home
about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

INFLUENCE OF ADVERSE FACTORS OF MILITARY LABOR ON ENT ORGANS

The ENT organs are extremely important in the work of a person. Their reliable functioning provides not only an active lifestyle, communication between people, but also the implementation of a number of professional tasks. In connection with the development of military equipment, the functional state of the ENT organs in military personnel is of particular relevance. Fulfillment of official duties in various branches and types of the armed forces (submarine fleet, aviation, astronautics, airborne forces, artillery, border troops, etc.), in special services (chemical, engineering, radar, reconnaissance, etc.) and specialties (radio operators, sonar speakers, divers, etc.) makes high demands on such analyzers as auditory, vestibular, olfactory, as well as barofunction, voice-speaking, swallowing, respiratory, protective and barrier functions.

At the same time, service under the influence of extreme factors can negatively affect the functional state of both the organism as a whole and the ENT organs that are associated with the external environment directly or through receptor formations sensitive to traumatic factors.

Currently, there is practically no military specialty where noise would not be among the leading adverse factors. Moreover, the technical improvement of the armed forces, contributing to a significant increase in combat efficiency, in some cases leads to a further increase in noise level. Studies prove that hearing loss is progressing under the influence of prolonged intense noise. The so-called noise hearing loss develops.

Moreover, intense and prolonged irritation of the auditory system can cause a number of disorders that occur in the central nervous and cardiovascular systems, the state of homeostasis and immunobiological reactivity of the body. Often, people working in conditions of prolonged and rather intense noise - 90-120 dB (tankers, aircraft technicians, minders, etc.) as a result of degenerative-atrophic processes in the central and peripheral parts of the auditory system develop professional hearing loss. This leads not only to a decrease in the combat effectiveness and efficiency of the personnel, but also, in some cases, to disability of people.

The widespread use of explosives in mines (mines, grenades, shells, etc.) in a huge percentage of cases leads to acute acubarotrauma of the auditory system among the victims. Often, barotrauma can develop from the action of an air blast or muzzle wave (artillerymen, tankers, grenade launchers, etc.)

The fighting in Afghanistan and the Middle East showed a high striking effectiveness of explosive ordnance, which accounted for almost 85% of all sanitary losses. Change in the nature of hostilities in local conflicts and the degree of protection of personnel (up to 13% of an openly located manpower is usually located in a combat zone up to 3 km deep, 70% are sheltered in military fortifications, 15% are in lightly armored vehicles, 2% - in armored vehicles) makes significant amendments to the structure of possible sanitary losses when using explosive ordnance. The use of personal protective equipment (body armor, helmets, helmets) dramatically increases the protection of military personnel to mechanical damage from fragments and damaging elements, but does not reduce the damaging role of air shock waves.

From the experience of warfare and military conflicts it is known that amid the difficult general condition of victims of explosive factors, the diagnosis of damage to the auditory system, especially in the early stages after an injury, is very difficult. In this regard, in most cases, damage to the auditory system is either not diagnosed at all (51%) or diagnosed late (26.5%), which leads to delayed therapy and significantly affects the effectiveness of providing qualified care. Such victims develop irreversible pathological processes in the peripheral and central structures of the auditory system, other parts of the brain with the further development of sensorineural hearing loss and disability of the victim (Preobrazhensky B.S., 1944; Temkin Y. S., 1947; Voyachek V.I., 1951; Hoffman V.R., Glaznikov L.A., 1996).

In the military profession, the vestibular system is most closely linked to aviation, astronautics, the navy, landing service, etc. It is on air, space and sea ships that crew members are exposed to accelerations of various intensities. With the accumulation of these accelerations, people with increased vestibular excitability may develop a symptom of motion sickness. Severe vestibulosomatic and vestibular vegetative reactions in these individuals often lead not only to the disruption of the combat mission, but also to disasters.

The development of aviation, marine navigation, land transport has made the problem of motion sickness one of the most urgent in military medicine. Thus, according to statistics, 20% of pilots and cadets of flight schools, 36% of sailors, and up to 80% of airborne assailants are subject to motion sickness.

Currently, there are two forms of manifestations of motion sickness:

1) explicit - with severe symptoms;

2) hidden - with a disguised current.

