Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead || Next >> |
Tasks of medical nutrition
The main objectives of clinical nutrition in pulmonary tuberculosis are:
1. Providing the body with adequate nutrition in terms of the breakdown of proteins, deterioration of the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates, increased consumption of vitamins and minerals.
2. Increase the body's resistance to infection and intoxication.
3. Contribute to the normalization of metabolism.
4. Promoting the restoration of tissues affected by tuberculosis infection.
To accomplish these tasks, it is necessary to introduce an increased amount of protein (at least 120-140 g) with food, the consumption of which in patients with tuberculosis is increased. Highly digestible protein products (milk, fish, eggs, meat) are recommended. The amount of fat is recommended within the physiological norm (100-120 g). Fats should be given easily digestible, rich in vitamin A (butter, cream, sour cream), about a third - in the form of vegetable fat.
The amount of carbohydrates within the physiological norm (450-500 g). In cases where there is a violation of carbohydrate metabolism, allergy of the body (allergic diathesis, bronchial asthma, chronic eczema), overweight, patients need to limit the consumption of carbohydrates to 300-400 g, mainly due to easily digestible (sugar, honey, jam). , syrup, etc.).
When exacerbation of the tuberculous process, enhanced release of mineral salts (calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sodium chloride) can be observed, therefore products rich in them (milk, cheese, cottage cheese, eggs, figs, dried apricots, raisins, meat and fish products, nuts, etc.) are introduced. d.)
When exudative pleurisy, transudate, tuberculous meningitis, with an increase in secretions in the bronchi, kidney damage, leading to edema, is assigned a hypo-sodium diet, t.
E. Food is prepared without the addition of table salt. This diet contributes to increased diuresis, the resorption of fluid accumulated in the cavities, the attenuation of the inflammatory process. The liquid is introduced in the amount of 900-1000 ml. With a large loss of blood, repeated vomiting, diarrhea, excessive perspiration, the amount of salt is increased to 20 g.
Patients with tuberculosis develop a deficiency of vitamins (especially ascorbic acid, vitamins A and group B). The use of a sufficient amount of ascorbic acid increases the bactericidal properties of blood serum, increases the formation of antibodies, reduces intoxication. The need for vitamin C is especially high in patients with the fibro-cavernous process, at high temperature and tissue breakdown. Of the products in this case, a sufficient amount of vegetables and fruits are recommended, and up to 300 mg of ascorbic acid per day should be taken periodically.
Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, larynx, intestines and skin also need an increased amount of vitamin A - about 5 mg. To meet the need for vitamin A, dairy products, fish oil, egg yolk, as well as products containing carotene - carrots, tomatoes, apricots, red pepper, etc. are recommended.
Special attention should be given to providing patients with vitamins of group B. They are directly related to protein metabolism, the need for which in this group of patients is increased. In the diet, you must enter foods rich in vitamins B - fresh vegetables, meat, bran dishes, beer or baker's yeast.
Caloric intake - 2500-3600 kcal.
| << Ahead || Next >> |
| = Go to tutorial content = |
Tasks of medical nutrition
- The main objectives of clinical nutrition in myocardial infarction
The main objectives of clinical nutrition are: 1. To promote regenerative processes in the muscle of the heart. 2. Improve blood circulation and metabolism. 3. Eliminate stress on the cardiovascular and central nervous system. 4. To ensure the sparing of the digestive organs and the normalization of the motor function of the intestine. Food should correspond to the periods of the disease (acute, subacute,
- Medical nutrition monitoring of organized populations. Therapeutic and prophylactic nutrition
Nutrition is one of the main factors determining human health. The organization of catering for a team is related to the type of institution (kindergarten, school, production facility, field camp, medical and preventive care facilities, army, etc.), the number of people and the duration of their stay in this facility. In most cases, health workers themselves take part in
- Article 39. Medical nutrition
1. Medical nutrition - nutrition that ensures the satisfaction of the physiological needs of the human body for nutrients and energy, taking into account the mechanisms of the development of the disease, the characteristics of the course of the main and associated diseases and performing preventive and therapeutic tasks. 2. Medical nutrition is an integral component of the therapeutic process and preventive measures,
- Therapeutic and prophylactic nutrition
The main thing in the prevention of occupational hazards is the improvement of working conditions, technical and sanitary-hygienic improvement of enterprises, as well as strict observance of safety regulations. Along with improving the environment, measures aimed at increasing the body’s resistance to the adverse effects of physical and chemical substances are of great importance.
- The basic principles of clinical nutrition
1. The diet should be varied, taking into account the development of the tuberculous process and the general condition of the body. 2. Strict regimens and limited nutrition can be prescribed only for a short time (with complications and exacerbations of the disease). 3. At all stages of treatment, nutrition should be differentiated. It is necessary to follow the basic principles of qualitative and quantitative construction of the diet in
- Artificial health food
Manifestations of malnutrition in one form or another (protein, energy, vitamin, mineral) are often observed in clinical practice among patients of both surgical and therapeutic profile, making up from 18 to 56% according to the data of various authors. Malnutrition causes slower recovery, longer stay of patients in OARIT and
- Some options for clinical nutrition
The first power option. It is prescribed to patients with a reduced reactive capacity of the body, general hypotension, low-grade fever, with a sluggish course of the disease. The chemical composition of this diet: 140 g of proteins, 100 g of fat, 400 g of carbohydrates, limiting easily digestible. Caloric content is 2700-3000 kcal. The content of ascorbic acid is up to 350 mg, vitamin B15 g. Culinary processing is ordinary.
- The concept of health and medical nutrition
Recommended literature: 1.Goncharenko MS Basics of valeological nutrition. - X.: LLC "Publishing House Buruk K Kig", - 2006, pp. 275-329 Additional block of information: Biologically active food supplements Biologically active food additives (BUDP) are becoming more and more vital every day. Nowadays, these products, produced in the form of tablets, capsules, tinctures and balms, have become
- The basic principles of clinical nutrition in peptic ulcer
1. Providing a complete balanced diet; 2. Compliance with the diet; 3. To provide mechanical, chemical and thermal schazhenie stomach and duodenum. One of the most important moments of clinical nutrition is adherence to food intake, which is even more significant than the composition of the diet itself. As soon as food comes into contact with the gastric mucosa,
- Sanitary supervision of the organization of medical and preventive nutrition in industrial enterprises
Therapeutic and prophylactic nutrition (BOB) is considered (along with comprehensive measures to eliminate harmful working conditions) as a highly effective health factor. BOB is organized at industrial enterprises in order to prevent the disease, provides for an increase in the protective functions of the body of workers at the link of the preferential influence of harmful factors of production
- Sanitary requirements for catering in health care facilities and sanatoriums
Food and treatment facilities and sanatoriums must have facilities for the preparation of therapeutic food with delivery to the patient or rest without reducing the nutritional and biological value. The work of the kitchens should not have a harmful effect on the regime of the hospital or sanatorium (the spread of odors, the penetration of noise, etc.). Food blocks can be placed in separate buildings,
- Medical nutrition for dyslipidemia.
In the period of rapid development of the pharmaceutical industry and clinical pharmacology of lipid-lowering drugs, a paradoxical interest in the use of dietary approaches in the treatment of dyslipidemia may seem paradoxical. Attention to dietary interventions is due to the acquisition of new data on the high efficacy of some diets to reduce the risk of general and coronary mortality. During the 1950s and 1960s. at