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Physiological characteristics of childhood
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Physiological characteristics of childhood
- ANATOMO-PHYSIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF CHILDREN
The main indicators of a child’s abilities are his growth and development. These two common processes have some differences. By such a concept as growth, we mean an increase in growth, body weight and other physical indicators, while development is the "growth" of the intellectual, behavioral, and social structures of the brain. All this is controlled by many factors, both inside the child and around.
- Physiological features of children's skin
The protective function of the skin in children is imperfect. Due to the inferiority of the fibrous structure, the skin is subject to mechanical, thermal, chemical and radiation damage. Due to the friability of the stratum corneum, increased humidity and temperature, the skin's pH changes to a neutral or slightly alkaline environment, especially in infants, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungi develop, resulting
- Physiological features of children's skin
The protective skin of children is very imperfect. This is due to: 1) Anatomical insufficiency of the structural components of children's skin; 2) Decreased bactericidal secretion of the sebaceous and sweat glands; 3) The lipid mantle has a neutral or slightly alkaline environment, and not acidic, as in adults; 4) weakness of the pituitary-adrenal system; Thermoregulation of the skin of infants and toddlers
- Features of neurosurgical operations in childhood
The skull of a newborn has a number of features. The bones of the skull are thin, elastic, the skull has fontanelles, seams between the bones of the cranial vault are not formed. The formation of the skull is completed by 2 years, when the cranial sutures are closed. Closure of fontanelles ends earlier. At an early age, in some cases, during operations on the brain, accesses through unclosed fontanelles, the presence of
- Features and hygiene of the digestive system in childhood
The normal development of the child is in close connection with the activity of his digestive organs. Digestive disorder leads to an eating disorder, metabolic disturbance, which is often accompanied by a violation of the functions of many organs and systems. The digestive organs of a child, especially young children, are characterized by functional immaturity and increased vulnerability. At the same time, the exchange rate
- CHARACTERISTICS OF THE IMMUNITY SYSTEM IN CHILDREN
The formation and development of the immune system serves as the basis for age-related resistance or, conversely, the susceptibility of the child's body to certain diseases of a bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic nature, as well as manifestations of immunopathological reactions that change with age. By analogy with the development of the brain, the process of maturation of the immune system continues in a child for many years. During
- FEATURES OF WATER-ELECTROLYTIC METABOLISM IN CHILDREN
Water, electrolytes and blood pH in the body are in constant interaction, which can be represented as the following balance: Water = Electrolytes = blood pH The child’s body contains relatively more water (as a percentage of body weight) than an adult. The younger the child, the relatively more water in his body due to the larger interstitial space. But still
- Features of the reaction to surgical trauma in infancy and childhood
In principle, it can be considered that from the 2nd to 3rd week of life, the same periods of the postoperative course are observed as in adults, which were described by Moore (3.8.2). Immediately after injuries and injuries, water and electrolytes move both between the damaged and normal tissues (the formation of the “third space”), and between the intracellular and extracellular spaces. This leads to
- Anatomical and physiological features of the respiratory system of children under the age of 7-12 years.
The features of the upper respiratory tract in children and their clinical significance are well known: the long incompleteness of the formation of the paranasal sinuses, the latitude and gaping of the Eustachian tube, the easy involvement of lymphoid pharyngeal formations in the inflammatory process and other features. However, the educational literature does not fully cover the pathophysiology of the middle and lower airways
- Immunity, its types. Features of immunity at an early age. Allergy and anaphylaxis. Measures for the prevention of infectious diseases in institutions.
Immunity - the body's immunity to the causative agents of any disease: 1. Natural: * Congenital - inherited; * Acquired - produced as a result of illness, produces its own antibodies; 2. Artificial: * Active - use of vaccines (ready-made antibodies); * Passive - injected serum, which is made from the patient’s blood plasma
- Periods of childhood and their characteristics
One of the characteristic features of a child’s body that distinguishes it from an adult organism is intensive growth and continuous development. Depending on the regular changes occurring in the child’s body, the following periods of his life are distinguished: I. intrauterine development period 1. embryonic development phase (embryo) 2. placental development phase (fetus) II. period
- PERNICIAL (B12-FOLIOUS DEFICIENCY) CHILDREN'S ANEMIA
Pernicious anemic syndrome in childhood is very rare. An analysis of the literary material and our own observations allows us to distinguish the following forms of pernicious (B12-folic deficiency) anemia of childhood. 1. Nutritive megaloblastic anemia of infants. It occurs mainly in premature babies and in children who were on artificial
- LESSON 13 TOPIC. CHILD INFECTIONS
Motivational characteristic of the topic. Knowledge of the topic materials is necessary for the successful assimilation of infections of children and adolescents in clinical departments. In the practical work of a doctor, it is necessary to conduct a clinical anatomical analysis of the manifestations of an infectious pathology. The general purpose of the lesson. By morphological characteristics, learn to determine the causes and mechanisms of the development of infections of children and adolescents
- The value of anthropometry in childhood.
It is generally recognized that in their practice, pediatricians very often weigh and measure their patients. Indeed, the study of the growth and development of children is extremely important for the children's doctor in the prevention and diagnosis of diseases by recognizing the norm and deviations from normal values. Although the processes of growth and development cannot be considered independent of each other, still for practical purposes
- The causes of aggression in childhood
In recent years, scientific interest in child aggression has grown significantly. They continue to shock the news that the children are killing each other to death. A significant increase in aggressive children is one of the most acute problems not only for teachers and psychologists, but also for society as a whole. In addition, an aggressive child creates a lot of problems not only to others, but also to himself.
- Poisoning in childhood
The article “Poisoning” is located in Section 15 “Poisoning”. Poisoning (intoxication) is a pathological condition that develops as a result of the interaction of a living organism and poison. The role of the latter can be practically any chemical compound that has entered the body in an amount that can cause a violation of vital functions and create a danger to life. The toxicity of the substance is greater
- To the problem of periodization of mental development in childhood
Periodization of mental development in childhood is a fundamental problem of child psychology. Its development has important theoretical significance, since through the determination of periods of mental development and through the identification of patterns of transitions from one period to another, the problem of the driving forces of mental development can ultimately be solved. It can be argued that any
- Kidney Failure
Renal failure refers to global impaired renal function. There are acute and chronic renal failure. Acute renal failure associated with developmental abnormalities or polycystic kidney disease (the presence of cysts - cavities in the kidneys) occurs during the neonatal period. Significantly more common acute renal failure with the accumulation of harmful
- Early childhood congenital syphilis
It is characterized by mild clinical symptoms. The clinical picture corresponds to the secondary acquired period of syphilis or a latent course may be observed. The clinic is dominated by large papules and broad warts, so some authors call this period condylomatous. The main features of the clinical picture of syphilis in early childhood 1)
- An early congenital sif. childhood
The period of congenital syphus. happens in children. at the age of 1 to 4 years and is characterized by mildness, scarcity of manifestations. Weeping and erosive papules, or broad condylomas, or simultaneously papular "elements and wide condylomas, located in the region of the anus. And half of the organs. The prevailing symptom of this period is wide condylomas, often referred to as condylomatous .