Licensed books on medicine
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In order to get into the circulatory system, a foreign body needs to overcome the barrier between the body surface and the environment. That the first shell, which is turned both outward (skin) and inside (the intestinal wall), can perform its protective function, filtering everything that gets inside, it must be intact and intact. Transportation after selection is carried out by cells of intestinal walls, their "bricks". In the healthy intestine, the walls have a smooth surface, and there are no cracks between the "bricks" - the seams, as they say, are dense. These seams, which are clearly visible in the microscope, perform an important task, not letting in anything undesirable to the body.
In a simplified form, the picture is as follows. The human body protects what is inside it, from what should not be there, from everything alien. This goal is served by an entire army, which has at its disposal an effective weapon. One of the most delicate aspects of this complex operation is the precise identification of "one's own" and "another's". All living things consist of three basic components - carbohydrates, proteins and fats (and some other substances, such as water, metals, minerals and salts). They in turn consist of amino acids (proteins), carbon and water (carbohydrates) and fatty acids (fats). The universe is similar to the Lego constructor. Just a few different types of elements that, when combined with each other in different numbers and combinations, form billions of different things, and it is sometimes difficult to imagine that they consist of the same building blocks.
When we eat a piece of chicken, the digestive system of our body starts to work. Its task is to divide chicken meat into separate components. They are small enough to penetrate through the walls of the intestine into the blood. When these components are in the bloodstream, they can not be stopped. The secret police of the immune system is not able to determine the source of origin of a particular component - whether it's a chicken, a nut or an energy drink.
Soon it will be used for the construction of some tissue, perhaps, a muscle.
But when the combination of components that are still connected to each other (not fully digested) is large enough to be identified as a piece of chicken meat and tries to penetrate beyond the wall, an alarm is almost instantly raised and a reaction of the type "shock and shock" occurs fear". Immune cells (lymphocytes) are fired with an adhesive agent (antibodies) that fixes a foreign substance (antigen). Killer cells attach to a foreign substance and release acidic juices on it, so corrosive that they dissolve everything they come into contact with.
When the microflora of your intestine is damaged, the first thing you notice is frequent colds and SARS and long-term treatment of sore throats and flu
The defeat of toxins is at the beginning of the chain of events, resulting in damage to the walls of the intestine, the formation of holes in them and the loss of their impenetrability for food particles.
This condition is called a "leaky intestine", and the complex of resulting symptoms of this condition is called "a syndrome of leaky intestines." The first shell is constantly updated, and any gaps, wounds and damages are quickly filled and healed by multiplying cells and expanding connective tissue. Stocks of bricks used to build the walls of the intestine (glutamine) are not so plentiful. In an environment in which the intestine becomes leaky, its walls can never heal. It is for the intestines to be able to restore their health in the necessary conditions, and I developed this program.
When it comes to making crucial decisions, especially those relating to life and death, we rely on inner instinct - intuition, and not on an unreliable, indecisive brain
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- PLASTIC WALL OF WOMEN BUBBLE THROAT OF THE STOMACH OF THE STOMACH (METHOD OF "SINK")
Radiation therapy is often used to treat oncogynecologic diseases. Normally, the bladder can withstand the radiation doses of 7000 rad. In some patients, even after such doses, post-ray fibrosis occurs. The bladder shrinks, its capacity decreases significantly, which leads to an increase in intravesical pressure and, ultimately, to a complete
- Diseases of the intestine. Infectious enterocolitis (dysentery, typhoid fever, cholera). Nonspecific ulcerative colitis. Crohn's disease. Ischemic bowel disease. Appendicitis. Cancer of the colon.
