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The manifestations of depression are very diverse and vary depending on the form of the disease. The most typical signs of this disorder are listed below. The most typical manifestations of depression Emotional manifestations • Longing, suffering, depressed, depressed mood, despair. • Anxiety, a feeling of inner tension, anticipation of trouble. • Irritability. • Feelings of guilt, ideas of self-blame. • Discontent with oneself, a decrease in self-confidence, a decrease in self-esteem. • Decrease or loss of the ability to experience pleasure from earlier pleasant activities (anhedonia). • Decreased interest in the world around them. • Loss of ability to experience any feelings (in cases of deep depression). • Depression often combines with anxiety about the health and fate of loved ones, and also with fear appear insolvent in public places. Physiological manifestations • Sleep disturbances (insomnia at night, drowsiness during the day). • Changes in appetite (its loss or overeating). • Violation of bowel function (constipation). • Reducing sexual needs. • Decreased energy, increased fatigue in normal physical and mental loads, weakness. • Pain and various unpleasant sensations in the body (for example, in the heart, in the stomach, in the muscles). Behavioral manifestations • Passivity, difficulty in getting involved in purposeful activity. • Avoiding contacts (inclination to seclusion, loss of interest in other people). • Refuse to entertain. • Alcohol and substance abuse that provide temporary relief. Associative violations • Difficulty concentrating, concentrating attention. • Difficulties in making decisions. • The predominance of gloomy, negative thoughts about yourself, about your life, about the world as a whole. • A gloomy, pessimistic vision of the future with a lack of perspective, thoughts of the meaninglessness of life. • Thoughts of suicide (in severe cases of depression). • Presence of thoughts about own uselessness, insignificance, helplessness. • Slowing down of thinking. To diagnose "depression" it is necessary that some of these symptoms persist for at least two weeks. Pathophysiology • Often, depression occurs on the background of stresses or long-lasting severe traumatic situations. Sometimes they arise for no apparent reason. • Depression can accompany somatic diseases (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, endocrine, etc.). In such cases, it significantly burdens the course and prognosis of the underlying somatic disease. However, with the timely detection and treatment of depression, there is a rapid improvement in mental and physical well-being. • Depression can occur in the form of single, different severity episodes of the disease or proceed for a long time in the form of repeated exacerbations. • In some patients, depression is chronic - continues for many years and leads to their disability. • Sometimes depression is limited mainly to bodily symptoms without distinct emotional manifestations.
At the same time, clinical and laboratory examinations can not detect any organic changes. In such cases, consultation with a psychiatrist is necessary. • Specific disorders of neurochemical processes (the exchange of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, etc.) belong to the biological mechanisms of depressive development. These violations, in turn, can be hereditarily caused. Initial inspection • Ask the patient for problems, loss, insomnia. Note the complete indifference to life, problems with concentration, indecision, inability to think clearly. • Ask the patient for anorexia, constipation or diarrhea, loss of appetite, weight gain. • Find out if the patient has thoughts of suicide. First aid • Ensure patient safety (prevention of suicide attempts). • Take blood and urine for analysis to determine the use of medications that cause mental disorders. • For prescription, start medication. Adequate therapy allows in most cases completely get rid of the symptoms of depression. The main class of drugs for the treatment of depression are antidepressants. The main advantages of antidepressants of new generations are the improvement of tolerability, reduction of side effects, reduction of toxicity and high safety in case of overdose. New antidepressants include fluoxetine, sertraline, citalopram, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, tianeptine, mianserin, moclobemide, milnacipran, duloxetine, mirtazapine, venlafaxine, etc. The dose of the drug is determined individually for each patient. Antidepressants are not addictive, unlike benzodiazepine tranquilizers (phenazepam, Relanium, Elenium, Tazepam, etc.) and Cororvala, Valocordin used in our country. Psychotherapy is not an alternative, but an important addition to drug treatment of depression. Unlike drug treatment, psychotherapy involves a more active role of the patient in the treatment process. Psychotherapy helps patients develop the skills of emotional self-regulation and in the future more effectively cope with crisis situations without getting depressed. • Encourage the patient to express their feelings. Preventive measures The re-occurrence of depression can be prevented through preventive measures, observance of the correct mode of work and rest, refusal to use drugs, alcohol, caffeine.
