the main
about the project
Medicine news
To authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead Next >>

Malignant tumors of the pharynx

The comparative incidence of malignant tumors of the pharynx is high; carcinomas, lymphoepitheliomas, cytoblastomas, sarcomas, reticulocytomas and mixed tumors are found among them. Men get sick more often than women, usually in middle age.

K l and N and c e to and I to and r t and N and. The early symptoms of malignant tumors of the pharynx are poor and not very characteristic. You may experience light sensations of awkwardness or a foreign body in the throat, unusual taste sensation, distension, tickling, etc. In the later stages, there are certain complaints about a violation of nasal breathing and ear congestion if the tumor is in the nasopharynx; foreign body sensation, which makes it difficult to swallow food, and then saliva, in the presence of a tumor in the oropharynx; violation of the patency at the beginning for thick, and then for liquid food and respiratory failure, if the tumor is in the hypopharynx. At first, these phenomena are often regarded by patients as insignificant, and the physician often attributes them to chronic pharyngitis or neurosis.

The early symptoms of a nasopharyngeal tumor include hypersecretion of mucus, in which there is an admixture of blood, it is possible to release mucus through the oropharynx and nose. The nasopharyngeal tumor quickly gives regional metastases, grows into the cavity of the skull through a torn hole in it, which is accompanied by pain in the jaw, teeth and ear of the same side, the appearance of double vision and strabismus. With the collapse of the tumor of this localization, severe nosebleeds occur.

D and a gn oz nasopharyngeal tumors are established on the basis of noted symptoms and data of endoscopic, palpatory, X-ray and CT studies. Surgical treatment of malignant nasopharyngeal tumors is hardly applicable; the effectiveness of radiation and chemotherapeutic effects depends on the sensitivity of the tumor to them.

In the middle section of the pharynx, isarcoma carcinomas are more common. The severity of s and m pt o m o in depends on the size of the tumor, its location and the presence or absence of disintegration. The appearance of dysphagia, choking food, pain, voice disturbances, putrid breath indicate a late period of development of a new pharyngeal neoplasm. Metastasis of malignant neoplasms of the middle part of the pharynx occurs early, often bilateral at once. They need to be differentiated from benign tumors, inflammatory diseases of the pharynx (paratonsillitis and parafaryngitis), angina with a disease of the blood-forming organs, Simanovsky-Plaut-Vincent sore throat.
In the early period, combined treatment is possible — surgical and radiation, in the later stages — only radiation and chemotherapy.

Compared with the upper parts of the pharynx, the laryngopharyngeal tissue is often affected by malignant tumors, 'as a rule, there are epithelial neoplasms - carcinomas, sometimes mixed tumors. The initial period of development of a tumor of this localization usually remains hidden. Even after the appearance of light complaints of various unpleasant sensations in the pharynx, the disease is often not recognized, since the lower parts of the pharynx (hypopharynx) are not available for indirect laryngoscopy. We can only note the stagnation of saliva in one or another pear-shaped sinus with the localization of the tumor in the hypopharynx. Significant symptoms of dysphagia occur relatively quickly, which is an indication for contrast radiographic examination and direct hypopharyngoscopy. In some cases, the tumor squeezes cherpalovidnye cartilage and can close part of the entrance to the larynx; while there are severe symptoms of dysphagia, voice disturbances, and sometimes breathing. The laryngopharynx cancer early ulcers, which is also promoted by the frequent trauma of the tumor by food lumps; the appearance of blood in the sputum indicates the disintegration of the neoplasm.

In the treatment of malignant tumors of the nasopharynx and the middle section of the pharynx, mainly conservative treatment is used, the surgical is hardly applicable. In the treatment of laryngopharyngeal tumors, a combination therapy is preferred, in which the first place is the surgical removal of the tumor using diathermocoagulation and further radiation in the lymphatic outflow pathways. Approaches to the tumor carried out by lateral or anterior pharyngotomy. If the anterior laryngopharynx wall is significantly affected by a tumor, it is sometimes necessary to remove the larynx.

The treatment tactics for regional lymph nodes for malignant laryngopharyngeal tumors remains the same as for operable tumors of the upper respiratory tract: radiation exposure to the lymphatic outflow pathway in the absence of palpation-defined increase in nodes; surgical removal of nodes and tissue of the deep jugular lymphatic chain with a clinically determined increase in regional lymph nodes. In many otolaryngological institutions, it is preferred to excise regional lymph nodes in laryngeal and pharyngeal tumors of the II and III stages, in some cases together (in one unit) with the jugular vein (Krajl's operation).
<< Ahead Next >>
= Go to tutorial content =

