Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead || Next >> |
Sound and its types
Adequate stimulus of the auditory analyzer is sound, which is the oscillatory motion of the medium (air, water, soil, etc.). In sound, as in any oscillatory motion, amplitude is the amplitude of the oscillations, the period is the time during which the complete oscillatory motion takes place, and the frequency is the number of complete oscillations in 1 s.
The source of the sound is an oscillating body. Due to the elasticity inherent in any substance, any medium, oscillations that occur in one place are transmitted to neighboring areas, and seals and rarefaction of the medium occur. These seals and rarefactions spread in all directions with a certain speed, depending on the magnitude of the elasticity and density of the medium. This is how sound waves arise, consisting of alternating seals and rarefaction of the medium (Fig. 15).
Sound wave propagation
Identical states of the oscillating medium, i.e., condensation, rarefaction, and all intermediate states, are called phases of the sound wave. The distance between the same phases is called the wavelength. The speed of propagation of a sound wave varies in different environments. So, for example, in air at 0 ° С it is equal to 332 m / s, and in water - 1450 m / s.
With increasing temperature, the speed of sound in air increases and, for example, at 16 ° C is already equal to 340 m / s.
By the nature of oscillatory movements, the sounds are divided into two groups - tones and noises. If the oscillation is performed rhythmically, i.e. at certain intervals of time, the same phases of the sound wave are repeated, then the sound that is produced is perceived as a musical tone.
The simplest type of tone is harmonic oscillation, the so-called pure tone. The law by which this oscillation takes place, that is, the change in the amplitude of a given oscillation with time, is graphically represented by a sinusoid, therefore such oscillations are called otherwise sinusoidal (Fig. 16). An example of a pure tone is the sound of a tuning fork. Another group of sounds is noise. Noises include sounds such as creaking, knocking, shouting, humming, howling, rustling, etc. Noises are a combination of random (chaotic) oscillations that are not interconnected by any regular numerical dependence, part of the musical sounds.
Graphic image of harmonic oscillation
| << Ahead || Next >> |
| = Go to tutorial content = |
Sound and its types
- Bleeding and its types
Bleeding is the flow of blood from a damaged blood vessel. Depending on the type of damaged vessels, arterial, venous, capillary and parenchymal hemorrhages are distinguished. Types of bleeding. Arterial bleeding, which is the most dangerous, occurs when more or less large arteries are damaged and is characterized by the fact that from the wound is a strong jerk
- Injury and its types
The combination of injuries in certain populations that arise over a limited period of time is called injury. There are industrial injuries, domestic, sports, children, road and military. The fight against injuries is one of the main tasks of the health and safety authorities. Bruising Bruising is damage to tissues or organs without compromising the integrity of the skin and mucous membranes.
- The concept of terrorism and its types
Terrorism is a policy based on the systematic use of terror. Synonyms of the word "terror" (lat. Terror - fear, horror) are the words "violence", "intimidation", "intimidation". There is no universally accepted legal definition of this concept. In the Russian law (Criminal Code, Article 205), it is defined as an ideology of violence and the practice of influencing public consciousness, decision making by the authorities
- Abstract. Hardening, its types and effects on health, 2010
Introduction Physiological essence of hardening Individual features of a person to hardening the body Exposure to natural factors Types of hardening Hardening by air Sunbathing Water treatments (rubbing, dousing, shower, bathing in natural water bodies, pools) Snow baths Walking barefoot Bath or sauna with cold water Winterizing Conclusion List
- Morbidity, its types and methods of study
Disease - any subjective or objective deviation from the normal physiological state of the body. The concept of "disease" is broader than the concept of "disease". Incidence is a complex indicator of the structure and quality of diseases, which shows the level, frequency of spread of all diseases, taken together and individually, among the population as a whole and in its individual age-related diseases.
- Sleep and its types. Dreams. Sleep disturbance
One of the necessary conditions for normal human life is sleep. Its role in the preservation and promotion of health, efficiency, mental well-being has been known since ancient times. Sleep is a physiological state that periodically changes wakefulness and is characterized by a lack of conscious mental activity, a significant decrease in reactions to external stimuli.
- Sound and letter
When dealing with sign systems, the most important thing is to establish the relationship between the sign and the actual meaning of it. 1 In the 1970s. A group of Kharkov psychologists and teachers led by V. V. Repkin, relying on the basic principles of teaching reading ^ developed by D. B. Elkonin, created and tested their experimental "Primer", which is currently used in a number of our schools
- Phoneme - sound - letter
We have already considered the question of the importance for the teaching of reading the distinction between sound and letter. The difference between the phoneme and the speech sound is crucial for finding out the mechanism of reading. Careful studies and comparisons of the functions of sounds that differ in their physico-acoustic properties have established that some of the signs of the sounds have the function of distinguishing words,
- The structure of motor activity. The possibility of a negative impact of irrational forms of exercise on the body. Hardening, its types and principles.
Hardening is understood as an increase in resistance - the adaptation of the human body to the action of various adverse climatic factors (cold, heat, solar radiation) due to the use of a set of systematic and targeted measures. Hardening is organized with a professional (production) purpose (preparation for work in certain climatic conditions in the north,
- Immunity, its types. Features of immunity at an early age. Allergy and anaphylaxis. Measures for the prevention of infectious diseases in institutions.
Immunity - immunity of the organism to the causative agents of any diseases: 1. Natural: * Congenital - is inherited; * Acquired - produced as a result of the disease, produces its own antibodies; 2. Artificial: * Active - use of vaccines (ready-made antibodies); * Passive - injected serum, which is made from the blood plasma of the patient
- Code of ethics, responsibility for its violations and the procedure for its revision
Article 6.1. Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics applies to all areas of the Russian Federation and covers all areas of pharmaceutical activity carried out by pharmaceutical (pharmacy) institutions and enterprises in the field of circulation of medicines, including the procurement, manufacture, storage, wholesale and retail sales, standardization,
- Improving the semantic sphere of the personality of a professional, his "I-concept", the solution of his personal problems that impede the growth of professional skills
The improvement of the semantic sphere of the personality is one of the central tasks facing the training, which is determined by its main focus on the improvement and correction of professional skills as a whole. Achieving a certain result in this area, expressed in objective indicators of the dynamics of development among professionals of the motivation complex of professional skills,