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Substitutes for sugar.

If you follow any diet, it is very difficult to refrain from sweet food and sugar, especially sweet tooth. Therefore, white refined sugar, so habitual for many "complete" people, is often suggested to be replaced by other sweet substances that may not even be absorbed, but taste characteristics are quite similar to sugars.
All sugar substitutes can be divided into two groups: natural and synthetic. The first {fructose, sorbitol, xylitol} is completely absorbed by the body and, like ordinary sugar, provides a person with energy. Most synthetic substitutes (saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, acesulfame potassium, sucrasite) have no energy value and are not assimilated. But, remember, what kind of appetite you are playing every time after you drink a low-calorie cola bottle or eat a diet chocolate.
It turns out that having sensed a sweet taste, our gastrointestinal tract begins to prepare for getting carbohydrates.
Naive, he does not even suggest that instead we sent him zero calories. The body does not remain indebted, and any carbohydrate that enters the stomach within 24 hours after this "parcel" causes an unprecedented feeling of hunger. Therefore, it is not necessary to abuse sugar substitutes.
But keeping one chocolate bar on a sugar substitute does make sense. In moments of depression or despair, it as a "lightning rod" will help you not to break the forbidden products.
Substitutes of sugar include substances of different chemical structure:
• Some monosaccharides (fructose) and disaccharides (lactose);
• polyhydric alcohols (xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, glycerin);
• Some amino acids and their derivatives (glycine, alanine, aspartame);
• Some proteins (monellin, thaumatin, cyclamates);
• Derivatives of o-sulfobenzoic acid (saccharin), etc.
The first substitute for sugar was saccharin. Sakharin (aka Sweet'n'Low, Sprinkle Sweet, Twin, Sweet 10, etc.) was synthesized by German scientists. In the last century, because of the fairly easy production of saccharin was very popular. The new substance had one amazing quality: it was 450 times sweeter than sugar. Represents on the chemical structure o-sulfobenzoic acid. When boiling in an aqueous solution, it loses a sweet taste. Saccharin is poorly soluble in water. Therefore, usually use the sodium salt of saccharin, the so-called saccharin - soluble. It is available in the form of tablets of 40 mg in a package of 100 pieces. Saccharin remains the most popular "chemical sugar" in the world. The only security requirement is to adhere to the "acceptable daily rate".
The Expert Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) on food additives considers it safe for human consumption of saccharin in an amount of up to 2.5 mg per kg of body weight per day. It is recommended to use no more than 4 tablets per day. Regular excess of this rate can be fraught with complications, although no specialist can specify which ones. Experimental data have been obtained, suggesting that saccharin in high doses can contribute to the formation of tumors.
I must say that most of the adult population of the planet has to "fatten" with saccharin. Even those people who never replace sugar with sweeteners get a fairly large amount of this substance every day.
The fact is that saccharin is very widely used in the food industry. One of the ingredients of ice cream, creams, gelatin desserts and other confectionery products is the food supplement E 954. Under this inconspicuous and hardly understood pseudonym, saccharin is concealed.
In Russia, the most common "saccharine" substitute is considered to be "Sukrasit" of the Israeli company "Biscol". It is sold in packs of 300, 700 and 1200 tablets. Also, this sweetener is available in the form of a powder, which is very well suited for culinary experiments. After saccharin is not destroyed by heat treatment, so it can be used in confectionery products or added to compotes and preserves. However, mistresses must take into account that this substitute is not a preservative, as, for example, ordinary sugar. Therefore, all blanks on the basis of "Sukrasit" can be stored no longer than three weeks.
Another sweetener - "Sukradayet" - is also in great demand in our country. Each tablet contains 18 mg of saccharin, and as fillers, it uses citric acid and ordinary baking soda. Do not abuse this substitute: one or two tablets are enough for a cup of tea or coffee. If you put more, then the drink will get a rather unpleasant bitterish taste, becoming more pronounced as the cooling cools.
Suclamate (tsukli).
The second synthetic substitute for sugar, became cyclamates. Specialists do not recommend the use of cyclamates for pregnant women, children and people suffering from kidney failure. For all others, there is an acceptable daily dose of this sweetener, which corresponds to 11 mg per 1 kg of body weight. Sulclate does not degrade during cooking and has no aftertaste.
