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Classification and pathogenesis of respiratory failure

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Classification and pathogenesis of respiratory failure

  1. Mechanisms of respiratory failure in the pathology of the respiratory tract
    The development of DN in diseases of the respiratory tract due to increased resistance to air flow (RL). At the same time, the ventilation of the affected areas of the lung is impaired, the resistive work of breathing increases, and fatigue and weakness of the respiratory tract can be the result of an irremovable DP obstruction. Due to the fact that the resistance of the respiratory tract (according to the law of Poiseuille)
  2. Respiratory failure
    Despite the fact that respiratory disorders can occur at any stage of gas exchange, the development of respiratory failure as a clinical syndrome is associated exclusively with the pathology of external respiration. The most simple definition was given to her by A.P. Zilber (1996): “Respiratory failure (NAM) is a condition of the body in which the ability of the lungs and the ventilation apparatus to provide normal gas
  3. Acute respiratory failure
    Acute respiratory failure - a violation of gas exchange between ambient air and circulating blood with the presence of hypoxemia and / or hypercapnia, which develops in a period of time from several minutes to several days. ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS, CLASSIFICATION The normal functioning of the respiratory system depends on the work of many of its components (respiratory center, nerves, muscles, chest,
  4. Acute respiratory failure
    The generally accepted definition of "acute respiratory failure" does not exist. It seems to us the most capacious, and at the same time not cumbersome definition proposed by V.L. Kassil and co-authors. ONE - a rapidly growing serious condition caused by the discrepancy between the capabilities of the respiratory apparatus and the metabolic needs of organs and tissues, at which the maximum occurs
  5. Respiratory failure
    Respiratory failure is a violation of gas exchange, requiring emergency medical intervention. Definitions of respiratory failure based on arterial blood gas indicators (Table 50-2) may be incorrect for chronic lung diseases: for chronic hypercapnia, the shortness of breath and symptoms listed in the table for respiratory failure should be added to
  6. Pulmonary respiratory failure
    Pulmonary respiratory failure is caused by damage to the airways or a decrease in the respiratory surface of the lungs due to exposure to the lung or damage to the lung parenchyma itself. Respiratory failure due to lesions of the airways is called obstructive-constrictive pulmonary respiratory failure. It should be noted that
  7. Respiratory failure
    Respiratory failure is a pathological condition of the body in which the normal maintenance of the gas composition of the blood is not ensured or it is achieved due to the tension of the compensatory mechanisms of external respiration. There are five groups of factors that lead to the violation of external respiration. 1. The defeat of the bronchi and respiratory structures of the lungs: 1) the defeat of the bronchial tree: increase
  8. Acute respiratory failure
    Clinical characteristics of acute respiratory failure Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a pathological condition in which the body cannot provide the necessary amount of oxygen to organs and tissues. A. P. Zilber (1978) defines ONE even more simply: the inability of the lungs to turn venous blood into arterial blood. The most common causes of acute respiratory
  9. ACUTE RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY
    Acute respiratory failure (ARD) is a syndrome that is based on symptoms of impaired respiratory function (respiratory function), which have common anatomical, physiological and biochemical features and lead to insufficient oxygen supply and / or carbon dioxide retention in the body. This condition is characterized by arterial hypoxemia or hypercapnia, or both.
  10. ACUTE RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY
    Acute respiratory failure (ARD) is a syndrome that is based on symptoms of impaired respiratory function (respiratory function), which have common anatomical, physiological and biochemical features and lead to insufficient oxygen supply and / or carbon dioxide retention in the body. This condition is characterized by arterial hypoxemia or hypercapnia, or both.
  11. Acute respiratory failure
    Clinical characteristics in acute respiratory failure The most important sign of the respiratory system in children is respiratory failure. Under the respiratory failure understand the pathological condition in which external respiration does not provide the normal gas composition of the blood or supports it at the cost of excessive energy costs. Respiratory failure
  12. Acute respiratory failure
    Respiratory failure - a condition in which the respiratory system is not able to provide the flow of oxygen and the excretion of carbon dioxide, necessary to maintain the normal functioning of the body. Acute respiratory failure is characterized by rapid progression: after a few hours, and sometimes minutes, the patient may die. Main causes of acute
  13. Acute respiratory failure
    Respiratory failure is a pathological condition in which the normal gas composition of the blood is not maintained or its maintenance is achieved by increasing external respiration. In 20-30% of cases, acute respiratory failure leads to death. Pathophysiology • Respiratory failure occurs due to a violation of the structure of the alveolar-capillary membrane. • membrane changes
  14. RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY
    In this section, we deal with issues that are relevant to the whole problem of artificial and assisted ventilation, both in anesthesiology and in intensive care. Traditionally, this section should begin with a brief description of the basics of normal physiology of external respiration, but these questions are adequately reflected in numerous manuals and monographs, and we can hardly
  15. Respiratory failure
    Respiratory (ventilation-pulmonary) failure is characterized by such disorders in which pulmonary gas exchange is impaired or is performed at the cost of excessive energy costs. Types of respiratory failure: 1) ventilation; 2) distribution and diffusion (shunt diffusion, hypoxemic); 3) mechanical. Clinic. I degree. Dyspnea varies without auxiliary
  16. Acute respiratory failure
    Acute respiratory failure complicates the course of many infectious diseases due to impaired pulmonary ventilation as a result of laryngospasm (tetanus, rabies) and acute inflammation of the larynx (diphtheria, viral croup), paralysis of the respiratory muscles (botulism, diphtheria) that surrounds the tracheobronchial and alveolar inflammatory inflammation (botulism, diphtheria) surrounding the tracheobronchial and alveolar inflammatory inflammation (botulism, diphtheria) that surrounds the tracheobronchial and alveolar inflammatory inflammation (botulism, diphtheria) that surrounds the tracheobronchial and alveolar inflammatory inflammation (botulism, diphtheria), which surrounds the tracheobronchial and alveolar inflammatory inflammation (botulism, diphtheria) that surrounds the tracheobronchial and alveolar inflammatory inflammation (botulism, diphtheria) that surrounds the tracheobronchial and alveolar inflammatory inflammation. acute respiratory infections, measles
  17. Pathophysiological variants of respiratory failure
    Respiratory failure may develop in violation of the function of any unit of the external respiratory apparatus and, therefore, be the result of damage to the central nervous system (CNS), neuromuscular pathology, chest deformities (pulmonary skeletal pathology), respiratory diseases or the parenchyma itself
  18. ACUTE RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY
    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a condition of the body in which external respiration does not ensure the normal level of O2 and CO2 in arterial blood or its maintenance is achieved by excessively increasing the work of breathing, i.e., inadequate use of its reserves. Differentiate the primary ONE, when pathological changes occur in any part of the respiratory system (respiratory
  19. Diagnosis and treatment of respiratory failure
    Respiratory failure I degree: dyspnea at rest absent; unstable cyanosis, pallor of the face, anxiety, irritability, blood pressure is normal or moderately increased. Indicators of external respiration: the minute respiratory volume (MOU) is increased, the vital capacity of the lungs (VC) is reduced, the respiratory reserve (RD) is reduced, the respiratory volume (OD) is slightly reduced, the respiratory equivalent (DE) is increased, the coefficient
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