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Hyponatremia with high sodium in the body
Patients with edema are characterized by an increase in the total sodium content in the body and OOB. When the excess water in the body begins to exceed the excess of sodium, then hyponatremia occurs. Edema develops in heart and kidney failure, cirrhosis of the liver and nephrotic syndrome. Hyponatremia in these cases is caused by a progressive violation of the release of free water by the kidneys, the degree of which corresponds to the severity of the underlying disease. Pathophysiological mechanisms include increased secretion of ADH under the influence of neosmotic factors and a decrease in the flow of fluid into the distal segments of the nephrons (chap. 31). In such patients, the "effective" BCC decreases.
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Hyponatremia with high sodium in the body
- Hyponatremia with normal sodium in the body
Hyponatremia in the absence of edema and hypovolemia is observed with glucocorticoid insufficiency, hypothyroidism, with the use of certain medications (for example, chlorpropamide and cyclophosphamide), as well as with the syndrome of inadequate secretion of ADH (SNSADH). Hyponatremia in adrenal insufficiency may be due to ADH cosecretion along with secretion
- Hypernatremia with high sodium in the body
Most often, this condition occurs during the infusion of a large amount of hypertonic solution (3% NaCl or 7.5% NaHCO3). With primary hyperaldosteronism and Cushing's syndrome, the concentration of sodium in the blood sometimes sometimes slightly increases and symptoms appear that are characteristic of excess sodium in the body. Clinical manifestations of hypernatremia
- Hypernatremia with a low sodium content in the body
This condition is characterized by a deficiency of sodium and water, and the loss of water exceeds the loss of sodium (water depletion). Loss of free water can be of renal (osmotic diuresis) or extrarenal origin (diarrhea or sweating). Symptoms of hypovolemia develop (Ch. 29). With renal loss, the concentration of sodium in the urine is higher than 20 meq / l, and with extrarenal loss it is lower than 10 meq / l.
- Hyperkalemia due to increased intake of potassium in the body
Normally, an increase in potassium intake into the body is rarely accompanied by hyperkalemia - with the exception of cases when a large amount of it is administered iv rapidly. At the same time, potassium loading can cause hyperkalemia in case of renal failure, insulin deficiency, and also in patients receiving (32-blockers. Potassium sources such as potassium often go unnoticed.
- Theme "Hardening as a means of increasing the adaptive capabilities of the body"
Hardening as a means of increasing the functional reserves of the body and its resistance to adverse environmental influences. 2. The main factors of hardening. Physiological mechanisms of hardening effects on the body. Hardening to cold, high air temperature, low atmospheric pressure. 3. Indications and contraindications for specific hardening methods.
- Nutrition for gastritis with high acidity
Gastritis with high acidity is accompanied by increased secretion of gastric juice, which contains a lot of hydrochloric acid and enzymes. In a healthy person, about 1.5 liters of gastric juice are secreted in the stomach per day, and with this form of the disease, 2-3 times more. In the treatment of this disease, proper nutrition is of great importance. Careful compliance with it in accordance with
- Hyponatremia Treatment
Treatment of hyponatremia is aimed at restoring the normal concentration of Na + in plasma and correcting the underlying pathological condition (Fig. 28-4). When combining hyponatremia with a reduced sodium content in the body, the method of choice is the infusion of an isotonic sodium chloride solution (chap. 29). Immediately after correction of the volume of extracellular fluid, spontaneous water diuresis occurs, which
Hyponatremia (hyponatriaemia; hypo- + sodium + Greek. Haima blood) - a reduced concentration of sodium in blood plasma (less than 130 meq / l); observed with insufficient intake of food, with excessive excretion from the body or with excessive intake of water. Pathophysiology • True hyponatremia (hypotonic hyponatremia) occurs with an absolute decrease in sodium in
- Pulmonary edema with increased permeability of the vascular wall
In many conditions called acute RDSV, the ultrastructure of the lungs is damaged and vascular permeability increases, which leads to the redistribution of water into the lung tissue. The concentration of protein in the interstitial fluid and in the alveoli increases. One of the main signs of RDSV is a large amount of protein in the pulmonary extravascular fluid and alveoli. Diagnostics. Cardiogenic edema
- Dependence of the duration of the postpartum period on the state of the mother’s body, the course of labor, feeding conditions, maintenance, care and exploitation
The duration of the postpartum period depends on the species characteristics of the animal, but, first of all, on the conditions of existence during pregnancy and childbirth. In farm animals, under normal living conditions, the postpartum period ends within 3 weeks or no later than a month. The postpartum period will end faster if childbirth proceeded without complications (or obstetric
- Hypoosmolarity and hyponatremia
ICD-10 code E87.1 Diagnosis Diagnosis Mandatory Level of consciousness, respiratory rate and effectiveness, heart rate, blood pressure, ECG, medical history, thorough physical examination Laboratory tests: glucose, blood electrolytes, urea, creatinine, density and general an. urine Additional (according to indications) CVP ECG Enzymes (AlAT, AsAT, KFK) During the treatment of blood pressure, heart rate,
In patients in the intensive care unit, imbalances in fluid and sodium balance occur daily, as patients often suffer from multiple organ failure, which is accompanied by a violation of self-regulation of water balance, and the medication used affects the water-electrolyte balance. Hyponatremia, defined as a decrease in plasma sodium below 125 meq / l, is