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Carbohydrates.

Entering the body, glucose is converted into glycogen, which is a polymer chain from glucose molecules, due to the breakdown of carbohydrates. Further, glycogen, as needed, is converted in the liver into the same glucose, and in muscles it is broken down to lactate. This process is called glycogenolysis and thanks to it, not only muscle cells but also the brain are fed.
But normally, the liver can accommodate only 90 g of glycogen, the rest of glycogen is deposited in muscle tissue, but its reserves there are also not large. If the intake of carbohydrates per meal exceeds 90 g (rare but abundant meals), or there is constant overeating, leading to a systematic excessive intake of glucose, the liver is overfilled with glycogen and the carbohydrates begin to transform into fats. If such a lifestyle is long enough, then there comes a time when the liver cells (hepatocytes) are full of glycogen and fat. In hepatocytes, there is simply no place for physically accommodating the next dose of glucose, all that comes in and comes along with excess food.
In order to somehow make room for glucose from the blood, the liver is forced to quickly convert glucose into fat and replenish the body's fat reserves. Due to excessive glucose supply, which is practically not consumed by the body (sedentary lifestyle and overeating), the liver turns into a kind of fat reserves generator, this function of hepatocytes becomes dominant, and very soon almost all liver cells become predominantly filled with fat. Stocks of unclaimed glycogen are reduced to a minimum.
Thus, and develops liver obesity (liver steatosis).
Now, any, even the normal intake of carbohydrates from food will lead to the fact that the blood glucose levels rise. It rises simply because the liver can no longer transform glucose in itself — in hepatocytes. The rightful place of glucose is already occupied by fat.
Glycogen stores in the liver and muscle tissue are small. Total - about 450 g. This supply of glycogen, in the absence of carbohydrate intake from food, is only enough to provide the body with glucose and energy for 1 to 2 days.
This should be taken into account, since glucose is the only indispensable source of energy for nervous tissue, especially for the brain.
In general, today there are three main sources for maintaining the energy activity of our body:
1. It is sugar in the form of glucose,
2. Fats in the form of fatty acids.
3. And the so-called ketone bodies. This is a group of organic compounds that are intermediate products of fat, carbohydrate and protein metabolism.
An important feature of the human body is that, although some organs are able to use all these three types of "fuel" to ensure their vital functions, nerve cells and red blood cells can work exclusively on glucose.
You've probably heard of hypoglycemic coma. With a rapid decrease in blood glucose, nerve cells simply die within ten minutes. Therefore, with a sharp restriction of products containing it, lethargy, drowsiness, and other manifestations of inhibition of the nervous system activity begin to appear.
In the absence of any kind of food, the level of sugar in the blood decreases markedly, which is expressed at first in an ever-increasing appetite. The decrease in blood glucose is a signal to the body about the need to eat something, that is, glucose is involved in the regulation of appetite, and this must be taken into account when drafting a diet aimed at reducing weight.
Due to the breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis), it is possible to maintain the concentration of sugar in the blood at a relatively constant level until glycogen stores in the liver and muscles run out, and this happens after about a day.
The launch of glycogenolysis (glycogen breakdown) is initiated by a number of hormones, the main ones being glucagon and adrenaline. From drugs, this process can intensify ephedrine, amphetamines and ... caffeine!
Caffeine is a type of methylxanthine compounds found in more than 60 plant products, but only in sufficient quantities: in tea leaves and coffee grains. In this case, tea caffeine is associated with tannin, so its effect is softer than the effect of caffeine coffee. This has its own positive - tea is not addictive, as is often the case with coffee.
Caffeine reduces blood clotting, activates the processes of tissue oxidation. This increases the breakdown of glycogen. Increased glycogen breakdown leads to an increase in blood sugar. And when its reserves are depleted, the breakdown of fat begins. Therefore, caffeine has the ability to indirectly stimulate the breakdown of subcutaneous fat and increase the content of fatty acids in the blood. This caffeine ability is activated even more during exercise. An increase in blood sugar and fatty acids is one of the reasons for the appearance of a sensation of vigor and a rush of energy.
That is why I often recommend my patients to carry out aerobic exercise in the morning, on an “empty stomach” when glycogen storage is minimal. And be sure while drinking a cup of black strong coffee.
Morning caffeine allows you to avoid disruption of the daily biorhythms of the human body. Caffeine in addition to its ability to increase the secretion of gastric and intestinal juices dramatically increases intestinal peristalsis. The movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract is accelerating. Food does not have time to fully digest. As a result, putrefactive and fermenting processes in the intestine develop. The protein components of food begin to rot, and carbohydrate components - to ferment. For this reason, in no case should you drink tea or coffee. These drinks should be drunk separately, at least one hour before the main meal. Although even in this case, the advancement of food will be accelerated.
Caffeine-containing beverages should not be consumed by people with constantly elevated blood pressure, as well as those suffering from vascular diseases and atherosclerosis. Because of the increase in acidity that occurs after caffeine intake, it is not recommended for those who suffer from gastritis, gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer.