Malignant tumors of the pharynx

  1. TUMOR GROWTH. PROGRESSION OF TUMORS. MORPHOGENESIS OF TUMORS. INVASION AND METASTASIS OF MALIGNANT TUMORS. BIOMOLECULAR MARKERS OF TUMORS. ANTI-TUMOR IMMUNITY. PARANOPLASTIC SYNDROM. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION OF TUMORS. MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF TUMORS FROM EPITHELIUM AND TUMORS FROM TISSUES - DERIVATIVE MESENCHYMS
    TUMOR GROWTH. PROGRESSION OF TUMORS. MORPHOGENESIS OF TUMORS. INVASION AND METASTASIS OF MALIGNANT TUMORS. BIOMOLECULAR MARKERS OF TUMORS. ANTI-TUMOR IMMUNITY. PARANOPLASTIC SYNDROM. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION OF TUMORS. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TUMORS FROM EPITHELIUM AND TUMORS FROM TISSUES - DERIVATIVES
  2. Malignant tumors
    Malignant tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses occupy the third place among other malignant lesions of the upper respiratory tract (larynx and pharynx) and constitute, according to literary data, 2 - 3% of malignant tumors of all localizations. Malignant tumors most often develop in the maxillary sinus. In the second place in frequency are tumors of the ethmoid labyrinth.
  3. Malignant tumors
    SARCOMA is a malignant tumor from mesenchymal tissue. Unlike cancer of sarcoma, the first metastasis is hematogenous. Histogenesis sarcomas are classified into a number of varieties. From fibrous tissue. 1. Fibrosarcoma. 2. Bulging dermatofibroma (malignant histiocytoma) - unlike other sarcomas, it is characterized by slow growth and does not metastasize for a long time, although it grows
  4. Benign tumors of the pharynx
    The benign tumors of the pharynx include fibroma, papilloma, hairy polyp, angioma, neuroma, neurofibroma, mixed tumors, lipoma, cysts, and pharyngeal goiter. More often than others papillomas and fibromas on a leg meet. Papillomas are usually soft, located on the soft palate and palatine arches, are small and, as a rule, are of little concern to patients. In some cases, papillomas come from
  5. DRUM TUMORS
    Juvenile angiofibroma of the nasopharynx is one of the typical and common nasopharyngeal tumors. It refers to benign tumors, although it often has a tendency to relapse and spreading growth. It occurs exclusively in boys and young men aged from 8 to 25 years. First, there is a difficulty in nasal breathing, usually more than one half of the nose, mucopurulent discharge
  6. Malignant tumors
    In the upper respiratory tract mainly cancer is found in various forms and is rare (about 3% in relation to malignant tumors of the upper respiratory tract)
  7. Malignant tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses
    Malignant diseases of this localization - cancer isarcoma, as a rule, are primary. They are relatively rare, often in middle-aged and elderly men. Most often, the primary malignant process affects the maxillary, then the ethmoid, frontal and sphenoid sinuses. Rarely, the nasal septum is the source of a malignant tumor. Malignancy
  8. Malignant ear tumors
    Malignant tumors of the ear can be as primary, i.e. developed directly in this or that part of the ear, and arisen during the germination of tumors from neighboring organs and tissues. In the outer and middle ear, adults are more often diagnosed with cancer, in children - sarcoma. Of other types, there may be melanoma. The course of the tumors of the external ear is relatively slow, apparently they resemble
  9. Malignant tumors of the vulva and vagina
    Cancer of the vulva (PB) occurs mainly in older women and is 3-5% of all malignant diseases of the genitals. Develops against the background of involutive dystrophic processes. An important role in the occurrence of this pathology is attached to metabolic and endocrine disorders and viral infection. RV classification by stages • Stage 0 - preinvasive carcinoma. • Stage I - tumor up to 2
  10. Malignant tumors of the intestine
    - pathological growths of atypical cells that have autonomous (not always) progressive irreversible growth pattern that replace and infiltrate normal tissue. Classification Stages of cancer Stage 1 - a tumor of small size, localized in the thickness of the mucosa or submucosal layer, without metastases; Stage 2: a) a tumor of large size, but not more than a semicircle
  11. Malignant skin tumors
    There are many theories of cancer (embryonic, virusogenetic, hereditary, somatic mutations, etc.). Malignant tumors are characterized by infiltrating growth with destruction of the surrounding tissue and metastasis. There are two types of skin cancer: basal cell and squamous. Basal cell carcinoma, or basal cell carcinoma, occurs predominantly in the elderly.
  12. Malignant epithelial tumors
    They are called cancer, or carcinoma. General characteristics. 1. It is much more common than all other malignant tumors. 2. Often associated with previous diseases and conditions that are called precancerous. 3. The development of many carcinomas (morphogenesis) is associated with previous changes in the epithelium - hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia. 4. The only pre-cancerous
  13. Malignant mammary gland tumors and pregnancy
    Among the malignant tumors in women, breast cancer is one of the first places. In recent years, the frequency of combinations of pregnancy and cancer has increased. Two aspects of this problem are distinguished: cancer among pregnant women and pregnancy with cancer. Breast cancer in pregnant women occurs in 0.03–0.3% of cases, pregnancy in breast cancer - in 0.78–3.8%, and in separate reports
  14. Malignant tumors of the larynx
    Malignant tumors
  15. Primary malignant tumors
    Primary malignant
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2016
info@medicine-guidebook.com