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The manifestations of depression are very diverse and vary depending on the form of the disease. The most typical symptoms of this disorder are listed below. The most typical manifestations of depression Emotional manifestations • Sadness, suffering, depressed, depressed mood, despair. • Anxiety, feeling of internal tension, waiting for trouble. • Irritability. • Guilt feelings, ideas of self-blame. • Discontent with oneself, reduced self-confidence, reduced self-esteem. • Decrease or loss of the ability to experience the pleasure of previously enjoyable activities (anhedonia). • Reduced interest in the world. • Loss of ability to experience any feelings (in cases of deep depression). • Depression is often combined with anxiety about the health and fate of loved ones, as well as the fear of appearing untenable in public places. Physiological manifestations • Sleep disturbances (sleeplessness at night, sleepiness during the daytime). • Changes in appetite (loss or overeating). • Impaired bowel function (constipation). • Reduced sexual needs. • Reduced energy, increased fatigue during normal physical and intellectual stress, weakness. • Pain and a variety of unpleasant sensations in the body (for example, in the heart, in the stomach, in the muscles). Behavioral manifestations • Passivity, difficulty of engaging in purposeful activity. • Avoiding contact (tendency to solitude, loss of interest in other people). • Refusal of entertainment. • Alcoholization and substance abuse with temporary relief. Associative disorders • Difficulties of concentration, concentration. • Difficult decision making. • The predominance of dark, negative thoughts about yourself, about your life, about the world as a whole. • A dark, pessimistic vision of the future with a lack of perspective, the thought of the meaninglessness of life. • Thoughts of suicide (in severe cases of depression). • The presence of thoughts about their own uselessness, insignificance, helplessness. • Slow thinking. For the diagnosis of depression, it is necessary that some of these symptoms last for at least two weeks. Pathophysiology • Often, depressions occur on the background of stress or long-term severe traumatic situations. Sometimes they occur for no apparent reason. • Depression may be associated with somatic diseases (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, endocrine, etc.). In such cases, it significantly aggravates the course and prognosis of the underlying somatic disease. However, with the early detection and treatment of depression, there is a rapid improvement in mental and physical well-being. • Depression can occur in the form of single episodes of a disease different in severity, or it can be prolonged in the form of repeated exacerbations. • In some patients, depression is chronic in nature - continues for many years and leads to their disability. • Sometimes depression is limited mainly to bodily symptoms without distinct emotional manifestations.
At the same time, clinical and laboratory examinations may not reveal any organic changes. In such cases, consult a psychiatrist. • The biological mechanisms of the development of depression primarily include specific disorders of neurochemical processes (the exchange of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, etc.). These violations, in turn, may be hereditary. Initial inspection • Ask your patient about problems, losses, insomnia. Note the complete indifference to life, problems with concentration, indecision, inability to think clearly. • Ask the patient about anorexia, constipation or diarrhea, loss of appetite, weight gain. • Find out if the patient has suicidal thoughts. First aid • Ensure patient safety (preventing suicide attempts). • Take blood and urine for analysis to determine the use of drugs that cause mental impairment. • When prescribed by a physician, begin medication. Adequate therapy allows in most cases completely get rid of the symptoms of depression. The main class of drugs for the treatment of depression are antidepressants. The main benefits of new generation antidepressants are improved tolerability, reduced side effects, reduced toxicity and high safety in overdose. New antidepressants include fluoxetine, sertraline, citalopram, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, tianeptine, mianserin, moclobemide, milnacipran, duloxetine, mirtazapine, venlafaxine, etc. The dose of the drug is determined individually for each patient. Antidepressants are not addictive, unlike drugs of the benzodiazepine tranquilizers class (phenazepam, Relanium, Elenium, Tazepam, etc.) and Corvalol, Valocordin used in our country. Psychotherapy is not an alternative, but an important addition to the medical treatment of depression. Unlike drug treatment, psychotherapy involves a more active role of the patient in the treatment process. Psychotherapy helps patients develop the skills of emotional self-regulation and in the future more effectively cope with crisis situations, without plunging into depression. • Encourage the patient to express their feelings. Preventive measures The recurrence of depression can be prevented due to preventive measures, adherence to proper work and rest, refusal from the use of drugs, alcohol, caffeine.
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Depression is a mental disorder, the main features of which are: a decrease in mood (hypothymia), a negative, pessimistic assessment of oneself, one’s position in the surrounding reality, one’s future. Along with this, depression is often accompanied by inhibition, a decrease in the motivations for activity, dysfunctions in the work of many organs and systems.
Depression is a condition characterized by a triad of symptoms: depressed, depressed, melancholy or anxious mood, decreased mental activity and decreased motor activity. The term depression comes from the Latin word deprimo, meaning "to oppress." This triad constitutes the core of the clinical picture. Accompanied by depression can be a variety of clinical
Physical blocking This description applies to those who have PSYCHOTICAL DEPRESSION. Those who suffer from temporary emotional depression caused by adverse life circumstances or some unpleasant event, it is better to refer to the articles AGORAHOBIA, ALARM or ANXIETY. The main symptoms of depression are: loss of interest in daily activities, feeling
Depression is a mood disorder characterized by sadness and pessimism. The causes of depression are unknown, but the basis of its pharmacotherapy is the hypothesis that the manifestations of the disease are due to a deficiency of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain or dysfunction of the receptors of these mediators. With major depression, the level of cortisol in the blood is increased by 50% and its circadian rhythm is disturbed.