Moreover, according to a number of researchers, about 30% of aviation accidents or prerequisites for flight accidents occur as a result of the development of a latent form of motion sickness among pilots.

With an obvious form, a person suffers severely, experiencing severe dizziness, palpitations, cold sweat, nausea and vomiting.
He becomes completely helpless. Its performance and combat efficiency sharply fall, its operator functions are violated. It should be remembered that factors contributing to the development of motion sickness are: unfavorable sanitary and hygienic conditions of the human environment, features of the constitutional type of person and the nervous system; altered functional state of organs, systems and the whole organism; condition after acute illnesses, as well as chronic diseases.

The airways of the ENT organs are extremely sensitive to pressure differences. So the threshold for sensing fluctuations in the external pressure of the middle ear is 1 - 5 mm Hg. Art. Even with a slight violation of the drainage function of the auditory tube or the mouth of the paranasal sinuses, pressure drops can cause barootitis and acute paranasal sinusitis. Of the paranasal sinuses, the frontal sinuses are most sensitive to injuries, the communication of which with the nasal cavity is through a long and narrow channel. Barotrauma of ENT organs can occur both in peacetime and in wartime among specialists of many military professions: pilots, submariners, divers, caissons. Often, barotrauma can develop from the action of an air blast or muzzle wave (artillerymen, tankers, grenade launchers, etc.)

It is impossible not to take into account the harmful effects on the ENT organs of such occupational hazards of military labor as sources of radioactive radiation. When irradiated in the midst of radiation sickness, the mucous membrane of the larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, nose becomes dry, anemic, loose, bleeding, which ultimately leads to ulceration and necrosis. In such cases, in some cases, hearing loss develops as a type of disturbance in sound perception (due to degenerative processes of the receptor apparatus of the cochlea and auditory nerve). An increased excitability of the vestibular system appears. Such persons are not able to perform operator functions, especially under the conditions of exposure to the body of vestibular loads (flight-lifting personnel, sailors, drivers, etc.). Moreover, at the height of the disease, transportation of such a contingent is extremely difficult, since the development of the symptom complex of motion sickness aggravates their condition.

The use in the Armed Forces of equipment and facilities that study electromagnetic fields (including radio waves) of a different range (microwave, microwave, alternating magnetic and electric fields) is often the cause of occupational diseases. Against the background of the effects of such occupational hazards, profound biochemical changes occur in the tissues of the body, which also in turn violate the functions of the ENT organs and many physiological functions of the body, including the cardiovascular system, immunity, the gastrointestinal tract, and the central nervous system. Such victims have neurasthenia, sleep disturbance, headaches, emotional and somatic discomfort, impaired intracranial hemodynamics, tinnitus, and also vestibulo-vascular insufficiency. These disorders can cause impaired coordination and operator functions, lowering the thresholds of vestibular excitability. In such victims, vestibular dysfunction often proceeds as either a lesser-like or diencephalic syndrome, which is believed to occur due to discoordination of the centers of the brain. Ultimately, in some cases, the disease leads to profound disability of the military serviceman (including due to the development of their oncological diseases). Such radiation is most often exposed to personnel serving radar stations (coast guard, air defense service, radio technical service of the army, aviation and navy, border guard). It should be noted that personnel exposed to such stations are also exposed to such radiation.

Severe dysfunctions of the ENT organs can develop when exposed to various chemicals. Chemical trauma in military personnel can occur both in peacetime (at enterprises, especially the chemical industry), and in wartime (chemical warfare agents). With prolonged exposure to the mucous membrane of such widespread industrial and household chemicals as chlorine, fluorine, aluminum, formalin, manganese and others, a chronic pathological process can develop - atrophic rhinitis, laryngotracheitis and bronchitis with subsequent respiratory distress, barrier functions of the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract , destruction of the nasal septum, the development of anosmia, dysphonia. The auditory nerve (quinine, chlorine, iodine) is highly sensitive to certain chemicals, and when exposed to it, acute or chronic sensorineural hearing loss can develop.

