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Carbohydrates.

Entering the body, glucose due to the cleavage of carbohydrates is converted into glycogen, which is a polymer chain of glucose molecules. Further, glycogen, as necessary, is converted into a liver in the same glucose, and in muscles is broken down to lactate. This process is called glycogenolysis and thanks to it, not only muscle cells but also the brain are nourished.
But normally the liver can accommodate only 90 g of glycogen, the rest of glycogen is deposited in muscle tissue, but its stores there are also not large. If the intake of carbohydrates at one meal exceeds 90 g (rare but abundant meals), or there is a constant overeating, resulting in a systematic excessive intake of glucose, the liver is overfilled with glycogen and carbohydrates are beginning to transform into fats. If such a way of life is kept long enough, then there comes a time when the liver cells (hepatocytes) are full of glycogen and fat. In the hepatocytes, there is simply no place for physically to place the next dose of glucose, everything coming in and coming along with the excess food.
To somehow make room for the intake of glucose from the blood, the liver is forced to quickly process glucose into fats and replenish them with fat reserves of the body. Because of the excessive intake of glucose, which is practically not consumed by the body (a sedentary lifestyle and overeating), the liver turns into a kind of fat storage generator, this function of hepatocytes becomes dominant, and very soon almost all liver cells turn out to be filled mainly with fat. The reserves of unclaimed glycogen are reduced to a minimum.
Thus, obesity of the liver develops (steatosis of the liver).
Now, any, even normal intake of carbohydrates from food will lead to the fact that blood will raise the level of glucose. It rises simply because the liver can no longer transform glucose in itself - in hepatocytes. The legal place of glucose is already taken up by fat.
The stores of glycogen in the liver and muscle tissue are small. Total - about 450 g. This stock of glycogen, in the absence of carbohydrate intake with food, is enough only to provide the body with glucose and energy for 1 to 2 days.
This should be taken into account, since glucose is the only indispensable source of energy for nervous tissue, especially for the brain.
In general, to date, there are three main sources for maintaining the energy activity of our body:
1. This is sugar in the form of glucose,
2. Fats in the form of fatty acids.
3. And, the so-called ketone bodies. This group of organic compounds, which are intermediate products of fat, carbohydrate and protein metabolism.
An important feature of the human body is that, although some organs are able to use all these three types of "fuel" to ensure their vital activity, nerve cells and red blood cells can work exclusively on glucose.
You've probably heard of a hypoglycemic coma. With a rapid decrease in blood glucose levels, nerve cells simply die within ten minutes. Therefore, with a sharp restriction of products containing it, lethargy, drowsiness and other manifestations of inhibition of the activity of the nervous system begin to appear.
In the absence of any kind of food, the level of sugar in the blood drops noticeably, which is expressed initially in an ever increasing appetite. Reducing blood glucose is a signal to the body about the need to eat something, that is, glucose is involved in the regulation of appetite, and this must be taken into account when compiling a diet designed to reduce weight.
Due to the cleavage of glycogen (glycogenolysis), it is possible to maintain the blood sugar concentration at a relatively constant level until the glycogen stores in the liver and muscles run out, and this occurs about a day later.
The triggering of glycogenolysis (decomposition of glycogen) is initiated by a number of hormones, the main ones being glucagon and epinephrine. From preparations this process can activate ephedrine, amphetamines and ... caffeine!
Caffeine is a kind of methylxanthine compounds contained in more than 60 plant products, but in sufficient quantities is found only: in tea leaves and coffee beans. In this case, the caffeine of tea is associated with tannin, so its effect is softer than the effect of caffeine coffee. In this there is a positive - tea does not cause dependence, as it often happens with coffee.
Caffeine reduces blood clotting, activates the processes of tissue oxidation. This increases the breakdown of glycogen. The increase in the breakdown of glycogen leads to an increase in the content of sugar in the blood. And when its stocks are depleted, the breakdown of fats begins. Therefore, caffeine has the ability to indirectly stimulate the breakdown of subcutaneous fat and increase the blood levels of fatty acids. This ability of caffeine is activated even more with physical activity. The increase in blood sugar and fatty acids - one of the reasons for the appearance of a feeling of cheerfulness and a surge of energy.
That's why I often recommend my patients to carry out aerobic exercise in the morning, on an "empty stomach", when the glycogen reserve is minimal. And be sure to drink a cup of strong black coffee.
Morning intake of caffeine allows you to avoid disturbance of daily biorhythms of the human body. Caffeine, in addition to its ability to increase the secretion of gastric and intestinal juices, dramatically increases the intestinal peristalsis. Promotion of food through the gastrointestinal tract is accelerated. Food does not have time to fully digest. As a result, putrefactive and fermenting processes in the intestine develop. Protein components of food begin to rot, and carbohydrate components - to wander. For this reason, you should never drink tea or coffee. These drinks should be drunk separately, at least one hour before the main meal. Although even in this case, the progress of food will be accelerated.
Caffeine-containing beverages can not be consumed by people with persistently high blood pressure, as well as suffering from vascular diseases and atherosclerosis. Because of advancing after taking caffeine to increase acidity, it is not recommended for those who suffer from gastritis, peptic ulcer of the stomach or duodenum.
