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Inflammatory diseases of the nasal cavity
Consideration of inflammatory diseases of the nasal cavity must be preceded by a summary of a number of fundamental principles contained in the capital work of V.I. Voyacheka "Fundamentals of Otorhinolaryngology" (1953), many of which have not lost their significance at present.
Inflammatory diseases of the nose V.I. Voyachek suggests considering as a reactive response of the mucous membrane and other tissues to the effects of various factors of the external and internal environment. The strength of this answer depends not only on the pathogenic characteristics of a particular stimulus, but to a large extent on the sensitivity to the latter of the organism itself.
IN AND. Voyachek sold great importance in the formation of the body's response to its "constitutional features", which largely determine the immunological reactivity.
The nature of the response depends on the state of the central and autonomic nervous system, the function of the endocrine glands, including recently discovered intraorgan endocrine regulation (APUD systems), as well as from existing disorders of the general condition of the body (tuberculosis and other infections, diabetes, anemia, vitamin deficiency, nutritional dystrophy, fatigue, cooling, etc.).
As a result, typical forms of a reactive response should be considered:
1) common inflammation, 2) vasomotor or secretory reaction, and 3) primary dystrophic processes.
Various combinations are possible between them, due to which mixed forms are formed.
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Inflammatory diseases of the nasal cavity
- Diseases of the external nose and nasal cavity
Congenital anomalies of the external nose in the form of its complete absence, splitting of the tip of the nose, double nose, etc. are extremely rare and do not have such practical significance as congenital and acquired changes in the nasal cavity, leading to impaired patency of the nasal cavity for inhaled and exhaled air. Narrowing and overgrowing of the nasal cavity. Congenital narrowness is sometimes observed.
- DISEASES OF THE NOSE CAVITY
- Diseases of the nasal cavity
- Deformations of the nasal septum, synechia and atresia of the nasal cavity
The etiologic deformation of the nasal septum may be due to physiological, traumatic, and compensatory factors. Physiological curvature occurs when there is a mismatch in the growth of the nasal septum and the bone frame into which it is inserted. The growth of the septum is slightly ahead of the growth of the facial skeleton, so its curvature occurs. In childhood, physiological
- NOSE CAVITY
The nasal cavity (cavitas nasi) is the initial section of the respiratory tract and, at the same time, the organ of smell. Passing through the nasal cavity, the air either cools, or warms up, moisturizes and purifies. The nasal cavity is formed by the outer nose and bones of the facial skull, divided by a septum into two symmetrical halves. The nostrils are the front openings in the nasal cavity, and through the choanas are the back openings
- Clinical anatomy of the nasal cavity
The nasal cavity (cavum nasi) is located between the oral cavity and the anterior cranial fossa, and on the sides - between the paired upper jaws and paired ethmoid bones. The nasal septum divides it sagittally into two halves, opening anteriorly by the nostrils and posteriorly, into the nasopharynx, by the choanas. Each half of the nose is surrounded by four airy paranasal sinuses: maxillary,
- Foreign bodies of the nasal cavity
Most often, foreign bodies of the nasal cavity are found in childhood. Children insert various small objects into their nose - buttons, balls, folded pieces of paper, berry seeds, seeds, etc. Foreign bodies can enter the nose through the choanas during vomiting and through the outer surface of the nose in case of injuries. Part of the nasal cavity may be left behind during surgery or after tamponade
- Features of blood supply and innervation of the nasal cavity
Blood supply to the nasal cavity comes from a.sphenopalatina, aa. ethmoidales anterior et posterior, a. nasopalatina (branch fffi ^ jcx ^ / i of the carotid artery). These arteries are anastomosirutotic in the anterior and lower part of the septum with a.alveolans inferior and a.palatina major. Bleeding nose (locus Kisselbachii). It is located in the anterior third of the nasal septum due to the presence of a thick
- Clinical anatomy and topography of the nasal cavity
The nasal cavity (cavum nasi) is located between the oral cavity and the anterior cranial fossa. It is divided by the nasal septum into two identical halves, which are opened anteriorly by the nostrils and posteriorly into the nasopharynx - by the choans. Each half of the nose is surrounded by four paranasal sinuses: maxillary, ethmoid, frontal and sphenoid. The nasal cavity has four walls: lower, upper,
- Opening of the nasopharynx, nose and adnexa
