Licensed books on medicine
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Chemical burns can be caused by organic and non-organic substances in the solid, liquid and gaseous state. The degree of damage depends on the amount of substance, its concentration and time of contact with the skin.
The pathogenesis of chemical burns is different from the pathogenesis of thermal lesions. The action of concentrated acids on the skin causes clotting of tissue proteins (with the formation of acid albuminates) and dehydration of the affected tissue due to the high hydrophilicity of the acid (coagulative necrosis). A dry "pressed in" scab is formed, there are no blisters.
Concentrated alkalis (caustic potassium, caustic soda, quicklime, caustic soda), unlike acids, do not coagulate, but emulsify proteins, forming alkaline albuminates, as a result of which they quickly penetrate deep into the tissues and cause their swelling. Formed wet (colliquation necrosis). Loose wet scab easily separated, exposing bleeding ulcer. Subsequently, necrosis extends to the surrounding tissues due to the violation of the colloidal properties of their proteins.
By the depth of damage chemical burns are divided in the same way as thermal burns into four degrees.
The basic principle of first aid to an injured person when a chemical substance gets on the skin is its immediate and complete removal. The best way to do this is a long (10-15 minutes) flushing with a stream of water under pressure. If clothes are dirty, they should be removed (cut if necessary).
The previously recommended method of neutralization with the help of antidotes has proved to be little effective in practice, since, as a rule, the necessary antidote is not at hand, and searching for it or preparing it leads to an unacceptable loss of time. Neutralization can only be applied as an additional measure after a vigorous washout.
In the future, the treatment of chemical burns is carried out in accordance with the same principles as thermal. Due to the fact that chemical burns, as a rule, are deep, they require treatment in a hospital using surgical methods.
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- Chemical burns of the esophagus
Esophageal burns are usually of a chemical nature, with the exception of the rarest cases of thermal burns. Chemical burns of the esophagus occur when accidental or deliberate (with a suicidal purpose) taking aggressive liquids inside. Currently, the most common cause of such burns is acetic essence (80% acetic acid solution). The pathogenesis of a chemical burn of the esophagus is quite typical.
- THERMAL AND CHEMICAL BURNS
Animals with thermal or chemical burns are slaughtered for meat when they are in a non-removable condition or their treatment and their maintenance are not economically feasible in the future. Thermal burns in animals are a consequence of the effects on high temperature tissues (fire, hot water, hot air), radiation energy, and electric current. As a result of thermal burns, animals have
- Chemical burns
Examination volume 1. Chemical burns cause corrosive liquids - concentrated acids and caustic alkalis. 2. Acids have a cauterizing and necrotizing effect, coagulation of tissue proteins; alkalis dissolve proteins and cause kallikvatsie necrosis. 3. Signs of a chemical burn when liquid is ingested: a burn of the face, lips, oropharynx, and hoarseness
- Chemical burns of the respiratory and esophageal pathways
Chemical burns of the respiratory tract Chemical burns occur due to ingestion or inhalation of concentrated chemical solutions (acids, alkalis, etc.). Most often, this affects the vestibular region of the larynx (epiglottis, scooped-epiglottis and vestibular folds, curved cartilage). At the site of contact of the chemical agent with the mucous membrane, a local burn occurs.
- Thermal and chemical burns
Cipher on ICD-10 T20 - T32 Diagnosis When making a diagnosis Mandatory Level of consciousness, efficiency and respiratory rate, blood pressure, heart rate, history, physical examination, area of burn surface Consultation of combustiologist (traumatologist, surgeon) Laboratory studies: hemoglobin, blood gases, carboxyhemoglobin, electrolytes (Na, K, Cl), coagulation rates (APTT, PTV,
- Thermal and chemical burns of the respiratory tract
Code for ICD-10 T27 Diagnosis When making a diagnosis Mandatory Level of consciousness, efficiency and respiratory rate, blood pressure, heart rate, history, physical examination R-graphy of the chest organs Bronchoscopy Laboratory studies: bacterial culture 2-3 days after the burn, hemoglobin, gases blood, carboxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, electrolytes (Na, K, Cl), coagulation rates
- CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELLS AND ITS PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
The elemental composition of the cell (protoplasm). To clearly imagine the biological and physico-chemical properties of tissues, it is necessary to know the chemical composition of the cell's protoplasm. In addition to water, there are a large number of elements in the protoplasm. The finest chemical studies have found that of the 104 elements of the periodic system of DI Mendeleev, 96 are included in the composition of protoplasm. Four
- The chemical composition of water. Water pollution: physical, chemical, bacteriological. The ability of water sources to self-purification
The chemical composition of water. In nature, water almost always contains more or less mineral salts dissolved in it. The degree and mineral composition of water is determined by the nature of the soil or soils adjacent to aquifers or surface water sources. The amount of mineral salts contained in water is expressed in mg / l. Organic matter. Of these, the most important are
A burn is an injury that occurs when a high temperature, aggressive chemicals, electric current and ionizing radiation are applied to the body tissues. Annealed is a person who has suffered a thermal injury. The frequency of burns is 5-10% of the total number of injuries in peacetime. The structure of a burn injury is dominated by household burns. The third part of the number of burned children are.
Burns (combustio) - damage to body tissues resulting from local effects of high temperature, chemicals, electrical current or ionizing radiation. According to the etiological basis, there are thermal, chemical, electrical and radiation burns. Thermal burns are I-IV degree. I degree burn, or superficial burn, is characterized by the appearance of pain