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Sugar Substitutes


With any diet, it is very difficult to refrain from sugary foods and sugar, especially sweets. Therefore, white refined sugar, so usual for many “full” people, is often proposed to be replaced by other sweet substances that may not even be absorbed, but in taste they are quite similar to sugars.
All sugar substitutes can be divided into two groups: natural and synthetic. The first {fructose, sorbitol, xylitol} is completely absorbed by the body and, like ordinary sugar, provides a person with energy. Most synthetic substitutes {saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, acesulfame potassium, sucracite} have no energy value and are not absorbed. But, remember what appetite you have played out every time after you drink a bottle of low-calorie cola or eat diet chocolate.
It turns out that, having felt the sweet taste, our gastrointestinal tract begins to prepare for the production of carbohydrates.
Naive, he doesn't even assume that instead we sent him zero calories. The body does not remain in debt, and any carbohydrate that enters the stomach during the day, after this “wrapper,” causes an unprecedented feeling of hunger. Therefore, abusing sugar substitutes should not be.
But to keep one chocolate in reserve for a sugar substitute still makes sense. In moments of depression or despair, it as a "lightning rod" will help you not to fall for prohibited products.
Sugar substitutes include substances of various chemical structures:
• some monosaccharides (fructose) and disaccharides (lactose);
• polyhydric alcohols (xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, glycerin);
• some amino acids and their derivatives (glycine, alanine, aspartame);
• some proteins (monellin, thaumatin, cyclomates);
• derivatives of o-sulfobenzoic acid (saccharin), etc.
Saccharin.
The first sugar substitute was saccharin. Saccharin (also known as Sweet'n'Low, Sprinkle Sweet, Twin, Sweet 10, and others) was synthesized by German scientists. In the last century, saccharin was extremely popular due to its fairly light production. The new substance had one amazing quality: it was 450 times sweeter than sugar. Represents on the chemical structure of o-sulfobenzoic acid. When boiling in an aqueous solution loses its sweet taste. Saccharin is poorly soluble in water. Therefore, the sodium salt of saccharin, the so-called saccharin - soluble, is usually used. It is available in the form of tablets of 40 mg in a package of 100 pieces. Saccharin remains the most popular "chemical sugar" in the world. The only security requirement is compliance with the “allowable daily allowance”.
The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives considers it safe for humans to consume saccharin in an amount of up to 2.5 mg per kg of weight per day. It is recommended to use no more than 4 tablets per day. Regular exceeding of this norm may be fraught with complications, although no specialist can specify which ones. Experimental data have been obtained, suggesting that saccharin in large doses may contribute to the formation of tumors.
It must be said that a large part of the adult population of the planet has to “feed up” with saccharin. Even those people who never replace sugar with sweeteners receive a fairly significant amount of this substance daily.
The fact is that saccharin is very widely used in the food industry. One of the ingredients of ice cream, creams, gelatin desserts and other confectionery products is the food additive E 954. Saccharin is hidden under this inconspicuous and poorly understood pseudonym.
In Russia, the most common “saccharin” substitute is considered to be “Sukrasit” by the Israeli firm “Biscol”. It is sold in packs of 300, 700 and 1200 tablets. This sweetener is also available in powder form, which is very well suited for culinary experiments. After all, saccharin is not destroyed by heat treatment, so it can be used in confectionery or added to compotes and preserves. However, hostesses must take into account that this substitute is not a preservative, such as, for example, regular sugar. Therefore, all preparations on the basis of "Sukrazite" can be stored no longer than three weeks.
Another sweetener, Sukradayet, is also in great demand in our country. Each tablet will contain 18 mg of saccharin, and as fillers, citric acid and ordinary baking soda are used here. Do not abuse this substitute: a cup of tea or coffee is enough for one or two tablets. If you put more, the drink will get a rather unpleasant bitter taste, becoming more pronounced as it cools.
Suklamat (tsukli).