1. Macroscopic characteristics of the small intestine with cholera enteritis 1. gray-yellow film densely welded to the wall 2. mucosal ulceration 3. multiple hemorrhages 4. sclerosis of the wall 2. Elements of the pathogenesis of typhoid 1. bacteremia 2. bacteriocholia 3. cerebral swelling 4. exudative inflammation 5. hypersensitivity reaction in lymphoid apparatus 3. Modern
- The role of the large intestine in the life of vegetarians and meat eaters (Mechnikov, Shatalov and the large intestine)
"For a long time, scientists could not understand what role the large intestine plays in our body, II Mechnikov even believed that such an organ is simply not needed." "The fact that Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov underestimated the role of the large intestine is not surprising: indeed, if the organism receives essential amino acids with animal proteins, and the functions of the large intestine are not
- Closed chest wall lesions
Contusion of soft tissues of the thoracic wall. The contusion of the soft tissues of the chest wall clinically proceeds as a bruise of any other localization. Extensive contusions of the thoracic wall may be accompanied by a sharp restriction of the respiratory chest wall excursion and a violation of lung ventilation on the side of the lesion, which leads in the early period to ODN, and later - hypostatic pneumonia. First aid:
- Composition of the microflora of the large intestine. Functions of the microflora of the large intestine
The detailed composition of the intestinal microflora is indicated in Appendix 1. The whole intestinal microflora is divided into: - obligate (the main microflora); - optional part (conditionally pathogenic and saprophyte microflora); Obligatnaya microflora. Bifidobacteria are the most significant representatives of obligate bacteria in the intestines of children and adults. These are anaerobes, they do not form a dispute and
- Malformations of the wall of the trachea and bronchi.
The defects in the development of structural elements of the tracheal, bronchial and bronchiol wall are morphologically associated with the lack, lack or disorganization of the cartilaginous or elastic and muscular tissue. Defects of the development of the bronchus wall can be conditionally divided into limited and common. Limited defects of tracheobronchial structures usually lead to local narrowing of this or that segment
- Aneurysm (protrusion of the wall) of the artery
Causes Congenital or acquired as a result of atherosclerosis (or hypertension) protrusion of the walls of the artery, weakening of the walls of the vessel. Dissection (rupture of the vessel wall with the penetration of blood droplets between the outer and inner layers of the arterial wall). Aneurysms of cerebral vessels are congenital, but in case of complications, they can cause cerebral bleeding. Aneurysm in the region of the main
- Oxal disruption of ventricular wall contractility
Local disturbance of ventricular wall contractility is a phenomenon that has no analogy in the skeletal muscle model. Local breach of contractility may be due to ischemia, scarring, hypertrophy or conduction disruption. When, with contraction of the ventricle, its cavity decreases asymmetrically or not completely, the ventricular emptying is disrupted. The following local
- Hernia of the umbilical cord and non-growth of the anterior abdominal wall
Pathophysiology Hernia of the umbilical cord and the non-extension of the anterior abdominal wall are congenital anomalies characterized by underdevelopment of the part of the anterior abdominal wall, so that the intestine and other organs of the abdominal cavity can protrude through the defect. These two diseases differ in localization, the presence of a hernial sac and the attendant anomalies (Table 44-3). Ultrasound can diagnose
- 1. PREPARATION AND USE OF THE "PHANTOM" OF THE PREMIER BROWN WALL
The phantom of the anterior abdominal wall is a textbook simulating a layered anatomical structure of the anterior wall of the abdomen. Formation of anatomical layers is carried out from accessible means, such as foam rubber, thread fabrics, synthetic and rubber materials. For a more natural imitation of the abdominal wall, tissue can be fixed to the standard obstetric phantom. When
- Anatomy of anterior abdominal wall
The anterior abdominal wall has the following layers all along the line, except the white line: skin, subcutaneous fatty tissue, fascia, muscle, preperitoneal tissue and peritoneum (Figure 47). In the white line, muscles are absent. The thickness of subcutaneous fat is 3-10 cm and more. Between the upper layer adjacent to the skin, and the lower one in the aponeurosis, there is a fascial leaf. In some cases, it is thickened and
- Vaginal anterior wall of the vagina
Anterior colporaphasia (colporhaphia anterior) is produced when the vagina walls fall and fall (Fig. 76). Technique of execution. After exposing the cervix in the mirrors, it is caught by the front lip with two bullet forceps and is lowered, while the anterior wall of the vagina is protruded (Fig. 76,1,2). It is grasped by jagged clamps one by one to two inches below the outer hole
- ABDOMINAL WALL