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Social (compulsory) health insurance

The history of social health insurance dates back to the 1880s, when the first system was introduced in Germany by Chancellor Bismarck. Of the various types of insurance schemes, this is most reminiscent of a tax-based financing system. But, unlike the tax-financed healthcare system, the people covered by it are entitled to a certain package of services in exchange for the contributions they paid. Contributions are mandatory and are related to the income of the insured. The receipt of services depends on the need. The revenues of the social health insurance system are managed by independent institutions, independently and separately from the total revenues to the state treasury. Such institutions are usually led by tripartite or bilateral governments, including representatives of those who finance health insurance (i.e., workers, employers, and - if the state is involved - the government).

As noted above, social health insurance (or nationwide health services) is provided in most industrialized countries. In the early stages of its implementation, it usually extends to workers in the formal sector. The pace of coverage for lower paid workers, farmers and self-employed people is directly related to the pace of economic development. As lower income groups reach, governments are usually forced to subsidize the system.

Many developing countries are considering social health insurance mechanisms as a means to increase the overall resource base of health care, requiring relatively affluent people (i.e., workers in the formal sector) to pay for their health care, thereby increasing the resources intended to provide services to those who are not in able to do it.
Social health insurance schemes cover a significant proportion of the population in at least 13 African countries. Thus, approximately 25% of the population is covered by the hospital insurance system in Kenya. Social insurance systems are available in most countries of Latin America, where they have been developed since the 30s of the twentieth century. Large Asian countries (for example, India, Indonesia, the Philippines) have social health insurance that extends to millions of workers and their families. The Republic of Korea introduced a social health insurance system, which began with a relatively small system in 1977; For 12 years, by 1989, the system practically covered the entire population. Thailand was one of the last countries to establish a social health insurance system. A characteristic feature of this system is its exceptional success in cost control due to the per capita method of payment for hospital services chosen by the insured to meet his medical needs.

Social health insurance systems in developing countries often face difficulties in developing tax collection and service policies for workers with changing, recurring and seasonal incomes. Such workers are often assigned to the informal sector and are excluded from system coverage. In many European countries, the problem of self-employed and workers with irregular incomes has been resolved by providing opportunities for voluntary participation. The main difficulty in this case is to establish a fair contribution rate that would not deprive the incentive to participate in the system and at the same time would not impose an excessive burden on the regular participants of the system.
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Social (compulsory) health insurance

  1. The concept of compulsory medical professional liability insurance
    The validity of the choice of protecting the professional responsibility of medical workers, as one of the prerequisites for successful reform in the field of legislative support of medical activity, is due to a number of reasons, the main of which, according to the author, are: - uneven public efforts related to the search for legal remedies for legitimate interests and right
  2. Social and Health Insurance
    To insure - to protect from something unpleasant, undesirable, to protect, to ensure safety. Insurance - a way to reduce (prevent) material losses from risk situations by paying contributions to an insurance organization that undertakes to indemnify for possible damage in specially agreed cases. Insurance is an independent link in financial
  3. Mixed social / private health insurance systems
    In most countries, medical systems are rarely purely social or private, and most often they include aspects of both. There are various forms of mixed systems in which some services are funded on a solidarity basis, while others are funded by additional private contributions. Examples include medical care societies in Zimbabwe and medical care systems in South Africa,
    State social insurance is a system of pensions, benefits and other payments to citizens of the Republic of Belarus at the expense of state insurance funds. State social insurance funds consist of mandatory contributions from employers and working citizens to state insurance funds, from capitalization of funds, as well as from voluntary donations and
    Medical insurance (MS) is a system of economic relations that provides for the creation of a special fund and its use to compensate for the damage to medical and social risk factors. Medical and social risk factors: - illness - accident - disability - motherhood - death. The purpose of the MS: guarantee to citizens the receipt of medical care at
  6. Medical insurance in the Russian Federation
    The development of medical insurance in modern Russia has received legislative support in the form of the Law "On Health Insurance of Citizens in the Russian Federation" adopted in 1991. According to Article 6 of the Law, all citizens of Russia have the right to: - compulsory and voluntary medical insurance; - choice of medical insurance organization; - the choice of treatment and prevention organization and
  7. Chat (voluntary) health insurance
    Access to health care in the private health insurance system is determined by free choice and ability to pay. Persons who can afford to pay premiums strictly taking into account the risk of getting sick enter into an insurance contract with a private insurance company. Private health insurance is based on the fact that, in principle, for a fee you can insure yourself for any event, however
  8. Other forms of health insurance
    In many countries, governments, local governments, and local interest groups are experimenting with alternative forms of third-party funding. In Thailand, for example, a medical record system has been introduced, intended primarily for rural residents. It complements the social insurance system for employees in the formal sector and is a
  9. Medical law in the system of social regulation of the sphere of medical activity
    The scope of health care in general and medical activity, in particular, like any other socially useful activity, is subject to legal regulation. It is thanks to the legislative and other regulatory framework that social relations, which are subject to regulation, take an orderly form and, as a result, become, to a certain extent, legal relations. IN
    In the days of the USSR, the implementation of medical activities was protected by departmental barriers. With the democratization of the Russian state and society, pathologists and other pathological anatomical service staff (PAS) were not well prepared for the legal regulation of their professional activities. The Fundamentals (Law of July 22, 93, No. 5487-1) establish that one of the tasks
  11. Social, medical and psychological aspects of valeology
    Medical aspects: the 90s were marked by the formation and further development of valeology as a system of knowledge about the health of a healthy person. Valeology - the science of the genetic and physiological reserves of the body, ensuring the stability of the physical, biological, psychological, sociocultural development and preservation of human health under the influence of changing
  12. Social, legal and medical aspects
    The life of a child begins long before his birth. In the womb, a future adult male or female grows if he does not have an abortion. Pregnancy normally lasts about forty weeks, counting from the first day of the last menstruation. Fertilization occurs approximately two weeks after the start of the menstrual cycle. Today in Russia they kill about 4.5 million a year.
  13. Legal and social aspects of ambulance services
    The legal basis for the activities of the NSR service is the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Fundamentals of the legislation of the Russian Federation on the protection of public health, the Federal law of the Russian Federation “On sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population”, “The program of state guarantees for the provision of free medical care to Russian citizens”, the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, Labor Code of the Russian Federation, Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation and
    KEY POSITIONS: • high prevalence, disability, and a decrease in the quality of life of patients indicate a high social significance of bronchial asthma in children; • medical care for children with bronchial asthma should be carried out on the principles of staging, accessibility and continuity and on the basis of unified approaches to diagnosis, treatment and prevention;
  15. Social, medical and psychological aspects of science
    Valeology (valeologia - lat hello, be healthy) - the science of health. For the first time, the term proposed by prof. I.I. Brechman in 1980, turned out to be quite relevant, capacious and is currently being formalized into science - fundamental and necessary science, first of all, by its need for people who want to devote themselves to education, upbringing, preventive work, treatment and
  16. Medical examination and social protection for asthma in children
    Examination of temporary disability in asthma is carried out by health authorities in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation. An incapacity certificate for bronchial asthma is issued in connection with an exacerbation of the disease, the need to care for a sick family member (child), and during spa treatment. In the period of exacerbation of the disease, schoolchildren with
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