The second synthetic sugar substitute was cyclamates. Experts do not recommend cyclamates for pregnant women, children or people suffering from renal failure. For all others, there is a permissible daily dose of this sweetener, which corresponds to 11 mg per 1 kg of weight. Suklamat is not destroyed in the process of cooking and has no taste.
The taste qualities of cyclamate are most clearly manifested in a mixture with other substitutes, and the same saccharin stresses most favorably. In addition, cyclamate hides the bitter taste, which appears during the "overdose" of saccharin. The optimal ratio of these two substances is 10: 1, that is, 20 mg cyclamate, accounts for 2 mg of saccharin. This proportion underlies almost all of the mixed sweeteners sold in our country.
The most popular of them are considered "Zucli" (Available in pill form and in liquid form "Tsukli"). One tablet contains 6 mg of saccharin sodium and 60 mg of sodium cyclamate. The drug is a combination of two artificial sugar substitutes. It does not have calories and does not contain carbohydrates.
Indications: restriction of carbohydrate intake in diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, low-calorie diets. One tablet is equivalent to one teaspoon of sugar. "Susli", "Milford" and "Diamond", they are all available in pill form, in packs of 650 or 1200 tablets. Milford is also sold in liquid form: 1 teaspoon of this solution replaces 4 tablespoons of sugar.
However, this synthetic syrup has one important disadvantage - it is very difficult to dose. An error of a few drops can significantly affect the final taste of the product. Therefore, it is safer and easier to use pills.
Side effect: cyclamates are transformed, under the influence of intestinal bacteria, into poisonous cyclohexylamine. This type of sugar substitutes is prohibited for sale in the United States, Canada, Japan and other countries of the world due to its unsafe health. With its constant use, skin allergic reactions are also possible.
Contraindications are hypersensitivity to the drug.
Aspartame (shugafri).
Aspartame is considered one of the most popular sugar substitutes.
It is a methylated dipeptide consisting of two amino acids - aspartic n-phenylalanine, which in significant quantities are part of the usual food. 1 g of the drug contains 4 kcal. Available in the form of tablets of 18 mg. The sweet taste of the drug disappears during heat treatment.
It is used as a sweetener for obesity, complicated by diabetes.
Take 2 tablets (18-36 mg) per 1 cup of beverage. The maximum daily dose is 40 mg.
However, experts do not deny the likely complications associated with the use of large doses of this substance. Of the side effects observed is urticaria and other allergic reactions. Cases of the development of increased appetite are described. Perhaps that is why it is very suspiciously treated in all European states and it is forbidden to sweeten with them adapted food intended for children under four years old.
Doctors do not recommend aspartame and adolescents, however, it is very difficult to eliminate this substitute from their diet. The fact is that aspartame is relatively well soluble in water. This property has found wide application in the food industry - this substitute is now used in almost all “lightweight” beverages.
Thanks to him, the drinks sold can boast a minimum calorie content. Of course, a moderate amount of such "soda" will not bring any harm. However, the daily drinking of liters can adversely affect the health of "vodohleba."
This is especially true for heated drinks: at elevated temperatures, aspartame is destroyed with the release of methanol, which is a rather aggressive chemical. After heating to a temperature of 40-50 degrees Celsius, the amount of methanol in aspartame increases! Of course, in one can of Cola the amount of methanol is scanty, but if you drink 2-3 liters of Coke per day and at the same time take other foods containing aspartame, then the situation may not be at all comical.
Swallowed, methanol (methyl or wood alcohol, which killed or blinded thousands of low-quality drinkers) is converted to formaldehyde, then to formic acid (the venom of red ant).
Formaldehyde is a strong-smelling substance, class A carcinogen.
According to the classification, formaldehyde belongs to the same group of substances as arsenic with hydrocyanic acid - deadly poisons! In small doses, formaldehyde causes neurological diseases.
