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Tasks of therapeutic nutrition
The main tasks of therapeutic nutrition for pulmonary tuberculosis are:
1. Providing the body with adequate nutrition in the conditions of protein breakdown, deterioration of the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates, increased consumption of vitamins and minerals.
2. Increase the body's resistance to infection and intoxication.
3. Promoting the normalization of metabolism.
4. To promote the restoration of tissues affected by tuberculosis infection.
To perform these tasks, it is necessary to inject an increased amount of protein (not less than 120-140 g) with food, whose consumption in tuberculosis patients is increased. Recommended digestible protein products (milk, fish, eggs, meat). The amount of fat is recommended within the physiological norm (100-120 g). Fats should be given easily assimilated, rich in vitamin A (butter, cream, sour cream), about a third - in the form of vegetable fat.
The amount of carbohydrates within the physiological norm (450-500 g). In cases when there is a violation of carbohydrate metabolism in tuberculosis, allergic organism (allergic diathesis, bronchial asthma, chronic eczema), excessive body weight, patients need to limit carbohydrate intake to 300-400 g, mainly due to easily digestible (sugar, honey, preserves , syrup, etc.).
In case of aggravation of the tuberculosis process, intensive isolation of mineral salts (calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sodium chloride) can be observed, therefore, products rich in them (milk, cheese, cottage cheese, eggs, figs, dried apricots, raisins, meat and fish products, nuts and t etc.).
With exudative pleurisy, transudate, tuberculous meningitis, with an increase in discharge into the bronchi, damage to the kidneys leading to edema, a hyponatrial diet is prescribed,
e. The food is prepared without the addition of table salt. This diet contributes to increased diuresis, resorption of fluid accumulated in the cavity, remission of the inflammatory process. The liquid is introduced in an amount of 900-1000 ml. With a large loss of blood, repeated vomiting, diarrhea, excessive sweat, the amount of salt is increased to 20 g.
Patients with tuberculosis develop a deficiency of vitamins (especially ascorbic acid, vitamins A and B). The use of a sufficient amount of ascorbic acid increases the bactericidal properties of blood serum, increases the formation of antibodies, reduces intoxication. Especially high is the need for vitamin C in patients with fibrous-cavernous process, at high temperature and tissue decay. Of the products in this case, a sufficient number of vegetables and fruits are recommended, and it is also necessary to periodically take up to 300 mg of ascorbic acid per day.
Patients with pulmonary, larynx, intestinal and skin tuberculosis also need an increased amount of vitamin A - about 5 mg. To satisfy the need for vitamin A, dairy products, fish oil, egg yolk, as well as products containing carotene - carrots, tomatoes, apricots, red pepper, etc. are recommended.
Particular attention should be given to the provision of patients with B vitamins. They are directly related to protein metabolism, the need for which is increased in this group of patients. In the diet, you must enter foods rich in vitamins B - fresh vegetables, meat, dishes from bran, beer or baker's yeast.
Caloric content of food is 2500-3600 kcal.
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Tasks of therapeutic nutrition
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