Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead || Next >> |
The value of protein in human life
Properties of the protein depend on its composition and on the location of amino acids in the molecule. Moreover, the order of amino acids in the protein molecule plays a very important role in the performance of their functions.
Amino acids synthesized in our body, called interchangeable. Some amino acids in the human body are not formed - this is an essential amino acid. Proteins containing the entire set of essential amino acids are biologically complete. They are contained in animal food, and in some food plants - soybeans, peas, beans.
If we take the value of milk proteins (it contains all the essential amino acids) for 100, then the biological value of meat and fish can be expressed as 95, potatoes - 85, rye bread - 75, rice - 58, peas - 55, wheat - 50.
All essential amino acids must come with food, a deficiency of at least one of them can lead to the death of the organism, since each of the essential amino acids affects certain of its functions.
The importance of proteins is not only in digestion, but also in all human activity. Enzymes are built from proteins - biological catalysts that accelerate the course of chemical reactions occurring in the body.
And the fact that meat food makes people irritable and cruel, by analogy with predatory animals, also does not hold water. After all, as advocates of vegetarianism argue: "Herbivorous animals differ in their appeasable temper, even nature did not deprive them of their strength and power. For example, taking an elephant is powerful and kind, and ferocity and bloodthirstiness are inherent in lions." Although the zoological arguments, and we have already understood it, are contradictory where, it is easy to see that in these primitive arguments the reasons are replaced by the consequences: it is not meat food that makes predators predatory, but people of a certain stock aggressive and socially dangerous. According to this reasoning, it turns out that if you feed a lion with carrots, it will become as quiet as a rabbit, and a rabbit will become dizzy from meat. But for some reason it seems to me that both of them will die before they have time to get used to the food that is unusual for them.
An uncompromising vegetarian, in order to get 50-70 g of fat, should eat 4-5 kg of vegetable products daily, and at least 70% of them should be oilseeds. Thus, the failure of a partial and even more complete from animal products today, too, can be considered as a certain tribute to the "fashionable" diets.
The fact that the protein is involved in the formation of muscle tissue seems to be obvious, but not everyone knows that it also participates in the construction of the skeleton.
This is due to the fact that protein food helps the absorption of calcium, while reducing the level of protein in food impairs the absorption of this element of the intestinal mucosa. But after all, more than 90% of calcium in human bones is concentrated: it is this element that gives strength to the skeleton. However, these functions of calcium in the body are not exhausted; it increases the excitability of the neuromuscular apparatus, promotes blood clotting, reduces the permeability of the walls of blood vessels. Calcium is involved in the work of the heart muscle, contributes to the implementation of the therapeutic action of cardiac glycosides, stimulates the liver, activates the enzyme lipase. Therefore, protein foods enriched with calcium, especially milk and dairy products, are more biologically more complete than foods of especially plant origin with a low calcium content.
Calcium deficiency in the body, triggered by the abandonment of animal proteins, leads to disruption of a number of physiological functions, in particular, mental and physical performance decreases, in children, bone formation is inhibited, and in adults, bones dissolve.
The following historical example is very indicative in this respect.
In 1857, 8 years old, Ivan Pavlov, the future winner of the Nobel Prize, fell from a high platform and then began to fall ill.
Maybe the boy would not have survived if the godfather, the abbot of the suburban Trinity Monastery, had not taken him to him. The old man knew the healing power of protein nutrition and, therefore, fed his godson with eggs, milk and boiled chickens. In the mornings he did gymnastics with him, in the summer he forced him to swim, ride, play in the towns, and in winter to rake the snow and skate. Always and willingly helped the boy igumen obihazhivat garden and vegetable garden. The igumen himself was distinguished by enviable health, which he believed with conviction as a result of a healthy diet. Later, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov wrote that indifference to food is unreasonable, and said more than once that it was thanks to proper nutrition that he retained high performance, endurance and clarity of thought until his full 86 years.
The completely opposite metamorphosis occurred with another representative of the Russian intelligentsia, who decided to become a vegetarian in their old age. Unlike little Vanya, who was sick as a child, little Levushka was an unusually healthy boy, and even in his mature years, fighting near Sevastopol, Lev Nikolayevich did not complain about his health. Upon his retirement and, by definition, V. I. Ulyanov-Lenin, becoming a "seasoned man," Tolstoy struck those around him with physical health, carrying water, riding a bicycle and skating almost 80 years. True, the world-famous writer stopped eating meat only to old age after the scene he saw at the Tula slaughter, when they began to tear off the skin of a fallen bull, and life was still beating in the animal’s huge body and large tears rolled from his bloodshot eyes. Having returned to Yasnaya Polyana, Lev Nikolayevich completely refused meat from considerations of an exclusively moral order and literally immediately began to change his appearance. Here is what his wife, Sophia Andreevna, wrote 7 years before the writer's death: “It is so painful for me to see him suffering, weak, dying and depressed in body and spirit. indifferent. Is something happening in him that he thinks? " The change that occurred with L. N. Tolstoy after the transition from the usual for him mixed food to vegetable food, is completely understandable and completely explainable.
Lack of food protein has a negative impact on the life of his body. First of all, the nitrogen balance was disturbed, and the breakdown of the protein began to prevail over its synthesis. Lacking protein, the body began to "eat" its own tissues. Not surprisingly, seven years later, the final clouding of reason led Tolstoy to death.