I hope, now, you understand that the inscription on a bottle of cola “Drink chilled” is not a concern for your taste sensations. This is a vital warning. In addition, those who suffer from phenylketonuria (a disease involving a violation of the metabolism of phenylalanine) are contraindicated. Phenylalanine, contained in aspartame, alters the threshold of sensitivity, depletes serotonin, which contributes to the development of manic depression, panic attacks, anger and violence.
MD Ph.D. Roberts (USA), author of The Protection Against Alzheimer's Disease, claims that eating aspartame during pregnancy leads to the development of congenital brain defects in a child, even with aspartame in very small doses.
MD, professor of genetics Lewis Elsas (USA, Emory University), proved that phenylalanine accumulates in the structures of the brain, causing mental retardation. According to laboratory data, animals developed brain tumors, while phenylalanine was converted to DHR, a brain tumor growth factor. Here is one of the facts cited by L. Eslas: "When we examined a remote brain tumor, we found a high content of aspartame in it."
So, to misuse all kinds of "lights" is not very reasonable.
On lemonade labels, aspartame is usually masked by the abbreviation E951. For healthy adults, the permissible daily dose of aspartame, which is 30 mg per kilogram of weight, has been determined.
Most often, aspartame is mixed with "acesulfame-K", which belongs to the "young" generation of sweeteners. It is believed that the flavor profile of such a tandem is as close as possible to natural sugar: “Acesulfame-K” is responsible for “instant sweetness”, and aspartame provides a long aftertaste. That is why the mixture of these substances underlies the majority of industrial analogues of sugar. The most famous of them are: "NutraSweet", "Sweet time", "Candelel" and the South Korean "Miwon". All of them are sold in tablet form 300 and 600 tablets.
Aspartame is contraindicated for homozygous phenylketonuria, hypersensitivity to the drug. It is not recommended to use physically healthy people who are moderately overweight.
Xylitol.
Xylitol is a pentahydric alcohol, which is a crystalline substance of white color, sweet taste, well soluble in water. Available in powder form. The caloric content of one gram of xylitol is 4 kcal.
Sweet xylitol is equal to white sugar (sucrose), quickly absorbed. Does not have a persistent effect on blood sugar levels in healthy people, and in patients with diabetes mellitus it reduces blood glucose levels. This property of xylitol allows its use for patients who are prohibited or limited to sugar intake - with diabetes, obesity, overweight.
Of the side effects should be aware of the choleretic and laxative effect of the drug. The daily dose of xylitol should not exceed 40 g. With the development of side effects, the daily amount of xylitol should be limited to 20 grams. Xylitol does not have any harmful effect on the body.
It can be used directly instead of sugar, and in the manufacture of various dishes and products.

Sorbitol
Sorbitol is a hexatomic alcohol, which is a colorless sweet-tasting crystals. It is well dissolved in water. In the human body sorbitol comes with fruit. The fruits of mountain ash and blackthorn are especially rich in them. With long storage of fruits and berries, sorbitol gradually turns into fructose.
The sweetness of sorbitol is approximately two times lower than glucose. Caloric value is 3.4 kcal / g. It has a choleretic and laxative effect (to a lesser extent than xylitol). The daily amount of sorbitol should be limited to 25-35 grams.
Fructose.
Fructose is a monosaccharide.
Synonyms: fruit sugar, fruit sugar. Almost one and a half times sweeter than sucrose. Some researchers consider fructose as sugar, the most suitable for nutrition in modern conditions, given the increasing physical inactivity, nervous stress, an increasing number of obese people, etc.
However, it should be remembered that with prolonged and uncontrolled use of fructose as a food product, the development of acidosis and other painful phenomena is possible.
When using fructose, sorbitol or xylitol, as sugar substitutes, it should be borne in mind that they have the same caloric content as sugar. Glucose and fructose are most quickly absorbed and used in the body as sources of energy, as well as for the formation of glycogen (a reserve carbohydrate) in the liver and muscles.