For this purpose, the Harke method is considered to be the best, which makes it possible to examine not only the nose and nasopharynx, but also the sinuses of the main bone, frontal sinuses, ethmoid bone cells and the maxillary cavity. After removing the brain and pituitary gland, the front skin flap of the head is separated from the frontal bone to the edges of the orbits and the roots of the nose and discarded on the face. Back skin flap is separated from
- Microendoscopic methods of surgical intervention in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
There are a number of options for endonasal endoscopic microoperations, however, all the techniques can be combined into two main varieties - these are the classic methods according to Messerklinger and Wiegand, they are designed to restore the natural ventilation and drainage paths, with the smallest changes in the anatomical structures and the maximum gentleness of the mucous membrane. Most widely
- ROLE OF CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY PROCESSES OF THE ORAL CAVITY IN THE FORMATION OF PATHOLOGICAL IMMUNE REACTIVITY
Currently, great importance in the autoallergenization of the body is given not only to tonsilogenic foci, but also to chronic odontogenic foci of inflammation, where the accumulation of toxins occurs. Endotoxins formed by the microflora of the oral cavity, which have antigenic activity, sensitize the body, alter the body's reactivity, distorting its reaction to many factors of influence.
- Inflammatory diseases of the ENT organs
The most common inflammatory diseases of ENT organs are represented by the following nosological forms: nasal furuncle, acute otitis media, acute sinusitis, paratonsillitis, pharyngeal abscess, laryngeal tonsillitis, phlegmonous laryngitis. The clinical significance of these diseases lies in the fact that they can occur both in latent and fulminant forms, accompanied by serious complications.
- INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE NANOLAIN SINAS
Inflammatory diseases of the paranasal sinuses (sinusitis) are among the most common diseases of the upper respiratory tract. According to the literature, patients with sinusitis make up about 1/3 of the total number of hospitals hospitalized in ENT (Kozlov M.Ya., 1985; Soldatov IB, 1990; Piskunov GZ et al., 1992; Aref'eva N.A. , 1994). The foci of inflammation in the paranasal sinuses can be a source
- 3. The consequences of inflammatory diseases.
Long-existing infectious diseases are often the cause of a woman’s emotional instability. They also bring disharmony into sex life. In the end, all inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs lead to serious reproductive health problems. The consequences of untreated inflammatory diseases are very diverse and extensive. But, in any
- Inflammatory diseases
The inflammatory genesis of miscarriage is due to the peculiarities of the penetration of microorganisms through the placenta to the fetus from maternal blood. The presence of microorganisms in the mother may be asymptomatic or accompanied by characteristic signs of an inflammatory disease. Often, the pathogen, passing through the placenta, causes the development of placentitis with certain histopathological
- Female genital inflammatory diseases
Inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs (VZPO) occupy the first place in the structure of gynecological diseases. About 40% of gynecological patients in the hospital have VZPO. The cause of all inflammatory diseases of the genitals are microbes, which most often enter the body of a woman through sexual contact. Pathogens can also spread by the lymphogenous, hematogenous route,
- Inflammatory diseases of the middle ear
Pathological processes that occur in various parts of the middle ear are very diverse. The polymorphism of pathogenesis depends on the characteristics of the anatomy and physiology of this organ, pathological agent, immunological condition, etc. Depending on the duration of the disease, acute and chronic processes are distinguished, in relation to the stages of inflammation - catarrhal, serous and purulent forms
- Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease
The group of inflammatory bowel lesions of unknown origin currently includes two diseases: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. These diseases have a lot in common, so they were combined into one group. Both of them are chronic, recurrent, inflammatory diseases of unknown origin. Crohn's disease is a granulomatous disease that can
- Cancer and inflammatory bowel disease
Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases of the colon are at increased risk of developing cancer. But the degree of risk has not yet been determined. A study conducted by British scientists covered 624 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and found that only 3.5% of patients developed colon and rectal cancer, although the predicted number was 7 times greater. Diagnosis