Cause The most common cause of depression is mental stress. Also, depression is possible due to overwork, brain injury (possibly in the past), prolonged and severe disease of internal organs, surgery, prolonged pain, poor blood supply to the brain, congenital mental impairment of the integrity of the personality. Symptoms Depressed, joyless
- Depression Scale
The questionnaire was developed for the differential diagnosis of depressive states and conditions close to depression, for screening diagnostics in mass studies and for the purpose of preliminary, pre-medical diagnostics. Test adapted by T.I. Balashova. Full testing with processing takes 20-30 minutes. The subject marks the answers on the form. Depression level (UD) is calculated using the formula: UD
- 8.1. ALARM AND DEPRESSION
Among all psychopathological syndromes encountered in somatic practice, anxiety and depression are the most common. These disorders are usually considered in a single continuum. Anxiety and depression are often combined with somatic disorders (comorbid conditions), make them more severe, prognosis. Timely treatment of them significantly optimizes internal therapy.
Depressive syndrome - a combination of melancholy mood with a decrease in mental and physical activity. Assessment of the severity of depression is within the competence of the psychiatrist, since its external signs do not always reflect the severity of the condition and the risk of possible suicide. Suicidal attempts, refusal to eat, anxious motor excitation of the patient require urgent hospitalization in
- Treatment of depression
The leading treatment for depression today is psychopharmacotherapy. Along with medications, methods of physical, phyto, and psychotherapy with elements of psychocorrection and other socio-rehabilitation methods are widely used. Psychotherapy, conducted in conjunction with medicinal treatment, (mainly aimed at correcting depressive distortion of thinking, reducing aggression,
- Depression in patients with myocardial infarction
In recent decades, it has been established that depressive and anxiety disorders increase the risk of developing MI (Todaro JF et al., 2003). In a multicenter randomized study GISSI-2, it was found that 40% of patients in the preceding 3 months before the development of MI experienced a depressed mood. Other researchers report that depression develops as a result and complication of MI (Honig A. et.
- Depression of the ST segment as a manifestation of vegetative dystonia
Other changes in the ECG caused by impaired tone of the autonomic nervous system should include ST segment depression, which is noted in hypersympathicotonia. In the differential diagnosis takes into account the characteristic clinical picture; depression of the ST segment, revealed in young people, especially women, often with concomitant tachycardia, without typical angina pectoris manifestations. This
- Depression and mania alternately (cyclothymia)
Cause Cyclothymia or other mental illnesses and disorders in relatives. Symptoms Chronic instability of mood, frequent depression, alternating with elevation of mood. Instability usually develops at a young age and takes a chronic course. First aid. Needs psychological help, self-treatment.
- Postpartum depression
Most mothers go through a specific condition in the first or second week after giving birth. They feel sad, discouraged and anxious about their ability to care for a newborn baby. In part, hormones can be blamed, as well as lack of sleep. Your body is completely exhausted by pregnancy and childbirth, making you feel as if your life is completely
- From fashion to depression and disease
People who learn about what I do always ask me: “Doctor, what should I eat?” Americans are obsessed with the desire to find the right formula for nutrition. Since 1990, when I moved to New York, I witnessed the implementation of many bizarre theories that took hold of the minds of the entire country’s population, brought about industry restructuring and ultimately led to
- About depression in general. Let's talk?
This is what I want to draw your attention to now ... How do we experience bodily diseases? When we do not intend to be ill at your pleasure, of course. At the first sign of a cold, we climbed into a hot bath, had tea with raspberries and honey, poured mustard into our socks, drank a glass or two of vodka with pepper, covered ourselves warmly, and in the morning — like cucumbers! To whom such concern for themselves, swallow a couple or two
- How to help a depressed person?
Before assisting anyone, it is necessary to check whether a person wants to be helped. People who are in deep depression usually do not want any help. Attempting to help such a person and his refusal to help cause us bitterness and frustration. Most often, these people say: “Leave, go about your business. I am fully capable of adjusting my life myself. I do not
- Depression and other conditions of the affective spectrum, causing an immediate physical threat to the patient
DIAGNOSIS This group includes conditions characterized by low, depressed mood, anxiety, delayed thinking, motor retardation with active suicidal thoughts, tendencies, auto-aggressive actions that pose a danger to patients' lives or a serious threat to their health. The intensity of suicidal impulses is determined by the severity of anguish, the degree
- Mood Disorders
In case of mood disorders, a person is engulfed in severe depression or mania (rapid mood elevation), or at times relive depression, at times mania. Mood disorders are divided into depressive disorders, in which a person has one or more periods of depression, but no periods of mania, and bipolar disorders, in which periods of depression are replaced by periods
- Psychological aspects of myocardial infarction
The disease is a stressful factor, it is accompanied by a whole range of emotions, changes in life plans, the future outlook, changes motivation and has in addition to medical, psychological and social aspects. The personal response to the disease depends on the duration of the disease, its severity and the intellectual capabilities of the person. According to the literature it is known that