Sucralose.
The safest substitute is sucralose. It is the only “artificial sugar” that has avoided carcinogenicity allegations. Experts say that its reception is safe not only for the ordinary contingent, but also for pregnant women and children of the younger age group. The maximum daily dose is 5 mg per 1 kg of weight. But sucralose is almost never used in the food industry and is relatively rare on the shelves of Russian pharmacies.
The fact is that today this substitute is the most expensive in the Russian market and therefore does not withstand competition with cheaper sugar analogues.
Sugar substitutes based on the plant "Stevia".
In recent years, a single sugar substitute of natural origin has nevertheless appeared. This is an extract of "stevia" - a sweet plant or "honey grass" from South America.
Stevia extract is sweeter than regular sugar many times. Sweet substances "stevia" do not disintegrate in the body and with high-temperature processing do not lose their qualities. Therefore, the extract of "stevia" is suitable as a sugar substitute for drinks and a lot of other products exposed to heat. To

everything else, the extract of "stevia" is safe - sweet molecules are eliminated by the body unchanged, they do not accumulate and practically do not enter into biochemical reactions. That is why the extract of "stevia" is considered an ideal sugar substitute, both for healthy people and for those suffering from diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disorders and other metabolic disorders.
"Greenlite Stevia" is different in that it is made from an extract of a sweet plant (glycosides contained in the leaves of "Stevia") and is not a product of chemical synthesis.
Currently, Greenlite products are the only natural sugar substitutes supplied to the world market. It consists of maltodextrin - a glucose polymer formed due to the breakdown of barley starch or corn into small glucose chains (oligosaccharides). They are perfectly transformed into glycogen of muscle tissue and give energy of movement. Not for nothing is this type of carbohydrate used in most sports drinks.
Natural sugar substitutes "GREENLITE" help reduce the risk of diabetes and reduce overweight. When “GREENLITE” is consumed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the level of sugar in the blood does not increase, which plays an important role in the prevention of micro and macro vascular complications in them.
Long-term studies conducted by the Scientific Centers of various countries have confirmed that “stevia” normalizes the immune system function in the human body, stimulates insulin secretion, blood circulation, stabilizes blood pressure; promotes the repair of ulcerative processes, improves digestion and is recommended for overweight people.
«Стевия» является природным консервантом, обладает антимикробными и противогрибковым действием; способствует выведению продуктов обмена, шлаков, солей тяжелых металлов из организма, замедляет процесс старения.
Более 1000 лет «Стевия» использовалась индейцами Гуарани. За последние тридцать лет использования «Стевии», в качестве пищевой добавки, в таких странах: как Япония, Китай, Корея, Тайвань, Южная Америка, США, Канада и других странах не отмечено никаких побочных или негативных проявлений для здоровья человека. Более того, многочисленные исследования на животных и людях с различными заболеваниями эндокринной и сердечно-сосудистой системы, подтвердили полезные свойства продуктов на основе «Стевии». Объединенный Экспертный Комитет по пищевым добавкам Всемирной Организации Здравоохранения (FAO/WHO) в 2004 году признал гликозиды стевии (стевиозид и Ребаудиозид) безопасными продуктами и одобрил ежедневный прием «Стевии».
Единственный его минус, достаточно специфический вкус. Но, как говорится, если нужда заставит - то выбора нет. Придется привыкать.
Передозировка любого вещества может принести вред здоровью. Именно поэтому так важно соблюдать правила «допустимой дневной нормы». Покупайте только те препараты, на этикетке которых указан тип подсластителя и его вес. Эта предосторожность позволяет точно рассчитать безопасное количество заменителя сахара. Контроль за порошками и уже готовыми сиропами, достаточно проблематичен. Поэтому, я советую отдавать предпочтение таблетированным формам сахаразаменителей, так как они предусматривают самый точный учет сладких миллиграммов.
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Заменители сахара.

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