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The manifestations of depression are very diverse and vary depending on the form of the disease. The most typical signs of this disorder are listed below.

The most typical manifestations of depression

Emotional manifestations

• Longing, suffering, depressed, depressed mood, despair.

• Anxiety, a feeling of inner tension, anticipation of trouble.

• Irritability.

• Feelings of guilt, ideas of self-blame.

• Discontent with oneself, a decrease in self-confidence, a decrease in self-esteem.

• Decrease or loss of the ability to experience pleasure from earlier pleasant activities (anhedonia).

• Decreased interest in the world around them.

• Loss of ability to experience any feelings (in cases of deep depression).

• Depression often combines with anxiety about the health and fate of loved ones, and also with fear appear insolvent in public places.

Physiological manifestations

• Sleep disturbances (insomnia at night, drowsiness during the day).

• Changes in appetite (its loss or overeating).

• Violation of bowel function (constipation).

• Reducing sexual needs.

• Decreased energy, increased fatigue in normal physical and mental loads, weakness.

• Pain and various unpleasant sensations in the body (for example, in the heart, in the stomach, in the muscles).

Behavioral manifestations

• Passivity, difficulty in getting involved in purposeful activity.

• Avoiding contacts (inclination to seclusion, loss of interest in other people).

• Refuse to entertain.

• Alcohol and substance abuse that provide temporary relief.

Associative violations

• Difficulty concentrating, concentrating attention.

• Difficulties in making decisions.

• The predominance of gloomy, negative thoughts about yourself, about your life, about the world as a whole.

• A gloomy, pessimistic vision of the future with a lack of perspective, thoughts of the meaninglessness of life.

• Thoughts of suicide (in severe cases of depression).

• Presence of thoughts about own uselessness, insignificance, helplessness.

• Slowing down of thinking.

To diagnose "depression" it is necessary that some of these symptoms persist for at least two weeks.


• Often, depression occurs on the background of stresses or long-lasting severe traumatic situations. Sometimes they arise for no apparent reason.

• Depression can accompany somatic diseases (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, endocrine, etc.). In such cases, it significantly burdens the course and prognosis of the underlying somatic disease. However, with the timely detection and treatment of depression, there is a rapid improvement in mental and physical well-being.

• Depression can occur in the form of single, different severity episodes of the disease or proceed for a long time in the form of repeated exacerbations.

• In some patients, depression is chronic - continues for many years and leads to their disability.

• Sometimes depression is limited mainly to bodily symptoms without distinct emotional manifestations.
At the same time, clinical and laboratory examinations can not detect any organic changes. In such cases, consultation with a psychiatrist is necessary.

• Specific disorders of neurochemical processes (the exchange of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, etc.) belong to the biological mechanisms of depressive development. These violations, in turn, can be hereditarily caused.

Initial inspection

• Ask the patient for problems, loss, insomnia. Note the complete indifference to life, problems with concentration, indecision, inability to think clearly.

• Ask the patient for anorexia, constipation or diarrhea, loss of appetite, weight gain.

• Find out if the patient has thoughts of suicide.

First aid

• Ensure patient safety (prevention of suicide attempts).

• Take blood and urine for analysis to determine the use of medications that cause mental disorders.

• For prescription, start medication.

Adequate therapy allows in most cases completely

get rid of the symptoms of depression. The main class of drugs for the treatment of depression are antidepressants. The main advantages of antidepressants of new generations are the improvement of tolerability, reduction of side effects, reduction of toxicity and high safety in case of overdose. New antidepressants include fluoxetine, sertraline, citalopram, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, tianeptine, mianserin, moclobemide, milnacipran, duloxetine, mirtazapine, venlafaxine, etc. The dose of the drug is determined individually for each patient. Antidepressants are not addictive, unlike benzodiazepine tranquilizers (phenazepam, Relanium, Elenium, Tazepam, etc.) and Cororvala, Valocordin used in our country.

Psychotherapy is not an alternative, but an important addition to drug treatment of depression. Unlike drug treatment, psychotherapy involves a more active role of the patient in the treatment process. Psychotherapy helps patients develop the skills of emotional self-regulation and in the future more effectively cope with crisis situations without getting depressed.

• Encourage the patient to express their feelings.

Preventive measures

The re-occurrence of depression can be prevented through preventive measures, observance of the correct mode of work and rest, refusal to use drugs, alcohol, caffeine.

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