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Depression is a mental disorder, the main signs of which are: a decrease in mood (hypotomy), a negative, pessimistic assessment of yourself, your position in the surrounding reality, your future. Along with this, depression is often accompanied by inhibition, a decrease in incentives for activity, dysfunctions in the work of many organs and systems
Depression is a condition characterized by a triad of symptoms: a depressed, depressed, dreary or anxious mood, a decrease in mental activity and a decrease in motor activity. The term depression comes from the Latin word deprimo, meaning "oppress". This triad forms the core of the clinical picture. Depression can be accompanied by a wide variety of clinical
Physical blockage This description applies to those who are suffering from PSYCHOTIC DEPRESSION. Those who suffer from temporary emotional depression, caused by unfavorable circumstances of life or some unpleasant event, it is better to refer to articles AGORAPHOBIA, ALARM or DISTURBANCE. The main symptoms of depression are: loss of interest in daily activities, feeling
Depression is a mood disorder characterized by sadness and pessimism. Causes of depression are unknown, but the basis of its pharmacotherapy is the hypothesis that the manifestations of the disease are caused by a deficiency of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain or dysfunction of the receptors of these mediators. With a large depression, the level of cortisol in the blood was increased by 50% and the circadian rhythm of its
Cause The most common cause of depression is mental stress. Depression is also possible due to fatigue, brain trauma (possibly in the past), prolonged and severe internal disease, surgical operation, prolonged pain, poor blood supply to the brain, congenital mental disruption of the integrity of the individual. Symptoms: Oppressed, bleak
- Depression Scale
The questionnaire was developed for the differential diagnosis of depressive states and conditions close to depression for screening diagnostics in case of mass studies and for the purpose of preliminary, pre-medical diagnostics. The test is adapted by T.I. Balashovoy. Full testing with processing takes 20-30 minutes. The subject marks the answers on the form. The level of depression (UD) is calculated by the formula: UD
- 8.1. ALARM AND DEPRESSION
Among all the psychopathological syndromes that occur in somatic practice, anxiety and depression are the most frequent. These disorders, as a rule, are considered in a single continuum. Anxiety and depression are often combined with somatic disorders (comorbid conditions), weight their course, prognosis. Timely treatment of them significantly optimizes the therapy of internal
Depressive syndrome is a combination of dreary mood with a decrease in mental and physical activity. Evaluation of the severity of depression is in the competence of a psychiatrist, since its external signs do not always reflect the severity of the condition and the risk of possible suicide. Suicidal attempts, refusal to eat, anxious motor excitement of the patient require urgent hospitalization in
- Treatment of depression
The leading method of treatment of depression at the present stage is psychopharmacotherapy. Along with medicines, methods of physio-, phyto- and psychotherapy with elements of psychocorrection and other socio-rehabilitation methods are widely used. Carried out in conjunction with drug therapy, psychotherapy (mainly aimed at correcting depressive distortion of thinking, reducing aggression,
- Depression in patients with myocardial infarction
In recent decades, it has been established that depressive and anxiety disorders increase the risk of developing MI (Todaro JF et al., 2003). In a multicenter, randomized GISSI-2 study, 40% of patients experienced a depressed mood in the preceding 3 months before the onset of MI. Other researchers report that depression develops as a result and a complication of MI (Honig A. et al.
- Depression of the st segment as a manifestation of autonomic dystonia
To other ECG changes, caused by a violation of the tone of the autonomic nervous system, one should include the depression of the ST segment, which is noted in hypersympathicotonia. Differential diagnosis takes into account the characteristic clinical picture; depression of the ST segment, found in young people, especially women, often with concomitant tachycardia, without typical stenocardic manifestations. This
- Depression and mania alternately (cyclothymia)
Cyclothymia or other mental illness and disorders in relatives. Symptoms Chronic instability of mood, frequent depression, followed by a rise in mood. Instability usually develops at a young age and takes on a chronic course. First Aid Needs psychological help, self-treatment
- Postpartum Depression
Most mothers go through a specific condition in the first or second week after childbirth. They feel sad, discouraged and worried about their ability to care for a newborn baby. Partly here can be blamed for hormones, as well as lack of sleep. Your body is completely exhausted by pregnancy and childbirth, causing a feeling as if your life is completely
- From fashion to depression and disease
People who find out about what I do, they always ask me: "Doctor, what should I eat?" Americans are obsessed with finding the right formula for nutrition. Since 1990, when I moved to New York, I witnessed the implementation of many bizarre theories that took possession of the minds of the population of the whole country, caused the restructuring of industry and eventually led to
- About depression in general. Will we talk?
This is what I want to draw your attention to now ... How do we experience bodily diseases? When we do not intend to be ill for our pleasure, of course. We will get into the hot bath at the first signs of a cold, drink tea with raspberries and honey, put mustard in our socks, we pour a glass of vodka and pepper, we'll cover up warmer, and in the morning - like cucumbers! To whom the burden of such care for themselves, swallow a couple or two
- How to help a person who is depressed?
Before giving assistance to anyone, it is necessary to check whether a person wants to be helped. People who are in deep depression usually do not want any help. An attempt to help such a person and his refusal to help causes us bitterness and disappointment. Most often these people say: "Leave, do your own thing. I am quite capable of establishing my own life. I do not
- Depression and other conditions of the affective spectrum, causing a direct physical threat to the patient
DIAGNOSTICS This group includes conditions characterized by a decreased, depressed mood, anxiety, delayed thinking, motor retardation with active suicidal thoughts, tendencies, autoaggressive actions that pose a danger to the life of patients or a serious threat to their health. Intensity of suicidal impulses is determined by the severity of anguish, the degree
- Mood disorders
In mood disorders, a person is engulfed by severe depression or mania (a rapid rise in mood) or at times experiencing depression, at times - mania. Mood disorders are divided into depressive disorders in which one or more periods of depression occur in a person, but there are no periods of mania, and bipolar disorders, in which periods of depression are followed by periods
- Psychological aspects of myocardial infarction
The disease is a stressful factor, it is accompanied by a whole range of emotions, changes life plans, prospects for the future, changes motivation and has, in addition to medical, also psychological and social aspects. The personal reaction to the disease depends on the duration of the disease, its severity and the intellectual capabilities of the person. According to the literature, it is known that