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EAR DEVELOPMENT ANOMALIES

Congenital malformations of the auricle are visually determined by cosmetic defects - macrotia (increase in size), microtia (decrease in size) and protrusion of the auricles. These defects are corrected using operations. With protruding ears, an oval skin flap is removed from the behind-the-ear fold. During suturing, wounds pull the auricle to the wound skin of the mastoid process. Macrotia and microtia are eliminated by plastic surgery.

Other deformities of the auricle include the satyr ear (an elongated tip-shaped conch), Darwin's tubercle (protrusion on the curl), macaque ear (smoothness of curls), etc.

In the region of the ascending part of the curl, over the tragus, there are congenital fistulas due to the failure of the first branchial fissure. Yellow viscous fluid or pus may come from them with inflammation of the skin around the fistula, aggravated by pressure. When the fistulous opening is blocked, cysts may occur. In the surgical treatment of malformations of the external ear, plastic auricle prostheses are sometimes used.

Atresia (fusion) of the external auditory canal may be accompanied by an underdevelopment of the middle and inner ear in the form of a lack of auditory ossicles, bone fusion of the middle and inner ear with deafness or hearing loss. Atresias are membranous-cartilaginous and bone, partial and complete. 22% of patients do not perceive whispering and speaking or feel it near the auricle and 30% at a distance of 1-2 m. Conducted hearing loss is observed at a level of 40-60 dB, with normal bone conduction, with a bone-air interval of 30-40 dB . 80% of people have a severe degree of hearing loss, and 14.8% have deafness. The main group consists of patients with II and III degrees of hearing loss and with very severe forms of dysginesis - with IV degree.

Using X-ray of the temporal bones according to Schuller, Mayer, Stenvers, tomography and computed tomography, changes in the middle and inner ear are clarified.
The most informative is computed tomography, which allows you to identify the bone or cartilage structure of atresia of the auditory meatus, the condition of the tympanic cavity, auditory ossicles, the number of cochlear curls and the structure of the semicircular canals. Contrast radiography of the auditory tube is performed to determine its patency. A thorough audiological examination is performed (tonal, speech audiometry, impedance audiometry, audiometry by auditory evoked potentials and otoacoustic emission). Using a high-quality caloric test, they determine the presence of the function of the vestibular apparatus.

Bilateral hearing loss and deafness in children lead to impaired development of speech and mental abilities. Their fate depends on the possibilities of surgical and deaf-and-pedagogical correction of hearing and speech, therefore, children should be operated on earlier - at three to five years of age, and with unilateral pathology - after 10-14 years.

Surgical treatment consists in creating a stable external auditory canal according to the type of radical ear surgery with tympanoplasty, which involves revising the auditory ossicles, windows, auditory tube, creating a tympanal cavity with a non-tympanic membrane. When indicated, any variant of tympanoplasty, stapedoplasty or fenestration of the horizontal semicircular canal is done. In each case, the operation is individual and complex, therefore it is advisable to examine and treat patients, especially children with malformations of the ear, hearing loss, in qualified clinics of otolaryngology or maxillofacial surgery (auricle plastic). Military personnel with protruding ears, unilateral atresia of the auditory meatus without a sharp violation of the function of the middle and inner ear and, in simpler cases, operate in district hospitals.

Survey of conscripts and military personnel with congenital malformations of the ear is carried out according to article 80 of the order of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation N 315 1995
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EAR DEVELOPMENT ANOMALIES

