Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous || Next >> |
ELECTROTRAVE. PATHOGENESIS, CLINIC
An electric trauma is a damage caused by the action of an electric current and is formed from the direct effects of the passage of an electric current through the tissues of an organism and a burn by a flame of a voltaic arc.
Sources of electric current that affects people can be household and industrial electrical installations, atmospheric electricity. The defeat occurs both in direct contact with current-carrying parts, and at a distance, due to the ionization of air - the formation of an electric (voltaic) arc, which at ultrahigh voltages can reach 35 cm.
Electrical damage can occur from the so-called "step voltage", which is formed on the ground around the current source. It is considered dangerous to enter the area of the fallen high-voltage wire at a distance of 10 meters. The severity of electric shock depends on:
1. Current strength (0.1 A is considered dangerous, 0.5 A is fatal)
2. Duration of action
3. Paths of passage through the body ("current loops") - the most dangerous are the current loops, which resemble the heart region, neck, head.
The electric current exerts on the organism a specific (biological, electrochemical, thermal, dynamic) and nonspecific effects. The specific biological effect of the current consists of an exciting action on the musculature and nerve elements, leading to prolonged disruptions in the potassium-sodium cell pump, and, as a result, to severe neuromuscular disorders (up to ventricular fibrillation and instant death).
Electrochemical action leads to the accumulation of acid products in the anode application area, and alkaline products in the cathode region. As a result, necrosis of tissues arises: under the anode - coagulation, and under the cathode - collisional. Sometimes, thanks to the electrochemical advance of metal ions from the conductor to the tissue, "metallization" of the skin (color, corresponding to the color of the metal ions) occurs.
Thermal action of the current is manifested by burns.
On the skin, as a rule,
there are deep burns in the form of "current labels", in the bone tissue when it melts - "pearl beads".
The dynamic (mechanical) action of high-power currents manifests itself in the stratification of tissues or even the detachment of parts of the body. The combined effect of thermal and mechanical energy can cause an explosive effect.
The non-specific effect of electric current is due to various types of energy generated outside the body. Voltaic arc, has a temperature of up to 4000 degrees Celsius, so hot-routed conductors can cause thermal burns; intensive glow of the voltaic arc and ultraviolet radiation - burn of the cornea and retina; sound wave in the explosion - damage to the auditory analyzer.
The clinic of electric shock consists of general and local symptoms. In the early period (the duration of it is not clearly defined), the functions of the central nervous system, cardiovascular and respiratory systems are at the forefront. Lesions of other internal organs are rare. In some cases, at the time of electrical injury, or in the next few minutes after it, sudden death may occur, due to functional disorders of the vasomotor and respiratory centers, ventricular fibrillation, or spasm of the coronary vessels. It should be remembered that similar reflex disorders can develop and within a few hours after electrical injury. Therefore, each victim of an electric current, regardless of his condition, should be considered potentially serious and immediately hospitalized.
Often when electric injury occurs loss of consciousness of different duration. The sharp depression of the centers of the central nervous system can create the impression of death of the victim ("imaginary death", "electric lethargy"). When carrying out persistent resuscitation measures, it is often possible to save such victims from death. In other, more rare cases, against a background of mental disorders, there is psychomotor and motor excitement.
| << Previous || Next >> |
| = Skip to the content of the tutorial = |
ELECTROTRAVE. PATHOGENESIS, CLINIC
- pathogenesis, clinic, treatment
Trichinosis is an acute invasive (nematodosis) human disease, accompanied by fever and marked allergic manifestations. Etiology: 3 Trichinella species - Trichinella spiralis - circulates in synanthropic biocenoses, Trichinella nativa, Trichinella nelsoni - circulate in natural biocenoses. Epidemiology: Trichinella hosts are predominantly carnivorous mammals, often
- Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinic
Epidemiology According to recently published data (Junge, 1994), there are between 800,000 and 1,200,000 people suffering from drug dependence in Germany, as well as between 100,000 and 120,000 addicts, and this should be supplemented by smokers - their number is estimated at 29% who are over 15 years old, with 37% of men and 21% of women smoking, and 2 500 000 alcoholics. Pathogenesis of dependence on
- Scabies. Etiology, pathogenesis, clinic
Scabies are a very common and contagious parasitic skin disease caused by an external parasite - an itch mite. Etiology and pathogenesis. The causative agent of the disease is the itch mite or, as it is called, the itch. The tick is an obligate human parasite (man is the only owner of a tick in nature). The causative agent is about 100 μm in size. After ingestion of individuals or
- Atopic dermatitis. Etiology, pathogenesis, clinic
Atopic dermatitis is a hereditary chronic disease of the whole organism with a predominant skin lesion that is characterized by polyvalent hypersensitivity and eosinophilia in the peripheral blood. Etiology and pathogenesis. Atopic dermatitis refers to multifactorial diseases. Inherited predisposition to atopic diseases is realized under
- PATHOGENESIS AND CLINIC OF HIV INFECTION
PATHOGENESIS. In different individuals, the "responsiveness" of the body to HIV infection is not the same. It depends on the specifics of their histocompatibility system. In HIV-infected patients, the HLA-B35 phenotype is more common than in others. It is established that the same phenotype is the main risk factor for HIV infection among drug users who inject drugs intravenously. In the body, the virus is introduced into sensitive cells.
- PATHOGENESIS AND CLINIC OF HIV INFECTION
PATHOGENESIS. In different individuals, the "responsiveness" of the body to HIV infection is not the same. It depends on the specifics of their histocompatibility system. In HIV-infected people more often than others, HLA-B35 phenotype occurs. It is established that the same phenotype is the main risk factor for HIV infection among drug users who inject drugs intravenously. In the body, the virus is introduced into sensitive cells. Basic
- PATHOGENESIS AND CLINIC OF BURNING TOXEMIA AND SEPTIKOTOXEMIA
At the heart of the pathogenesis of burn toxemia is the resorption of the products of decay of tissues from the burn wound into the blood and lymph. This process is especially pronounced in the first several days after the burn was received, when granulation, which is a "wound barrier" in the way of toxins absorption, has not yet formed. It is now clear that in the pathogenesis of intoxication from the very beginning,
- typhus fever: pathogenesis, clinic, laboratory diagnostics
Epidemic typhus (lice-typhus typhus, typhoid fever) is an acute infectious disease characterized by a cyclic course, fever, rose-oesophageal-petechial exanthema, nerve damage and CVS, the possibility of co-storage of rickettsia in the convalescent organism for many years. Etiology: R. prowazekii (available in all countries of the world) R. canada (only in North America) - Gr-organisms.
- tetanus (pathogenesis, clinic, diagnosis, treatment)
Tetanus (tetanus) is an acute infectious disease caused by exposure to the exotoxin of the tetanus bacillus with a primary lesion of the nervous system characterized by tonic and convulsive contractions of the striated muscles. Etiology: Clostridium tetani - in the external environment exists in the form of extremely stable spores, which, with favorable anaerobic
- Acute suppurative otitis media. Etiology, pathogenesis, clinic
Acute otitis media - inflammation of all the cavities of the middle ear (tympanum, auditory tube, cells of the mastoid process). There are two stages in the development of the disease: 1. The preperforative stage (acute catarrhal otitis) 2. Perforating stage (acute purulent otitis). Etiology Pathogens - streptococci, pneumococci, staphylococci and much less often other types of microbes. Ways