The taste qualities of cyclamate are most vividly manifested in a mixture with other substitutes, with the same saccharin most advantageous for them. In addition, cyclamate conceals the bitter taste that appears when an "overdose" of saccharin. The optimal ratio of these two substances is 10: 1, that is, 20 mg of cyclamate, 2 mg of saccharin. This proportion forms the basis of almost all mixed sweeteners sold in our country.
The most popular of them are "Tsukli" (It is available in the form of tablets and in liquid form "Tsukli"). One tablet contains 6 mg of sodium saccharin and 60 mg of sodium cyclamate. The drug is a combination of two artificial sugar substitutes. It has no caloric content and does not contain carbohydrates.
Indication: restriction of carbohydrate intake in diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, hypocaloric diets. One tablet is equivalent to one teaspoon of sugar. "Susley", "Milford" and "Diamant", all of them are available in tablet form, in packs of 650 or 1200 tablets. Milford is also sold in liquid form: 1 teaspoon of this solution replaces 4 tablespoons of sugar.
However, this synthetic syrup has one important drawback - it is very difficult for dosage. An error in a few drops can significantly affect the final taste of the product. Therefore, it is safer and easier to use tablets.
Side effect: cyclamates are transformed, under the influence of bacteria of the intestine, into poisonous cyclohexylamine. This type of sugar substitute is banned for sale in the US, Canada, Japan and other countries of the world due to unsafe for health. With its constant application, skin allergic reactions are also possible.
Contraindications are hypersensitivity to the components of the drug.
Aspartame (sugafri).
Aspartame is considered to be one of the most popular sugar substitutes.
It is a methylated dipeptide, consisting of two amino acids - aspartic and phenylalanine, which are a significant part of the normal food. 1 g of the preparation contains 4 kcal. Produced in the form of tablets of 18 mg. The sweet taste of the drug disappears during heat treatment.
It is used as a sweetener for obesity, complicated by diabetes.
Take 2 tablets (18-36 mg) per 1 cup of drink. The maximum daily dose is 40 mg.
However, specialists do not deny the likely complications associated with the use of large doses of this substance. Of the side effects, urticaria and other allergic reactions are observed. Cases of development of increased appetite are described. Probably, that's why he is very suspiciously treated in all European countries and it is forbidden to sweeten them with adapted food intended for children under four years old.
Doctors do not recommend aspartame and adolescents, however, to achieve elimination of this substitute from their diet is very difficult. The fact is that aspartame is relatively soluble in water. This property has found wide application in the food industry - this substitute is now used in almost all "light" drinks.
It is thanks to him that the beverages sold can boast a minimum calorie content. Of course, a moderate amount of such "soda" will not cause any harm. However, daily liters can adversely affect the health of the "water".
This is especially true for heated drinks: at elevated temperature aspartame is destroyed with the release of methanol, which is a rather aggressive chemical substance. After heating to a temperature of 40-50 degrees Celsius, the amount of methanol in aspartame increases! Of course, in one of the Kola banks, the amount of methanol is scanty, but if you drink 2-3 liters of cola per day and at the same time take other foods containing aspartame, then the situation can become quite comic.
Swallowed, methanol (methyl or wood alcohol, killed or dazzled by thousands of fans of low-quality booze) is converted into formaldehyde, then into formic acid (the poison of red ants).
Formaldehyde is a substance with a sharp odor, a carcinogen of class A.
formaldehyde according to classification refers to the same group of substances as arsenic with cyanide acid - deadly poisons! In small doses, formaldehyde is the cause of the development of neurological diseases.
I hope, now, you understand that the inscription on the bottle of cola "Drink chilled" is not a concern for your taste sensations. This is a vital warning. In addition, those who suffer from phenylketonuria (a disease accompanied by a violation of the metabolism of phenylalanine), aspartame is contraindicated. Phenylalanine, contained in aspartame, changes the threshold of sensitivity, depletes serotonin, which contributes to the development of manic depression, panic attacks, anger and violence.
Doctor of Medicine H.D. Roberts (USA), author of the book "Protection Against Alzheimer's Disease," argues that the use of aspartame during pregnancy leads to the development of birth defects in the child's brain, even when using aspartame in very small doses.
MD, professor of genetics Lewis Elsace (USA, Emory University), proved that phenylalanine accumulates in the structures of the brain, causing mental retardation. According to laboratory data, brain tumors developed in animals, while phenylalanine was converted into DHR, the growth factor of the brain tumor. Here is one of the facts cited by L. Esläs: "When we examined a distant brain tumor, we found in it a high content of aspartame."
