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Medical and social aspects of demography, types of population
Demography (demos people, graphs - write) is the science of the population in its social development.
Medical demography is a discipline that studies the relationship of population reproduction with socio-hygienic factors and develops on this basis medical and social measures that are aimed at ensuring the favorable development of demographic processes and improving the health of the population.
The study of population is carried out in 2 directions:
1. The statistics of the population - the size and composition of the population at a certain point in time
Statics is studied by population census - continuous registration and sample socio-demographic surveys. The composition is studied according to a number of signs: gender, age, social groups, education, marital status, location and population density.
The current estimate of the population is the sum of the population according to the results of the last census, the number of births for the period, the number of arrivals in the territory, minus the dead and retired.
- progressive - the proportion of people aged 0-14 years exceeds the proportion of people 50 years and older
- regressive - the proportion of people 50 years and older is higher than the proportion of people from 0-14 years old
- stationary type - these shares are equal
- demographically old type of population - the proportion of people 60 years and older is more than 12%.
2. population dynamics:
a. mechanical dynamics - migration.
It is studied by identifying indicators:
- number of arrivals
- migration growth
- coefficient of effective migration
Types of migration processes:
- urbanization - outflow of population from village to city
- pendulum migration - departure-return
- seasonal migration-departure return that are related to the season.
b. natural dynamics - fertility, mortality, etc.
The natural dynamics of the population is studied by identifying indicators:
1. fertility - - the process of renewing new generations, which are based on biological factors that affect the body's ability to reproduce. All children from birth to 1 month. Registered in the registry office. Registration is based on the Medical Birth Certificate.
2. fertility rate - an indicator of the number of children born to women of childbearing age (15-49 years)
Live birth - the complete expulsion or removal of the fetus from the mother’s body, regardless of the gestational age, if the fetus breathes or shows other signs of life - a heartbeat, an umbilical cord pulsation, voluntary muscle movement, regardless of whether the umbilical cord is cut and the placenta is separated.
Stillbirth 8-9% - death of the product of conception until it is completely expelled or removed from the mother's body, without signs of life.
Registry Office registers births:
- weight 1000g.
L-35 cm., Gestational age - 28 weeks.
- weight 500-999 gr., if they lived 7 days after birth
- Prematurity - pregnancy for a period of 37 weeks
- Full-term - 37-41 weeks
- Tolerance of 42 weeks or more.
- Low body weight - 2500 g.
- Very low weight - 1500 g
- Extremely small - less than 1000 gr.
4. Natural population growth - the difference between the number of births and the number of deaths per year based on the total population.
5. mortality - the number of deaths per year. On the occasion of death, a “Medical (medical assistant) death certificate” is issued, which is registered with the registry office within 3 days.
The issuance of paramedical certificates is prohibited:
- violent death or asphyxiation
- action of extreme temperatures or electricity
- abortion outside the hospital
- sudden death of children outside medical supervision
- persons with an unidentified identity
- sudden death for unclear reasons
- extramural issuance
In such cases, a certificate is issued after opening by forensic medical examination.
Certificates are marked: final, preliminary, instead of preliminary, roots with murals and seals are stored for 1 year.
6. structure of causes of death -
7. child, maternal mortality
Maternal mortality - is divided into 2 groups:
- associated with obstetric causes (pregnancy complications, childbirth, the postpartum period, interventions, treatment)
- associated indirectly with obstetric causes (a pre-existing disease or that occurred during pregnancy, but not associated with obstetric interventions)
1. Perinatal mortality of 18-20% - “death around childbirth” from 22 weeks of fetal development to a full 7 days 9168 hours) after childbirth
1. period of perinatal mortality:
a. antenatal - 22 weeks of gestation before delivery
b. Intranatal - the period of childbirth
in. postnatal - 168 hours of life.
2. Infant mortality - 17-20% - this is the mortality of children in 1 year of life:
a. early neonatal -
b. late neonatal - 2-4 weeks of life postnatal from 29 days to 1 year of life
3. Mortality of children under 5 years of age 6-8%
4. Mortality of children 5-15 years old
The data for calculating these indicators are provided to statistical institutions by the internal affairs bodies and medical institutions in the manner and form established by law.
Demographic indicators are necessary for:
1. health system planning
2. calculation of the need for clinics and inpatient care for general and specialized
3. determining the required amount of funding for DA
4. calculation of indicators characterizing the activities of health facilities
5. organization of anti-epidemic work.
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Medical and social aspects of demography, types of population
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