For a healthy person, a safe single dose is 100-200 milligrams of caffeine. The maximum allowable daily dose is 1000 milligrams of caffeine (1000 milligrams = 1 gram). At the same time, a cup of tea contains a maximum of 85 milligrams of caffeine. Accordingly, 12 cups of tea per day will not harm you. But in such quantity of tea and there is no necessity.
Caffeine is clear. It is contained in coffee, tea, coca-cola ... No one has died from it yet. Well, what about ephedrine? After all, he is banned by the IOC. Good will not forbid !?
Ephedrine for health is not dangerous, but it reminds you of the action of the famous "disco wheels": energy is as good as it is, no fatigue - dancing until morning.
Ephedra is one of those rare plants that contain alkaloids. By its action on human alkaloids vary: there are drugs, there are poisons. But ephedra contains alkaloids, which dramatically increase muscle energy. One of the alkaloids is called "ephedrine".
When it comes to drugs that promote weight loss, the concepts of "efficacy" and "harmlessness" are often antipodes. Knowing this, scientists subjected ephedrine to a comprehensive study. Thus, a 195-page scientific paper was published, entitled "Safety Assessment and Determination of the Maximum Permissible Level of Ephedra Use". According to independent researchers, the additive with natural ephedra can be considered harmless if its daily dose contains no more than 90 mg of ephedrine alkaloids. The most effective was the formula of caffeine / ephedrine, but the effectiveness of the drug can be further increased, if at the same time throw a pill ... aspirin.
Ephedrine is contraindicated in the following diagnoses: coronary thrombosis, diabetes, glaucoma, heart disease, hypertension, all diseases of the thyroid gland, cerebral circulation disorder, pheochromocytoma (a type of adrenal gland secretion, epinephrine), prostate enlargement. Especially dangerous is ephedrine in kidney damage. It is not recommended to take food supplements with ephedra to those who are prescribed medications with ephedrine alkaloids; In addition, ephedra is contraindicated in those who take medications that include monoamine oxidase. Further, ephedrine should not be taken to children and adolescents under 18 years of age, pregnant and lactating women, and elderly people.
Side effects, such as increased nervousness or rapid heart rate, are temporary, but they can overlap with a heart pathology or renal pathology that you do not know. In this regard, do not experiment with ephedrine against the background of increased stresses, already exacerbating all internal diseases. Moreover, this drug, unlike caffeine, is banned for sale on the territory of Russia.
One should always remember that fullness is often accompanied by cardiac and renal diseases. So, taking a shock to lose weight with caffeine and ephedrine, you can run into your hidden disease. When taking these drugs, you need extra care! It is better to consult a doctor before the appointment, and he already knows how to check you for possible health problems.
But back to glycogen.
How so!? After all, after the reserves of glycogen runs out our nerve cells do not die without glucose, on the second day of starvation !?
To avoid such a dangerous for our nervous system hypoglycemia (lowering blood sugar), the body begins to produce glucose from non-carbohydrate components, launching a process called gluconeogenesis. This process is triggered and controlled by hormones of the adrenal cortex - glucocorticoids and reduces to the fact that the "furnace" is the proteins of the body's own tissues.
Of course, glucose can be obtained from glycerin, which is part of fat. However, glycerin is only a small part of what happens when fat is split. In general, as a result of the breakdown of fats, various fatty acids are obtained, from which no glucose can be obtained. Therefore, the body, devoid of glucose, to survive nothing remains, how to use for the production of glucose proteins, more precisely, a set of 10, the so-called, glucogenic (of which it is possible to get glucose) of amino acids. This we have already said, when we analyzed the meaning of proteins. And now, of course, you understand that amino acids are too "expensive goods" what, to process them into glucose. This is a building material for the synthesis of proteins, which, so to speak, "for firewood" would be clearly inadvisable.
From this it follows that a sharp restriction of carbohydrate intake will inevitably lead to the destruction of the body's protein tissue. And, knowing the importance of protein (muscle) tissue in the process of fat burning, we understand that it is impossible to prevent its destruction.
But the human body is so arranged that when it comes from food and fat and carbohydrates at the same time, it tries first of all to process and get energy from carbohydrates, and put off the fat for a rainy day. In this case, after eating, first of all, the carbohydrates that have just been eaten are burned in the body, followed by carbohydrates from the glycogen stores of the liver and muscles. Then, if it is necessary, and the energy inputs are not replenished, the turn comes to the newly eaten fats. And only further, if necessary, the accumulated and deferred fat will begin to oxidize. As you can see, the path to these deposits is not very close.
It can be said more simply that the ability to burn fat decreases with the use of large amounts of flour and sweet.
The organism tries first of all to burn carbohydrates (starch and sugar), as more effective fuel, saving fats in reserve. If the load on the body is not great and there is no reason to consume the eaten fats, they will not disappear, but will replenish the stores of adipose tissue, and the weight will increase. Actually, this is the norm and is the main fatogenic effect of carbohydrates.
But there is another, no less important, property of carbohydrates to influence fat metabolism. And it happens because of their influence on the development of a remarkable hormone - insulin!
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Carbohydrates.

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