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Malignant tumors of the pharynx
The comparative incidence of malignant tumors of the pharynx is high; carcinomas, lymphoepitheliomas, cytoblastomas, sarcomas, reticulocytomas and mixed tumors are found among them. Men get sick more often than women, usually in middle age.
K l and N and c e to and I to and r t and N and. The early symptoms of malignant tumors of the pharynx are poor and not very characteristic. You may experience light sensations of awkwardness or a foreign body in the throat, unusual taste sensation, distension, tickling, etc. In the later stages, there are certain complaints about a violation of nasal breathing and ear congestion if the tumor is in the nasopharynx; foreign body sensation, which makes it difficult to swallow food, and then saliva, in the presence of a tumor in the oropharynx; violation of the patency at the beginning for thick, and then for liquid food and respiratory failure, if the tumor is in the hypopharynx. At first, these phenomena are often regarded by patients as insignificant, and the physician often attributes them to chronic pharyngitis or neurosis.
The early symptoms of a nasopharyngeal tumor include hypersecretion of mucus, in which there is an admixture of blood, it is possible to release mucus through the oropharynx and nose. The nasopharyngeal tumor quickly gives regional metastases, grows into the cavity of the skull through a torn hole in it, which is accompanied by pain in the jaw, teeth and ear of the same side, the appearance of double vision and strabismus. With the collapse of the tumor of this localization, severe nosebleeds occur.
D and a gn oz nasopharyngeal tumors are established on the basis of noted symptoms and data of endoscopic, palpatory, X-ray and CT studies. Surgical treatment of malignant nasopharyngeal tumors is hardly applicable; the effectiveness of radiation and chemotherapeutic effects depends on the sensitivity of the tumor to them.
In the middle section of the pharynx, isarcoma carcinomas are more common. The severity of s and m pt o m o in depends on the size of the tumor, its location and the presence or absence of disintegration. The appearance of dysphagia, choking food, pain, voice disturbances, putrid breath indicate a late period of development of a new pharyngeal neoplasm. Metastasis of malignant neoplasms of the middle part of the pharynx occurs early, often bilateral at once. They need to be differentiated from benign tumors, inflammatory diseases of the pharynx (paratonsillitis and parafaryngitis), angina with a disease of the blood-forming organs, Simanovsky-Plaut-Vincent sore throat.
In the early period, combined treatment is possible — surgical and radiation, in the later stages — only radiation and chemotherapy.
Compared with the upper parts of the pharynx, the laryngopharyngeal tissue is often affected by malignant tumors, 'as a rule, there are epithelial neoplasms - carcinomas, sometimes mixed tumors. The initial period of development of a tumor of this localization usually remains hidden. Even after the appearance of light complaints of various unpleasant sensations in the pharynx, the disease is often not recognized, since the lower parts of the pharynx (hypopharynx) are not available for indirect laryngoscopy. We can only note the stagnation of saliva in one or another pear-shaped sinus with the localization of the tumor in the hypopharynx. Significant symptoms of dysphagia occur relatively quickly, which is an indication for contrast radiographic examination and direct hypopharyngoscopy. In some cases, the tumor squeezes cherpalovidnye cartilage and can close part of the entrance to the larynx; while there are severe symptoms of dysphagia, voice disturbances, and sometimes breathing. The laryngopharynx cancer early ulcers, which is also promoted by the frequent trauma of the tumor by food lumps; the appearance of blood in the sputum indicates the disintegration of the neoplasm.
In the treatment of malignant tumors of the nasopharynx and the middle section of the pharynx, mainly conservative treatment is used, the surgical is hardly applicable. In the treatment of laryngopharyngeal tumors, a combination therapy is preferred, in which the first place is the surgical removal of the tumor using diathermocoagulation and further radiation in the lymphatic outflow pathways. Approaches to the tumor carried out by lateral or anterior pharyngotomy. If the anterior laryngopharynx wall is significantly affected by a tumor, it is sometimes necessary to remove the larynx.
The treatment tactics for regional lymph nodes for malignant laryngopharyngeal tumors remains the same as for operable tumors of the upper respiratory tract: radiation exposure to the lymphatic outflow pathway in the absence of palpation-defined increase in nodes; surgical removal of nodes and tissue of the deep jugular lymphatic chain with a clinically determined increase in regional lymph nodes. In many otolaryngological institutions, it is preferred to excise regional lymph nodes in laryngeal and pharyngeal tumors of the II and III stages, in some cases together (in one unit) with the jugular vein (Krajl's operation).
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Malignant tumors of the pharynx
- TUMOR GROWTH. PROGRESSION OF TUMORS. MORPHOGENESIS OF TUMORS. INVASION AND METASTASIS OF MALIGNANT TUMORS. BIOMOLECULAR MARKERS OF TUMORS. ANTI-TUMOR IMMUNITY. PARANOPLASTIC SYNDROM. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION OF TUMORS. MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF TUMORS FROM EPITHELIUM AND TUMORS FROM TISSUES - DERIVATIVE MESENCHYMS
TUMOR GROWTH. PROGRESSION OF TUMORS. MORPHOGENESIS OF TUMORS. INVASION AND METASTASIS OF MALIGNANT TUMORS. BIOMOLECULAR MARKERS OF TUMORS. ANTI-TUMOR IMMUNITY. PARANOPLASTIC SYNDROM. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION OF TUMORS. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TUMORS FROM EPITHELIUM AND TUMORS FROM TISSUES - DERIVATIVES
- Malignant tumors
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- Malignant tumors
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- DRUM TUMORS
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- Malignant tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses
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- Malignant tumors of the larynx
- Primary malignant tumors