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Sound and its types

Adequate stimulus of the auditory analyzer is sound, which is the oscillatory motion of the medium (air, water, soil, etc.). In sound, as in any oscillatory motion, amplitude is the amplitude of the oscillations, the period is the time during which the complete oscillatory motion takes place, and the frequency is the number of complete oscillations in 1 s.

The source of the sound is an oscillating body. Due to the elasticity inherent in any substance, any medium, oscillations that occur in one place are transmitted to neighboring areas, and seals and rarefaction of the medium occur. These seals and rarefactions spread in all directions with a certain speed, depending on the magnitude of the elasticity and density of the medium. This is how sound waves arise, consisting of alternating seals and rarefaction of the medium (Fig. 15).



Fig. 15.

Sound wave propagation





Identical states of the oscillating medium, i.e., condensation, rarefaction, and all intermediate states, are called phases of the sound wave. The distance between the same phases is called the wavelength. The speed of propagation of a sound wave varies in different environments. So, for example, in air at 0 ° С it is equal to 332 m / s, and in water - 1450 m / s.
With increasing temperature, the speed of sound in air increases and, for example, at 16 ° C is already equal to 340 m / s.

By the nature of oscillatory movements, the sounds are divided into two groups - tones and noises. If the oscillation is performed rhythmically, i.e. at certain intervals of time, the same phases of the sound wave are repeated, then the sound that is produced is perceived as a musical tone.

The simplest type of tone is harmonic oscillation, the so-called pure tone. The law by which this oscillation takes place, that is, the change in the amplitude of a given oscillation with time, is graphically represented by a sinusoid, therefore such oscillations are called otherwise sinusoidal (Fig. 16). An example of a pure tone is the sound of a tuning fork. Another group of sounds is noise. Noises include sounds such as creaking, knocking, shouting, humming, howling, rustling, etc. Noises are a combination of random (chaotic) oscillations that are not interconnected by any regular numerical dependence, part of the musical sounds.

Fig. sixteen.

Graphic image of harmonic oscillation

(sine wave)
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Sound and its types

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