Despite the reduction of chemical weapons, the study of the characteristics of damage to the body as a whole and ENT organs in particular with toxic substances remains relevant. These include: OM of general toxic effect (FOV, cyanides), OM of skin-boiling effect (mustard gas, lewisite), tearful OM, asphyxiating OM (phosgene, chlorine), irritating OM, etc.

Thus, a number of harmful factors in the conditions of military service can adversely affect the state of ENT organs. To a large extent, the prevention of the progression of pathological processes developing in military personnel depends on the part physician. A properly organized military medical examination and professional selection will not only support the combat effectiveness of the military contingent, but also prevent the development of serious complications.
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

INFLUENCE OF ADVERSE FACTORS OF MILITARY LABOR ON ENT ORGANS

  1. The nature of adverse environmental factors.
    Xenobiotics. The nature of adverse environmental factors leading to the development of pathological processes in humans can be different - chemical and physical. Chemical alien factors are called xenobiotics. Xenobiotics (gr. Xenos alien + bios life) - compounds alien to the body (pesticides, household chemicals, medicines, etc.), which, getting into
  2. Risk Factors for Adverse Acute MI
    Previously, the adverse factors that aggravate the course of acute myocardial infarction, in addition to the size and localization of myocardial infarction, were traditionally attributed to old age, female gender, the presence of concomitant diabetes mellitus, hypertension, other social, hereditary factors and concomitant diseases. Now, with the advent of new medical technologies, the structure of risk factors has changed: a significant contribution to both early
  3. MECHANISMS FOR FORMING PAIN AND WAYS TO OVERCOME ITS UNFAVORABLE INFLUENCE ON THE ORGANISM
    MECHANISMS FOR FORMING PAIN AND WAYS TO OVERCOME ITS ADVERSE INFLUENCE ON
  4. Abortion is an adverse factor affecting healthy lifestyle
    From the history of the issue. Abortion (lat. Abortus - miscarriage) - a person has an abortion in a period of up to 28 weeks (i.e., until the birth of a viable fetus is possible). This is a spontaneous abortion. Artificial medical abortion is performed in up to 12 weeks at the request of a woman; for medical indicators - and at a later date. Abortion outside a medical institution is criminal. TO
  5. The specifics of a military university and its impact on the professional adaptation of civilian teachers to teaching
    Historiographic analysis shows that the achievements in the preparation of graduates of military universities are provided not only by a generalization of classical experience, but also by those theoretical premises that are accumulated in the corresponding field of knowledge. In relation to our study, the conceptual attitudes of G. Selye are of great importance [158; 159], which, in our opinion, have powerful
  6. Airborne allergens and environmental factors
    R. Osdenmoor, M. Lierl I. Air allergens are fairly large particles of complex structure (pollen, molds, algae, mites, particles of insects and plants, epidermis of animals), which can cause allergic reactions if they enter the respiratory tract. Actually the allergen is not the whole particle, but only some of the substances that make up its composition, as a rule,
  7. Negative effect on organs and systems of the body
    The brain is the most active consumer of energy. The negative effect of alcohol on the brain is associated with impaired access of oxygen to neurons as a result of alcohol intoxication. Alcoholic dementia, which develops in connection with prolonged use of alcohol, leads to social death of brain cells. The harmful effects of alcohol affect all systems of the human body
  8. How to avoid the adverse effects of ECT in severe diseases of the cardiovascular system?
    Excessive cholinergic stimulation is eliminated by atropine. All patients should be pre-sedated with glycopyrrolate to prevent bradycardia and suppress excessive secretion of the salivary and respiratory glands. Sympathetic hyperactivity is eliminated by nitroglycerin, nifedipine, and - and (3-adrenergic blockers. High doses (3-adrenergic blockers (es-molol, 200 mg) reduce the duration of
  9. Pathology caused by adverse environmental factors that are inhaled.
    Nowadays, the structure of diseases caused by adverse environmental factors has undergone significant changes due to the manifestation of various pathways of xenobiotics into the human body. During evolution, the bulk of toxic products entered the body through the gastrointestinal tract and rendered harmless in the liver. Currently, the majority of foreign products