So, to abuse all kinds of "lights" is not very reasonable.
On lemonade labels, aspartame is usually masked under the abbreviation E951. For healthy adults, an acceptable daily dose of aspartame, which is 30 mg per kilogram of weight, is determined.
Most often, aspartame is mixed with "acesulfame-K", which refers to the "young" generation of sweeteners. It is believed that the taste profile of such a tandem is as close as possible to natural sugar: "acesulfame-K" is responsible for "instant sweetness", and aspartame provides a long aftertaste. That is why a mixture of these substances underlies most industrial analogues of sugar. The most famous of them are: "NutraSweet", "Sweet time", "Candelel" and South Korean "Miwon". All of them are sold in tablet form for 300 and 600 tablets.
Aspartame is contraindicated in homozygous phenylketonuria, hypersensitivity to the drug. It is not recommended to use physically healthy people who are moderately overweight.
Xylitol is a five-atom alcohol, which is a crystalline substance of white color, sweet taste, soluble in water. Produced in the form of powder. Caloric content of one gram of xylitol is 4 kcal.
Xylitol for sweetness is equal to white sugar (sucrose), quickly absorbed. Does not have a persistent effect on blood sugar in healthy people, and in patients with diabetes mellitus it lowers blood glucose levels. This property of xylitol makes it possible to use it for patients who are prohibited or restricted by the consumption of sugar - for diabetes, obesity, overweight.
Of the side effects should be aware of the choleretic and laxative effect of the drug. The daily dose of xylitol should not exceed 40 g. With the development of side effects, the daily amount of xylitol should be limited to 20 grams. There is no harmful effect on the body of xylitol.
It can be used directly instead of sugar, and when making various dishes and products.

Sorbitol is a hexahydrous alcohol, which is colorless crystals of sweet taste. It dissolves well in water. In the human body sorbitol comes with fruits. Especially rich are the fruits of mountain ash and thorns. With long storage of fruits and berries sorbitol gradually turns into fructose.
The sweetness of sorbitol is about half that of glucose. The calorific value is 3.4 kcal / g. Has a choleretic and laxative effect (to a lesser extent than xylitol). The daily amount of sorbitol should be limited to 25-35 grams.
Fructose is a monosaccharide.
Synonyms: fruit sugar, fruit sugar. Almost one and a half times sweeter than sucrose. Some researchers consider fructose to be sugar, the most acceptable for nutrition in modern conditions, given the increasing lack of exercise, nervous stress, an increasing number of obese people, etc.
However, it should be remembered that with prolonged and uncontrolled use of fructose as a food product, it is possible to develop acidosis and other painful phenomena.
When using fructose, sorbitol or xylitol, as sugar substitutes, it should be borne in mind that they have the same caloric content as sugar. Glucose and fructose are most quickly absorbed and used in the body as energy sources, as well as for the formation of glycogen (reserve carbohydrate) in the liver and muscles.
The safest substitute is sucralose. This is the only "artificial sugar" that has escaped accusations of carcinogenicity. Experts argue that his reception is safe not only for the usual contingent, but also for pregnant women and children of younger age group. The maximum daily dose is 5 mg per 1 kg of body weight. But sucralose is almost not used in the food industry and is relatively rare on the shelves of Russian pharmacies.
The fact is that for today this substitute is the most expensive on the Russian market and therefore does not stand competition with cheaper analogues of sugar.
Sugar substitutes based on the Stevia plant.
In recent years, there has appeared one sugar substitute of natural natural origin. This is an extract of "stevia" - a sweet plant or "honey grass" from South America.
The extract of "stevia" is sweeter than usual sugar many times over. Sweet substances of "stevia" do not disintegrate in the body and do not lose their qualities under high-temperature treatment. Therefore, the extract of "stevia" is suitable as a substitute for sugar for beverages and the mass of other products exposed to heat. To

all the rest, the extract of "stevia" is safe - sweet molecules are excreted by the body without changes, they do not accumulate and practically do not enter into biochemical reactions. That is why the extract of "stevia" is considered an ideal substitute for sugar, both for healthy people, and for those suffering from diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disorders and other metabolic disorders.
"Greenlite Stevia" is distinguished by the fact that it is made from the extract of a sweet plant (glycosides contained in the leaves of "Stevia") and is not a product of chemical synthesis.
