall of the vagina
Anterior colporrhaphy (colporhaphia anterior) is performed with omissions and fall-outs of the vaginal walls (Figure 76). Technique performance. After exposure of the cervix in the mirrors, it is captured by the front lip of the two bullet forceps and lowered, while the front wall of the vagina bulges out (Fig 76,1,2). It is captured by jagged clips one 1-2 cm below the external opening.
- ABDOMINAL WALL