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The manifestations of depression are very diverse and vary depending on the form of the disease. The most typical symptoms of this disorder are listed below.

The most typical manifestations of depression

Emotional manifestations

• Sadness, suffering, depressed, depressed mood, despair.

• Anxiety, feeling of internal tension, waiting for trouble.

• Irritability.

• Guilt feelings, ideas of self-blame.

• Discontent with oneself, reduced self-confidence, reduced self-esteem.

• Decrease or loss of the ability to experience the pleasure of previously enjoyable activities (anhedonia).

• Reduced interest in the world.

• Loss of ability to experience any feelings (in cases of deep depression).

• Depression is often combined with anxiety about the health and fate of loved ones, as well as the fear of appearing untenable in public places.

Physiological manifestations

• Sleep disturbances (sleeplessness at night, sleepiness during the daytime).

• Changes in appetite (loss or overeating).

• Impaired bowel function (constipation).

• Reduced sexual needs.

• Reduced energy, increased fatigue during normal physical and intellectual stress, weakness.

• Pain and a variety of unpleasant sensations in the body (for example, in the heart, in the stomach, in the muscles).

Behavioral manifestations

• Passivity, difficulty of engaging in purposeful activity.

• Avoiding contact (tendency to solitude, loss of interest in other people).

• Refusal of entertainment.

• Alcoholization and substance abuse with temporary relief.

Associative disorders

• Difficulties of concentration, concentration.

• Difficult decision making.

• The predominance of dark, negative thoughts about yourself, about your life, about the world as a whole.

• A dark, pessimistic vision of the future with a lack of perspective, the thought of the meaninglessness of life.

• Thoughts of suicide (in severe cases of depression).

• The presence of thoughts about their own uselessness, insignificance, helplessness.

• Slow thinking.

For the diagnosis of depression, it is necessary that some of these symptoms last for at least two weeks.


• Often, depressions occur on the background of stress or long-term severe traumatic situations. Sometimes they occur for no apparent reason.

• Depression may be associated with somatic diseases (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, endocrine, etc.). In such cases, it significantly aggravates the course and prognosis of the underlying somatic disease. However, with the early detection and treatment of depression, there is a rapid improvement in mental and physical well-being.

• Depression can occur in the form of single episodes of a disease different in severity, or it can be prolonged in the form of repeated exacerbations.

• In some patients, depression is chronic in nature - continues for many years and leads to their disability.

• Sometimes depression is limited mainly to bodily symptoms without distinct emotional manifestations.
At the same time, clinical and laboratory examinations may not reveal any organic changes. In such cases, consult a psychiatrist.

• The biological mechanisms of the development of depression primarily include specific disorders of neurochemical processes (the exchange of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, etc.). These violations, in turn, may be hereditary.

Initial inspection

• Ask your patient about problems, losses, insomnia. Note the complete indifference to life, problems with concentration, indecision, inability to think clearly.

• Ask the patient about anorexia, constipation or diarrhea, loss of appetite, weight gain.

• Find out if the patient has suicidal thoughts.

First aid

• Ensure patient safety (preventing suicide attempts).

• Take blood and urine for analysis to determine the use of drugs that cause mental impairment.

• When prescribed by a physician, begin medication.

Adequate therapy allows in most cases completely

get rid of the symptoms of depression. The main class of drugs for the treatment of depression are antidepressants. The main benefits of new generation antidepressants are improved tolerability, reduced side effects, reduced toxicity and high safety in overdose. New antidepressants include fluoxetine, sertraline, citalopram, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, tianeptine, mianserin, moclobemide, milnacipran, duloxetine, mirtazapine, venlafaxine, etc. The dose of the drug is determined individually for each patient. Antidepressants are not addictive, unlike drugs of the benzodiazepine tranquilizers class (phenazepam, Relanium, Elenium, Tazepam, etc.) and Corvalol, Valocordin used in our country.

Psychotherapy is not an alternative, but an important addition to the medical treatment of depression. Unlike drug treatment, psychotherapy involves a more active role of the patient in the treatment process. Psychotherapy helps patients develop the skills of emotional self-regulation and in the future more effectively cope with crisis situations, without plunging into depression.

• Encourage the patient to express their feelings.

Preventive measures

The recurrence of depression can be prevented due to preventive measures, adherence to proper work and rest, refusal from the use of drugs, alcohol, caffeine.

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