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Chemical burns can be caused by organic and non-organic substances in a solid, liquid and gaseous state. The degree of damage depends on the amount of the substance, its concentration and the time of contact with the skin.

The pathogenesis of chemical burns differs from the pathogenesis of thermal lesions. With the action of concentrated acids on the skin, clotting of tissue proteins (with the formation of acidic albumins) and dehydration of the affected tissue due to high hydrophilicity of the acid (coagulation necrosis) occurs. There is a dry "depressed" scab, there are no bubbles.

Concentrated alkalis (caustic potassium, caustic soda, quicklime, caustic soda), unlike acids, do not coagulate, but emulsify proteins, forming alkaline albumins, as a result of which they quickly penetrate deeply into the tissues and cause them to swell. Wet (colliquated necrosis) is formed. A loose, damp scab is easily detached, exposing a bleeding ulcer. Subsequently, necrosis extends to the surrounding tissues due to the violation of the colloidal properties of their proteins.

In terms of the depth of the lesion, chemical burns are divided as well as thermal burns into four degrees.
The main principle of first aid to the victim when a chemical enters the skin is its immediate and complete removal. The best means at the same time is a long (10-15 minutes) flush with a jet of water under pressure. If clothing is dirty, it must be removed (cut if necessary).

The previously recommended neutralization method with antidotes proved to be ineffective in practice, since the required antidote is usually not at hand, and its search or preparation leads to an unacceptable loss of time. Neutralization can only be used as an additional measure after a vigorous washout.

Further, the treatment of chemical burns is carried out in accordance with the same principles as thermal ones. Due to the fact that chemical burns, as a rule, are deep, they require treatment in a hospital using surgical methods.
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  1. Chemical burns of the esophagus
    Esophagus burns are usually of a chemical nature, except in rare cases of thermal burns. Chemical burns of the esophagus occur when an aggressive or deliberate (with a suicidal purpose) intake of aggressive liquids is ingested. Currently, most often the cause of these burns is acetic essence (80% acetic acid solution). The pathogenesis of the chemical burn of the esophagus is quite typical.
    Animals with thermal or chemical burns are killed for meat when they are in non-curable condition or their treatment and maintenance is not economically viable later on. Thermal burns in animals are a consequence of the action on the tissue of high temperature (fire, hot water, hot air), radiation energy, electric current. As a result of thermal burns, animals
  3. Chemical burns
    Scope of inspection 1. Chemical burns cause corrosive liquids - concentrated acids and caustic alkalis. 2. Acids have a cauterizing and necrotizing effect, coagulation of tissue proteins; alkalis dissolve proteins and cause callicidal necrosis. 3. Signs of a chemical burn when the liquid gets inside are: a burn of the skin of the face, mucous lips, oropharynx, hoarseness
  4. Chemical burns of the respiratory and esophageal tract
    Chemical burns of the respiratory tract Chemical burns occur due to ingestion or inhalation of concentrated chemical solutions (acids, alkalis, etc.). Most often this affects the vestibular part of the larynx (epiglottis, scaly-epiglottis and vestibular folds, arytenoid cartilages). At the place of contact of the chemical agent with the mucous membrane, local burns occur
  5. Thermal and chemical burns
    Code for the ICD-10 T20-T32 Diagnostics In determining the diagnosis Obligatory level of consciousness, effectiveness and respiration rate, blood pressure, heart rate, history, physical examination, burn area Consultation of a combistiologist (traumatologist, surgeon) Laboratory studies: hemoglobin, blood gases, carboxyhemoglobin, electrolytes (Na, K, Cl), coagulation factors (APTT, PTV,
  6. Thermal and chemical burns of the respiratory tract
    Code for the ICD-10 T27 Diagnosis When establishing the diagnosis Obligatory level of consciousness, efficiency and respiratory rate, blood pressure, heart rate, history, physical examination R-graphy of the chest organs Bronchoscopy Laboratory investigation: bacterial culture on day 2-3 after burn, hemoglobin, gases blood, carboxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, electrolytes (Na, K, Cl), coagulation factors
    Elementary composition of the cell (protoplasm). To clearly visualize the biological and physico-chemical properties of tissues, it is necessary to know the chemical composition of the protoplasm of the cell. In addition to water, there are a large number of elements in the protoplasm. Subtle chemical studies revealed that of the 104 elements of the periodic system of DI Mendeleyev, protoplasm included 96. Four
  8. Chemical composition of water. Water pollution: physical, chemical, bacteriological. Ability of water sources to self-purification
    Chemical composition of water. In nature, water almost always contains a greater or lesser amount of mineral salts dissolved in it. The degree and mineral composition of the water is determined by the nature of the soil or soil adjacent to the aquifers or surface water sources. The amount of mineral salts contained in water is expressed in mg / l. Organic substances. Of these, the most important -
  9. Burns
    Burn - a trauma that occurs when exposed to body tissues of high temperature, corrosive chemicals, electric current and ionizing radiation. A person who has received a thermal trauma is said to be fired. The incidence of burns is 5-10% of the total number of peacetime traumas. Domestic burns prevail in the structure of the burn injury. The third part of the number of burned children.
  10. Burns
    Burns (combustio) - damage to body tissues that occurs as a result of local action of high temperature, chemicals, electric current or ionizing radiation. By etiological sign distinguish between thermal, chemical, electrical and radiation burns. Thermal burns are of the I-IV degree. Burn I degree, or superficial burn, characterized by the appearance of pain
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