Currently, Greenlite products are the only natural sugar substitutes supplied to the world market. It contains maltodextrin - a polymer of glucose, formed by the breakdown of starch of barley or corn into small glucose chains (oligosaccharides). They perfectly transform into glycogen of muscle tissue and give energy of movement. It is not for nothing that this type of carbohydrates is used in most sports drinks.
Natural sugar substitutes "GREENLITE" contribute to reducing the risk of diabetes and reducing excess body weight. When consuming "GREENLITE" in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, blood sugar level does not increase, which plays an important role in the prevention of micro and macro vascular complications.
Long-term studies conducted by the Scientific Centers of various countries have confirmed that "stevia" normalizes the function of the immune system in the human body, stimulates insulin secretion, circulates blood, stabilizes blood pressure; contributes to the repair of ulcerative processes, improves digestion and is recommended for people with obesity.
"Stevia" is a natural preservative, has antimicrobial and antifungal action; способствует выведению продуктов обмена, шлаков, солей тяжелых металлов из организма, замедляет процесс старения.
Более 1000 лет «Стевия» использовалась индейцами Гуарани. За последние тридцать лет использования «Стевии», в качестве пищевой добавки, в таких странах: как Япония, Китай, Корея, Тайвань, Южная Америка, США, Канада и других странах не отмечено никаких побочных или негативных проявлений для здоровья человека. Более того, многочисленные исследования на животных и людях с различными заболеваниями эндокринной и сердечно-сосудистой системы, подтвердили полезные свойства продуктов на основе «Стевии». Объединенный Экспертный Комитет по пищевым добавкам Всемирной Организации Здравоохранения (FAO/WHO) в 2004 году признал гликозиды стевии (стевиозид и Ребаудиозид) безопасными продуктами и одобрил ежедневный прием «Стевии».
Единственный его минус, достаточно специфический вкус. Но, как говорится, если нужда заставит - то выбора нет. Придется привыкать.
Передозировка любого вещества может принести вред здоровью. Именно поэтому так важно соблюдать правила «допустимой дневной нормы». Покупайте только те препараты, на этикетке которых указан тип подсластителя и его вес. Эта предосторожность позволяет точно рассчитать безопасное количество заменителя сахара. Контроль за порошками и уже готовыми сиропами, достаточно проблематичен. Поэтому, я советую отдавать предпочтение таблетированным формам сахаразаменителей, так как они предусматривают самый точный учет сладких миллиграммов.
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Заменители сахара.

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    APPETIZERS, SALADS SALAD APPLE AND TOMATO Products: apples 50 g, tomatoes 40 g, parsley greens 15 g, sugar substitute 8 g, vegetable oil 10 g. Fruits and vegetables wash in running water, grate apples on a large grater, cut small tomatoes into small slices , greens finely chopped and all gently stir, add sugar substitute and vegetable oil. SALAD OF FRESH TOMATOES
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    Белки. Орехи; все хлебные злаки; фасоль, сухой горох, соевые бобы; яйца, грибы. Все мясные продукты, раки, рыба. Сыр, творог. Подсолнечные семечки, баклажаны, молоко. Carbohydrates. Сюда относятся крахмалы, сахара, сиропы и сладкие фрукты. Крахмалы: все хлебные злаки; сушеные бобы; сушеный горох; картофель, каштаны, арахис, кабачки, тыква. Сахара и сиропы: желтый и белый сахар; варенья, повидла,
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  19. Recipes for cooking individual dishes at home
    SALADS, SNACKS SALAD FROM CARROT AND APPLES Products: 100 g carrots, uncooked apples without core 70 g, sour cream 20 g, sugar 6 g. Remove the core from the apples, cut them into slices and chop them in strips. Wet the raw carrots on a small grater and mix with apples. Add sugar and sprinkle with sour cream. SALAD FROM TOMATOES Products: 450 g of tomatoes, 1 apple, 1 tablespoon of vegetable
  20. Выделения вредных веществ при розжиге горнов с применением нефтесодержащих отходов.
    Согласно технологическому процессу проведения кузнечных работ, нагрев металла в горне производится путем сжигания в горне каменного угля. Температура возгорания каменного угля составляет 450оС, в связи с чем подготовка топлива к воспламенению требует значительных количеств тепла и длится долго. В связи с тем, что влажность каменного угля крупностью 25-50 мм составляет Wp = 27—29%, для
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