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ELECTROTRAVE. PATHOGENESIS, CLINIC

An electric trauma is a damage caused by the action of an electric current and is formed from the direct effects of the passage of an electric current through the tissues of an organism and a burn by a flame of a voltaic arc.

Sources of electric current that affects people can be household and industrial electrical installations, atmospheric electricity. The defeat occurs both in direct contact with current-carrying parts, and at a distance, due to the ionization of air - the formation of an electric (voltaic) arc, which at ultrahigh voltages can reach 35 cm.

Electrical damage can occur from the so-called "step voltage", which is formed on the ground around the current source. It is considered dangerous to enter the area of ​​the fallen high-voltage wire at a distance of 10 meters. The severity of electric shock depends on:

1. Current strength (0.1 A is considered dangerous, 0.5 A is fatal)

2. Duration of action

3. Paths of passage through the body ("current loops") - the most dangerous are the current loops, which resemble the heart region, neck, head.

The electric current exerts on the organism a specific (biological, electrochemical, thermal, dynamic) and nonspecific effects. The specific biological effect of the current consists of an exciting action on the musculature and nerve elements, leading to prolonged disruptions in the potassium-sodium cell pump, and, as a result, to severe neuromuscular disorders (up to ventricular fibrillation and instant death).

Electrochemical action leads to the accumulation of acid products in the anode application area, and alkaline products in the cathode region. As a result, necrosis of tissues arises: under the anode - coagulation, and under the cathode - collisional. Sometimes, thanks to the electrochemical advance of metal ions from the conductor to the tissue, "metallization" of the skin (color, corresponding to the color of the metal ions) occurs.

Thermal action of the current is manifested by burns.
On the skin, as a rule,

there are deep burns in the form of "current labels", in the bone tissue when it melts - "pearl beads".

The dynamic (mechanical) action of high-power currents manifests itself in the stratification of tissues or even the detachment of parts of the body. The combined effect of thermal and mechanical energy can cause an explosive effect.

The non-specific effect of electric current is due to various types of energy generated outside the body. Voltaic arc, has a temperature of up to 4000 degrees Celsius, so hot-routed conductors can cause thermal burns; intensive glow of the voltaic arc and ultraviolet radiation - burn of the cornea and retina; sound wave in the explosion - damage to the auditory analyzer.

The clinic of electric shock consists of general and local symptoms. In the early period (the duration of it is not clearly defined), the functions of the central nervous system, cardiovascular and respiratory systems are at the forefront. Lesions of other internal organs are rare. In some cases, at the time of electrical injury, or in the next few minutes after it, sudden death may occur, due to functional disorders of the vasomotor and respiratory centers, ventricular fibrillation, or spasm of the coronary vessels. It should be remembered that similar reflex disorders can develop and within a few hours after electrical injury. Therefore, each victim of an electric current, regardless of his condition, should be considered potentially serious and immediately hospitalized.

Often when electric injury occurs loss of consciousness of different duration. The sharp depression of the centers of the central nervous system can create the impression of death of the victim ("imaginary death", "electric lethargy"). When carrying out persistent resuscitation measures, it is often possible to save such victims from death. In other, more rare cases, against a background of mental disorders, there is psychomotor and motor excitement.
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ELECTROTRAVE. PATHOGENESIS, CLINIC

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