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DISEASES OF THE NOSE AND NEXTILOUS SINAS, THROATS, Larynx and Ear

The upper respiratory tract (nose, paranasal sinuses, pharynx and larynx) perform the most important life-supporting functions, a detailed description of which is given in Part I. The next part is devoted to diseases of these organs.

Based on the functional significance in the clinic of each of the organs - reflex, humoral and other connections of these organs with the body as a whole, we can draw a conclusion about the disorders that occur with the disease of any of them in neighboring and distant organs and tissues.

Such an approach at the patient’s bedside will help to take the necessary measures both to examine the patient and to select the optimal therapeutic tactics.

In practice, there are often cases when a particular upper respiratory tract disease symptomatically recedes into the background, as it were, against the background of a general disease.


However, in such cases, often the patient's recovery is possible only after the elimination of the pathology in the upper respiratory tract: in the tonsils, adenoids, paranasal sinuses, etc.

Thus, diseases of the upper respiratory tract should be attributed to a pathology that encompasses the entire body and aggravates the course of any general disease.
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DISEASES OF THE NOSE AND NEXTILOUS SINAS, THROATS, Larynx and Ear

  1. Surgery for diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses
    The most common operations for diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses include polypectomy, endoscopic interventions in the paranasal sinuses, opening the maxillary sinus (Caldwell-Luc operation), rhinoplasty, septoplasty. Preoperative period Patients often have marked nasal breathing disorders due to polyps, nasal curvature
  2. DISEASES OF THE NOSE AND SINUS NANOSIS
    DISEASES OF THE NOSE AND NEXTLINE
  3. TUMORS OF THE NOSE AND NANOPINASUS SINAS
    In the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, as in other ENT organs, there are benign and malignant neoplasms, very diverse in morphological structure and clinical manifestation. A distinct border is often impossible to draw with many benign and malignant tumors. Modern classifications of tumors, including the nose and paranasal sinuses, are bulky and
  4. Clinical physiology of the nose and paranasal sinuses
    Distinguish between upper and lower respiratory tract. The nose and paranasal sinuses, pharynx with the oral cavity and larynx belong to the upper respiratory tract, the trachea, bronchi with bronchioles of the alveoli - to the lower. Normal for a person is breathing through the nose. The nose performs, in addition to the respiratory, protective, resonant and olfactory functions, and also participates in the regulation of the depth of breathing and lacrimation,
  5. METHODS FOR STUDYING THE NOSE AND NANOSAXIS
    The study of the nose and paranasal sinuses, after identifying the needles and clarifying the anamnesis, begins with an external examination and palpation. On examination, pay attention to the condition of the skin and soft tissues, the absence or presence of defects, the symmetry of both halves of the face, as well as the shape of the external nose. Palpation should be done carefully. With soft hand movements, the presence or
  6. Malignant tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses
    Malignant diseases of this localization - cancer and isarcoma, as a rule, are primary. They are relatively rare, more often in middle-aged and elderly men. The most common primary malignant process affects the maxillary, then ethmoid, frontal and sphenoid sinuses. Rarely, the nasal septum is the source of the malignant tumor. Malignancy
  7. CLINICAL PHYSIOLOGY OF THE NOSE AND NANOSAXIS
    The nose and its paranasal sinuses, being the upper part of the respiratory tract, play an important role in the interaction of the body with the environment, while performing a number of interrelated physiological functions. The following nasal functions are distinguished: 1) respiratory, 2) protective, 3) resonator (speech) and 4) olfactory. In addition, the nose, as an important element in the formation of a single ensemble of the face, is endowed with and
  8. Research methods for the nose and paranasal sinuses
    They produce an external nose nose, places of projection of the paranasal sinuses of the nose on the face. Patch of the external nose: the index fingers of both hands are located along the back of the nose, with light massaging movements they feel the areas of the root, slopes, back and tip of the nose. Palpate the front and lower walls of the frontal sinuses, figuring out the patient's sensations. Thumbs of both hands
  9. Microendoscopic methods of surgical intervention in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
    There are a number of options for endonasal endoscopic microoperations, however, all the techniques can be combined into two main varieties - these are the classic methods according to Messerklinger and Wiegand, they are designed to restore the natural ventilation and drainage paths, with the smallest changes in the anatomical structures and the maximum gentleness of the mucous membrane. Most widely
  10. Foreign bodies of the nose and paranasal sinuses
    Most often, foreign bodies are found in children who have the habit of putting various objects (beads, buttons, stones, coins, berry seeds, seeds and other small objects) in the nose of themselves or their gullible peers. In adults, foreign bodies get into the nose under random circumstances (for example, during sleep in the hayloft, a piece of straw may be drawn into the nose when breathing). More
  11. Fracture of the bones of the nose and paranasal sinuses
    Case: Face asymmetry is determined in the form of deformation of the external nose, sinus front wall sagging, skin damage, palpation pain (sometimes with a crunch, crepitation of bone fragments and air in the subcutaneous tissues), edema, eyelid hematoma and usually bleeding from the nose. Depending on the depth of damage, fractures can be isolated or combined with a head injury
  12. CLINICAL ANATOMY OF THE NOSE AND NANOSAXIS
    CLINICAL ANATOMY OF THE NOSE AND NANOSIS
  13. Treatment of injuries of the nose and paranasal sinuses at the stages of evacuation
    Self-help and mutual assistance. It is carried out in the manner of self-help, mutual assistance by a nurse or medical examiner. In case of bruises accompanied by nosebleeds, try to stop the bleeding by pressing the wings of the nose to the nasal septum. Snow, ice, or cloth moistened with cold water is applied to the outer nose. With abrasions on the skin or superficial wounds
  14. CLINICAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE NOSE AND NANOSAXIS
    CLINICAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE NOSE AND PALNOSIS
  15. Diseases of the paranasal sinuses
    Inflammatory diseases of the paranasal sinuses account for 25-30% of the stationary pathology of the LOP organs. Most often, inflammation occurs in the maxillary (maxillary) sinus (sinusitis). This is due to the fact that evacuation of the contents from the sinus is difficult due to the location of the anastomosis with the nasal cavity in the upper third of its medial wall, as well as the fact that the inflammation of the roots of the four posterior
  16. INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE NANOLAIN SINAS
    Inflammatory diseases of the paranasal sinuses (sinusitis) are among the most common diseases of the upper respiratory tract. According to the literature, patients with sinusitis make up about 1/3 of the total number of hospitals hospitalized in ENT (Kozlov M.Ya., 1985; Soldatov IB, 1990; Piskunov GZ et al., 1992; Aref'eva N.A. , 1994). The foci of inflammation in the paranasal sinuses can be a source
  17. Allergic diseases of the paranasal sinuses (allergic sinusitis)
    Acute and chronic allergic diseases of the paranasal sinuses represent a special category of pathological conditions of the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract resulting from an increased sensitivity of the patient's body to a foreign protein (antigen or allergen) and due to neurogenic and endocrine disorders. In the pathology of the disease a large role belongs
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