For a healthy person, a safe single dose is 100-200 milligrams of caffeine. The maximum allowable daily intake is 1000 milligrams of caffeine (1000 milligrams = 1 gram). In this case, a cup of tea contains a maximum of 85 milligrams of caffeine. Accordingly, 12 cups of tea a day will not hurt you. But in this amount of tea and no need.
Caffeine is clear. It is contained in coffee, tea, Coca-Cola ... Nobody died from it yet. Well, what about ephedrine? After all, it is banned by the IOC. Good will not prohibit!?
Ephedrine is not dangerous to health, but in action it resembles the well-known “disco wheels”: energy and rushing, no fatigue - dance even until the morning.
Ephedra is one of those rare plants that contain alkaloids. Alkaloids differ in their effect on humans: there are drugs, there are poisons. But ephedra contains alkaloids, which dramatically increase muscle energy. One of the alkaloids is called “ephedrine”.
When it comes to drugs that promote weight loss, the concepts of "effectiveness" and "harmlessness" are often antipodes. Knowing this, scientists subjected to ephedrine comprehensive study. Thus, a scientific work was born in 195 pages called “Safety Assessment and Determining the Maximum Permissible Level of Ephedra Use”. According to independent researchers, supplementation with natural ephedra can be considered harmless if its daily dose contains no more than 90 mg of ephedrine alkaloids. The caffeine / ephedrine formula turned out to be the most effective, but the effectiveness of the drug can be further increased by simultaneously passing an aspirin pill into the mouth.
Ephedrine is contraindicated in the following diagnoses: coronary thrombosis, diabetes, glaucoma, heart disease, hypertension, all diseases of the thyroid gland, impaired cerebral circulation, pheochromocytoma (a type of adrenal gland cancer that secretes epinephrine), an enlarged prostate. Ephedrine is especially dangerous in cases of kidney damage. It is not recommended to take dietary supplements with ephedra for those who are prescribed medications with ephedrine alkaloids; In addition, ephedra is contraindicated for those taking medications that include monoamine oxidase. Further, ephedrine should not be taken by children and adolescents under 18 years of age, pregnant and lactating women, as well as older people.
Side effects, such as increased nervousness or rapid heart rate, are temporary, but they can overlap with an unknown to you cardiac or kidney pathology. In this regard, it is not necessary to experiment with ephedrine against the background of increased life stress, already exacerbating all internal ailments. Moreover, this drug, unlike caffeine, is prohibited for sale in Russia.
We must always remember that fullness is often accompanied by heart and kidney diseases. So, taking a shock to lose weight with caffeine and ephedrine, you can run into your hidden illness. When taking these drugs need special care! It is better to consult a doctor before taking it, and he already knows how to check you for possible health problems.
But back to glycogen.
How so!? Indeed, after the glycogen stores run out our nerve cells do not die without glucose, on the second day of starvation !?
To avoid hypoglycemia that is so dangerous for our nervous system (lowering blood sugar levels), the body begins to produce glucose from non-carbohydrate components, starting a process called gluconeogenesis. This process is triggered and controlled by the hormones of the adrenal cortex, glucocorticoids, and is reduced to the fact that proteins of the body’s own tissues enter the “firebox”.
Of course, glucose can be obtained from glycerol, which is part of the fat. However, glycerin is only a small part of what is produced by the breakdown of fats. Basically, as a result of the breakdown of fats, various fatty acids are obtained, from which no glucose can be obtained. Therefore, the body, deprived of glucose intake, to survive, nothing remains, how to use proteins for glucose production, more precisely, a set of 10, so-called, glucogenic (from which it is possible to obtain glucose) amino acids. We have already spoken about this when we have analyzed the significance of proteins. And now you, of course, understand that amino acids are too “expensive goods” to process them into glucose. This is a building material for the synthesis of proteins, which, so to speak, “for firewood” would be clearly inappropriate.
From this it follows that a sharp restriction of carbohydrate intake will inevitably lead to the destruction of the protein tissue of the body. And, knowing the meaning of protein (muscle) tissue in the process of burning fat, we understand that it is impossible to prevent its destruction.
But the human body is so arranged that with simultaneous intake of both fats and carbohydrates from food, it first of all tries to process and get energy from carbohydrates, and put off fats “for a rainy day”. At the same time, after eating, carbohydrates that have just been eaten first burn in the body, then carbohydrates from glycogen stores of the liver and muscles are used. Then, if necessary, and the energy costs are not replenished, it is the turn of the fats that have just been eaten. And only then, if necessary, will accumulate accumulated and deposited fat. As you can see, the path to these deposits is not very close.
It can be said simply that the ability to burn fat decreases when eating large quantities of flour and sweet.
The body tries first of all to burn carbohydrates (starch and sugar), as a more efficient fuel, saving fats in reserve. If the load on the body is not large and there is no reason to spend the eaten fats, they will not disappear, but will replenish the reserves of adipose tissue, and the weight will increase. Actually, this is normal and is the main fatty effect of carbohydrates.
But there is another, no less important, property of carbohydrates to influence fat metabolism. And this happens due to their influence on the production of a wonderful hormone - insulin!
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Carbohydrates.

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