  10. Resuscitation and intensive care with adverse environmental factors.
    Lecture 7 (for paramedics) Hyperthermia. Overheating of the body is a condition that occurs under the influence of high ambient temperature and factors that impede heat transfer. Such situations arise due to a prolonged stay in a room with a high temperature and the simultaneous performance of hard work, with
  11. An empirical study of factors affecting the adaptation process of military university teachers
    First of all, we note that under the factor in our study we mean a separate reason that affects adaptation, determining its individual components and (or) their nature and properties. The whole complex of factors, thus, forms the adaptive readiness of teachers and employees of higher military schools for professional and pedagogical activities. Of greatest scientific interest is not
  12. Professional subjectivity as a factor in the self-development of a military psychologist
    Today, one of the most sought-after professions is the profession of a psychologist. Currently, more than 150 universities in the country are training relevant specialists. The existing experience of their preparation in higher education convincingly proves that the image of the future graduate profession should be the same object of formation as professional knowledge, skills, and ways of thinking.
  13. Abortion as an adverse factor affecting a healthy lifestyle
    Аборт — искусственное прерывание беременности сопровождающееся (или вызванное) гибелью плода не способного к самостоятельному существованию (в отличие от преждевременных родов). Возможные осложнения процедуры Осложнения аборта делятся на три группы. Ранние (во время аборта или спустя 1 неделю) • Перфорация матки — представляет собой разрыв стенки матки. • Гематометра.
  14. THREE-YEAR RESULTS OF THE APPLICATION OF NEUTRON THERAPY IN THE COMPREHENSIVE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH BCF WITH UNFAVORABLE FORECAST FACTORS
    Great V.V., Zhogina Zh.A., Musabaeva L.I. Research Institute of Oncology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Tomsk, Research Objective: To study the effectiveness of complex treatment in patients with a high risk of local recurrence of breast cancer using neutron therapy for the postoperative scar. Materials and methods: 36 patients with breast cancer T2-4N1-3M0-1 with a high risk of developing local-regional relapse were monitored. U 7 (20
  15. ВОЕННАЯ ЛОР ЭКСПЕРТИЗА. МЕТОДЫ ЛОР ПРОФОТБОРА
    Военно-врачебная экспертиза является разделом теории и практики военного здравоохранения, представляющим собой комплекс специальных научно-методических, организационных и практических мероприятий, осуществляемых в целях комплектования и медицинского обеспечения ВС РФ, совершенствования медико-социальной помощи личному составу согласно существующему законодательству. Организация медицинского
  16. Факторы рациональной организации жизнедеятельности работника умственного труда
    Как уже отмечалось, организация жизнедеятельности человека определяется многими обстоятельствами: индивидуальными, социальными, семейно-бытовыми, культурологическими, профессиональными. В настоящем разделе будут рассмотрены факторы рациональной жизнедеятельности применительно к работникам умственного труда. Это обусловлено как профессиональной ориентацией настоящего учебника на учителей,
  17. Факторы, оказывающие влияние на здоровье
    Факторы риска (ФР) - это потенциально опасные для здоровья обстоятельства поведенческого, биологического, генетического, экологического, социального характера, окружающей и производственной среды, повышающие вероятность развития заболеваний, их прогрессирования и неблагоприятного исхода. З обусловлено комплексным влиянием социальных, поведенческих и биологических факторов. Это:
  18. Общая характеристика промышленных факторов, определяющих условия труда в производстве лекарств.
    1.Химический фактор. Как показывают исследования, основным неблагоприятным действующим фактором производственной среды на предприятиях химико-фармацевтической промышленности является загрязнение вредными органическими и неорганическими веществами воздуха рабочей зоны, одежды и кожных покровов. Загрязнение воздуха токсичными веществами возможно на всех этапах технологического процесса: при
  19. Факторы риска для здоровья. Гиподинамия, ее влияние на организм
    Физическое здоровье человека зависит от: • биологических факторов (наследственность, изменчивость); • сложного комплекса социальных условий ( образ жизни, факторы внешней среды, питание и др.) • Одни из этих факторов ухудшают здоровье, вызывают заболевания и укорачивают жизнь, другие, наоборот, способствуют укреплению и восстановлению здоровья. • В современной науке прочно
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019
info@medicine-guidebook.com