The lack of protein in the diet reduces the body's resistance to infections, as the level of antibody formation decreases. Synthesis and other protective factors - lysozyme and interferon - are disturbed, which is why the course of inflammatory processes is exacerbated. Reducing protein intake from food, or an increase in its consumption in the body (with heavy physical work or as a result of illness) causes protein deficiency. A severe form of protein deficiency is called kwashiorkor. This disease is more common in children. In Russia, kwashiorkor is not observed, but the disease is often found in the developing countries of Asia, Africa, Central and South America.
Uncompensated protein in the body adversely affects the activity of the cardiovascular, respiratory and other systems. The lack of protein worsens the appetite, which in turn reduces the influx of protein with food - a vicious circle occurs.
In order for this not to happen, it is necessary to constantly introduce into the body a physiologically necessary amount of protein in the diet.
| << Ahead || Next >> |
| = Go to tutorial content = |
The value of protein in human life
- QUESTION - ENVIRONMENT AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR HUMAN LIFE
At the first introductory lecture, we noted that hygiene is a science that studies the influence of environmental factors on the human body and develops measures to prevent the harmful effects of the environment and the development of diseases. Environmental factors that have a permanent effect on humans include, above all, air, water, and soil. It is known that the human body is in
- Nutrition as a factor in the preservation and promotion of health. Physiological norms of nutrition. The value of the individual components of food in human nutrition. The value of proteins in human nutrition, their norms and sources of entry into the body
Nutrition is one of the most active and important environmental factors, which has a variety of effects on the human body, ensures its growth, development, preservation of health, disability and optimal life expectancy. All this is provided by a daily, regulated meal with a certain set of foods. Foods are complex
- The value of fats, carbohydrates and minerals in human nutrition. The norms of these components of food and the sources of their entry into the human body
As mentioned in the previous lecture, fats are substances that perform in the body mainly energy function. In this regard, fats are superior to all other components of food (carbohydrates and proteins), since their combustion releases 2 times more energy (1 g of fat forms 9.3 kcal, while 1 g of protein and the corresponding amount of carbohydrates is only 4, 3 kcal). However biological
- Healthy lifestyle as a biological and social problem. The structure and importance of a healthy lifestyle
The concept of “health” is inseparable from the concept of “lifestyle”, since its health is manifested in the lifestyle of a person. By the definition of E.N. Weiner (2002), “A healthy lifestyle is a way of life, corresponding to the genetically determined typological characteristics of a given person, specific living conditions and aimed at the formation, preservation and promotion of health and
- Disclosure of the secret of life - the value for medicine and oncology
In biology, the problem of the essence of life and its origin has always been number one. The main sign of life or living at the cell level is its division, i.e. mitosis. The process of mitosis, visible in a microscope, in which one cell divides into two, is "an amazing phenomenon in biology." Even more surprising was the emergence of two chromosomes where previously there was only
- Human lifespan
it is determined not only by its biological, hereditary features, but also by social conditions (life, work, rest, food). Man lives longer than most higher vertebrates. It is known that individual individuals live to 110 years or more. "Records" Life expectancy are found in various countries and parts of the world and characterize its species (biological) limit. Species
- The value of collective opinion in life and work
Depending on the degree of unity and agreement in the dynamics of public opinion of the military collective, three of its main stages are distinguished: diffuse, polarized and unified collective opinion. A diffuse opinion is a difference of opinion and judgment. Warriors have conflicting, inconsistent positions; some of them find it difficult to define their point of view, they cannot objectively evaluate
- The crisis of the individual human life
From the point of view of psychology, death is a crisis of individual life, the last critical event in a person’s life. Being at the physiological level an irreversible cessation of all vital functions, having an inevitable personal significance for a person, death is also an element of the psychological culture of humanity. F. Aries believed that the installation of a person in relation to death on
- Human fear of death and the meaning of life
Human thought has always tried to penetrate the unknown and the mysterious, but still the most incomprehensible phenomenon was and remains for human death, which scares the uncertainty of experience and at the same time the accuracy of knowledge of its inevitability. The ratio of humanity to death can serve as an indicator of the level of development of civilization. The concept of death plays a significant role in human realization
- Features of the development of subjective reality in the adult period of human life
Studies in the national age psychology were focused mainly on the children's and youthful stages of human development. The basic laws and mechanisms of mental development were formulated for this interval of life. The idea was that the mental development of a person ceased beyond school age. At least in the domestic psychology
- Thermoregulation and living conditions of a modern person
With the development of human society, the desire of man to protect himself from the vicissitudes of nature was understandable. At the same time, special attention was paid to the inconvenience, which, due to the loss of wool cover, created for him sharp drops in external temperatures. Apparently, in itself, the loss of a person's woolen cover should indicate that its appearance as a biological species
- The status of the unemployed and its impact on the meaning of human life
Unemployment in our country is perceived as a completely negative phenomenon. Becoming unemployed, a person cannot fully realize himself as a citizen, as a member of a family, as a person as a whole. Sociological studies show that unemployment is not decreasing, reaching significant proportions, especially in rural areas. So, for example, statistics indicate that
- The lifetime of the virus outside the human body
Outdoors, the virus dies in a few minutes. Inside the syringe, he can live much longer. The viability of HIV is different, often contradictory data. Where is the truth? There are many misconceptions and misinterpretations of scientific data regarding the life of HIV outside the human body. Laboratory tests use virus concentrations that at least