  1. Ear malformations
    Anomalies in the development of the auricle are relatively rare. All deformities of the auricles can be divided into two groups: congenital and acquired as a result of trauma. Congenital malformations are determined immediately due to cosmetic defects - excessive size (macrotia), reduced size of the auricle (microtia) or distance from the head (bulging) of the auricles. These defects
  2. Developmental abnormalities
    Embryogenesis defects are the basis of abnormalities in the development of the nose and paranasal sinuses. They are due to the presence of a pathological mutant gene in the genotype, as well as the influence of various harmful factors (infections, alcoholism, tobacco abuse and other intoxications affecting the genetic code). Harmful factors are especially dangerous in the second month of embryonic life, when the laying occurs
  3. THROAT DEVELOPMENT ANOMALIES
    Anomalies in the development of the pharynx are quite rare, no more than 1% among all its diseases. First of all, this is the non-closure of the soft palate, which leads to a violation of the function of swallowing (ingestion of food and liquids in the nasopharynx and nasal cavity) and the function of speech - open nasal. On examination, the sagittal cleft of the soft palate in the middle of it is determined, often the uvula is absent or vice versa
  4. Anomalies in the development of the nervous system
    The intrauterine development of a person has a clear sequence and can often be disrupted by the influence of adverse factors affecting the mother's body. These factors include: • Viral diseases of the mother during pregnancy. • Insufficiency of utero-placental circulation. • Ionizing radiation. • Vibration. •
  5. Congenital anomalies and developmental defects
    Malformations are persistent morphological changes in the organ or organism as a whole, which go beyond the limits of the norm and arise in utero as a result of a violation of the development of the embryo or fetus, sometimes after the birth of a child due to a violation of the further formation of organs. These changes cause impaired functions. Synonyms of the term "malformations"
  6. Bone abnormalities
    The skeleton system serves as the site for the development of an extremely diverse circulatory, inflammatory, tumor, metabolic and congenital disorder. Indeed, the difficulties of growth, development, self-maintenance of this system and its relationship with other organs make the skeletal system unusually vulnerable to adverse effects. No wonder primary and secondary bone diseases
  7. Anomalies in the development of the nose
    Congenital anomalies of the external nose due to impaired embryonic development are relatively rare: this is the absence or insufficient development of the nose, the excessive growth of its parts, the abnormal location and development of the entire nose or its departments. In practice, such congenital malformations as a double nose, splitting of the nose, its formation in the form of one trunk or two
  8. CONGENITAL ANOMALIES OF NERVOUS SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
    The group of diseases, which are based on congenital defects in the development of the nervous system, includes such a pathology as the Klippel-Feil anomaly, characterized by isolated and multiple synostoses of the cervical vertebrae, cranial hernia, craniostenosis (premature closure of cranial sutures), microcephaly (reduction in size skull and brain, accompanied by mental
  9. Operations for abnormalities of the uterus
    Operations with abnormalities in the development of the uterus (rudimentary uterine horn, bicornuate uterus, double uterus) are performed most often with impaired reproductive function (infertility, miscarriage) caused by this pathology. Technique of execution. The rudimentary horn of the uterus is often detected during a developing (or interrupted) pregnancy in it. The rudimentary uterine horn is excised with attachment
  10. Genital malformations
    Definition of a concept. Congenital disorders of the anatomical structure of the genitals (VNASH) due to incomplete organogenesis are commonly referred to abnormalities in the development of the genital organs of the female body. VNASG is manifested in violation of the size, shape, proportions, symmetry, topography, and sometimes the absence (private or full) of the genitals. Frequency. According to WHO data for 1967, the frequency of VNASG was 1 per
  11. Anomalies in the development of female genital organs
    Embryonic development of the genital organs occurs in close relationship with the development of the urinary tract and kidneys. Therefore, developmental anomalies of these two systems are often found simultaneously. The kidneys develop in stages: the pre-kidney (head kidney), the primary kidney (wolf body) and the final kidney. All these formations come from nephrogenic cords located along the spine. Predpochka
  12. ANOMALIES OF DEVELOPMENT AND CONGENITAL FAULTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    J.R. DeLong, R. D. Adame (C. R. DeLong, RDAdams) In this chapter we will focus on diseases caused by injuries or malformations of the nervous system that arose in the process of its formation, but which also have an adverse effect in adults . As a result, difficulties arise in their diagnosis and treatment of patients with which general practitioners deal and
  13. Surgery for anomalies in the development of female genital organs
    Operations on the female genital organs in connection with abnormalities of their development can be divided into the following groups: • operations on the external genital organs, hymen and vagina; • surgery for aplasia of the vagina; • operations with malformations of the uterus and
  14. Anomalies in the development and disease of the retina and optic nerve
    Retinal anomalies occur in combination with albinism, nystagmus. Inflammatory processes in the retina occur when the choroid is damaged in the form of chorioretinitis against tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis, rheumatism, etc. In children, retinal diseases are caused by general pathology and occur in the form of renal, diabetic retinopathies. It should highlight retinopathy of prematurity of varying degrees of development.
  15. ANOMALIES OF DEVELOPMENT, INJURIES, FOREIGN BODIES
    ANOMALIES OF DEVELOPMENT, INJURIES, FOREIGN
  16. Surgery for abnormalities of the vagina
    Surgical treatment of the longitudinal partitions of the vagina consists in their dissection (Fig. 73), which is performed as planned or during childbirth. The need for such an operation occurs when the septum prevents normal sexual life or the passage of the fetus through the vagina. The septum can be straight through the entire vagina (in such cases, they usually do not violate the function of the vagina)
  17. Medical and pedagogical analysis of some forms of developmental anomalies in childhood
    In this chapter, we would like to dwell on the diagnosis of certain types of anomalies in child development, which doctors and defectologists often encounter. We will consider forms which are especially difficult in the diagnostic relation. A correctly diagnosed diagnosis makes it possible to refer a child to a special educational or educational institution appropriate to his condition and
  18. Anomalies in the formation of the walls of the abdominal cavity and malformations of the gastrointestinal tract
    Diaphragmatic hernia is the movement of the abdominal cavity into the chest cavity through a diaphragm defect. It is believed that congenital diaphragmatic hernia is the result of teratogenic effects of quinine, antiepileptic drugs, and vitamin A deficiency. Congenital diaphragmatic hernias are often combined with anencephaly, cephalocele, spina bifida, lip and upper lip splitting
  19. Congenital malformations of the central nervous system. Damage to the brain in the perinatal period
    Congenital abnormalities at the time of the study, as a rule, reflect a particular stage of brain development. In most cases, the etiology and pathogenesis of malformations of the central nervous system remain unknown. Etiological agents can lead either to insufficient normal development, or destructive changes in the nervous tissue. It is known that during the segmental development of the head
  20. ANOMALIES OF DEVELOPMENT AND DISEASE OF THE FRUIT, FULL CELLS, CORD, PLACENTA
    ANOMALIES OF DEVELOPMENT AND DISEASE OF THE FRUIT, FRUIT SHELLS, CORD,
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