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Tasks of medical nutrition


The main objectives of clinical nutrition in pulmonary tuberculosis are:
1. Providing the body with adequate nutrition in terms of the breakdown of proteins, deterioration of the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates, increased consumption of vitamins and minerals.

2. Increase the body's resistance to infection and intoxication.
3. Contribute to the normalization of metabolism.
4. Promoting the restoration of tissues affected by tuberculosis infection.
To accomplish these tasks, it is necessary to introduce an increased amount of protein (at least 120-140 g) with food, the consumption of which in patients with tuberculosis is increased. Highly digestible protein products (milk, fish, eggs, meat) are recommended. The amount of fat is recommended within the physiological norm (100-120 g). Fats should be given easily digestible, rich in vitamin A (butter, cream, sour cream), about a third - in the form of vegetable fat.
The amount of carbohydrates within the physiological norm (450-500 g). In cases where there is a violation of carbohydrate metabolism, allergy of the body (allergic diathesis, bronchial asthma, chronic eczema), overweight, patients need to limit the consumption of carbohydrates to 300-400 g, mainly due to easily digestible (sugar, honey, jam). , syrup, etc.).
When exacerbation of the tuberculous process, enhanced release of mineral salts (calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sodium chloride) can be observed, therefore products rich in them (milk, cheese, cottage cheese, eggs, figs, dried apricots, raisins, meat and fish products, nuts, etc.) are introduced. d.)
When exudative pleurisy, transudate, tuberculous meningitis, with an increase in secretions in the bronchi, kidney damage, leading to edema, is assigned a hypo-sodium diet, t.
E. Food is prepared without the addition of table salt. This diet contributes to increased diuresis, the resorption of fluid accumulated in the cavities, the attenuation of the inflammatory process. The liquid is introduced in the amount of 900-1000 ml. With a large loss of blood, repeated vomiting, diarrhea, excessive perspiration, the amount of salt is increased to 20 g.
Patients with tuberculosis develop a deficiency of vitamins (especially ascorbic acid, vitamins A and group B). The use of a sufficient amount of ascorbic acid increases the bactericidal properties of blood serum, increases the formation of antibodies, reduces intoxication. The need for vitamin C is especially high in patients with the fibro-cavernous process, at high temperature and tissue breakdown. Of the products in this case, a sufficient amount of vegetables and fruits are recommended, and up to 300 mg of ascorbic acid per day should be taken periodically.
Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, larynx, intestines and skin also need an increased amount of vitamin A - about 5 mg. To meet the need for vitamin A, dairy products, fish oil, egg yolk, as well as products containing carotene - carrots, tomatoes, apricots, red pepper, etc. are recommended.
Special attention should be given to providing patients with vitamins of group B. They are directly related to protein metabolism, the need for which in this group of patients is increased. In the diet, you must enter foods rich in vitamins B - fresh vegetables, meat, bran dishes, beer or baker's yeast.
Caloric intake - 2500-3600 kcal.
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