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Anesthesia Depth Monitoring Concept
Despite the apparent simplicity, it is actually very difficult to answer the question of how to identify and observe the lip of anesthesia, since lack of consciousness, analgesia, relaxation are all or nothing values. Observing the patient, the anesthesiologist must solve a number of problems for himself, such as: if the patient has a motor reaction in response to surgical manipulation, then how can this be regarded as a side effect or inadequate anesthesia? If the depth of anesthesia was sufficient in the preoperative period, can surgical aggression change it?
Thus, the depth of anesthesia is a category that depends not only on the effect of the drug substance and its concentration, but also on afferent impulse. This approach complicates the monitoring of the depth of anesthesia, since, being dependent on various conditions, the level of anesthesia will vary in steps. Since the intensity of surgical stimuli is unpredictable, a modern approach to this problem means determining an advance possible response from the body and dosed administration of anesthetics depending on the alleged trauma.
Ideally, to determine the depth of anesthesia, a clearly defined and strictly dosed stimulus should be applied to the patient and the effect should be noted. In practice, such an incentive is often a skin incision. However, it is not quantitatively verified, it depends on the person, the degree of trauma and many other reasons. In addition, it is carried out once. Therefore, other varieties of non-invasive stimulation are studied and offered, which could be dosed and applied repeatedly. The problem associated with measuring the depth of anesthesia is complicated by the lack of universal definitions of the depth of anesthesia, which should be extremely clear and expressed in clinical terminology.
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Anesthesia Depth Monitoring Concept
- MONITORING DEPTH OF GENERAL ANESTHESIA
V.L. Vinogradov The first and main task of the anesthesiologist is to ensure an effective and adequate level of anesthesia at all stages of the surgical intervention. The concept of the adequacy of anesthesia includes the necessary components: effective analgesia - we must guarantee the patient the absence of any pain associated with anesthesia and surgery;
- Methods for controlling the depth of anesthesia
General clinical Since the introduction of ether and chloroform into medical practice, the clinic has served as a reference point for determining the depth of anesthesia. In 1847, John Snow was the first to attempt to classify the stages of anesthesia. Based on changes in the nature of breathing, consciousness, voluntary and involuntary muscular movements, ciliary reflex, Show identified five levels of ether
- The effect of anesthesia on electrophysiological monitoring
Electrophysiological monitoring allows us to evaluate the functional integrity of the central nervous system. In neurosurgery, electroencephalography and evoked potentials are most often used. The accuracy of monitoring depends on the studied anatomical region and the effect of anesthesia. Both types of monitoring are described in chap. 6. The effect of anesthetics on the EEG and evoked potentials are summarized in the table. 25-2 and 25-3. Correct interpretation
- PERSPECTIVE ACMEOLOGICAL CONCEPTS: SITUATIVE-PERSONAL-ACTIVITY CONCEPT AND CONCEPT OF CUMMULATIVE FACTOR CAUSES
The construction of acmeological testing systems, personality studies is based on a number of theoretical principles and concepts. The most important of these is the concept of cumulative factor factors and the situational-personal-activity concept. The connection between them is the closest. The concept of cumulative factor factors is based on the fact that determinism in psychology is based on cumulation
- ACCURACY AND CONCEPT OF COMPONENTS OF GENERAL ANESTHESIA
Explanatory dictionaries define the term “adequate” as “quite appropriate”. In relation to anesthesia, this means meeting the requirements that all participants of an operative intervention impose on it: the patient does not want to "be present" in his own operation, the surgeon needs a "calm" and conveniently located surgical field, the anesthetist seeks to avoid unwanted
- Ensuring patient safety (monitoring) during anesthesia, resuscitation and intensive care
The safety of the patient depends on many factors: on his condition and the level of professional training of the carer providing him, the technical means used, and the level of equipment of the workplace. The significance of these factors is different, the human factor and monitoring in ensuring patient safety during the provision of anesthetic and resuscitation care are the main ones. Monitoring
- What is the minimum set of equipment for monitoring and anesthesia?
The minimum monitoring volume includes ECG, blood pressure and pulse oximetry. A precordial stethoscope is used to monitor respiratory sounds. It is very important to monitor the patient's level of consciousness; the best method is to maintain continuous verbal contact with him. To perform cardioversion, a defibrillator is required that can produce a synchronized and unsynchronized discharge.
- Monitoring and supportive care during surgery and anesthesia
Monitoring, maintaining and correcting disturbed vital functions in the process of anesthesia and surgery is one of the most important components of the anesthetic protection of a child. Monitor systems allow constant monitoring of the state of the main vital systems of the body. However, this does not preclude careful observation and assessment of the condition of the child by the anesthetist. By
- Military Psychology and Deep Theories
Behavioralism, used to solve a number of military problems, did not at all study a number of aspects of the personality, the importance of taking into account which in conditions of combat activity is especially obvious. It is primarily about such mental processes and properties as feelings, behavior motivation and others. This served as the basis for the use of theories in military psychology.
- Game exercises in depth to the waist
This set of exercises is aimed at developing courage and confidence in water, introduces the child to such properties of water as viscosity, resistance, exercises are performed at a depth to the waist. The child learns to move along the bottom, dive headlong into the water and navigate underwater, breathe correctly in the water. Particular attention is recommended to be paid to immersion under water and prolonged exhalations in
- CLASSIFICATION OF BURNS BY DEPTH AND AREA OF TISSUE OF TISSUE
Classification of burns by the depth of tissue damage. Different countries have adopted different classifications. We use the classification developed under the leadership of the academician of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR A.A. Vishnevsky and adopted at the 27th congress of surgeons, which provides for the division of burns into 4 degrees. 1 degree burn, representing superficial damage to the epidermis only, is characterized by redness and
- Fiftieth Day - DEPTH CLEANING
ATTENTION!!! - ONLY THOSE WHO HAVE A PERIOD OF PERFORMANCE FOR AT LEAST 40 DAYS. Such cleaning can be arranged only when the main one has been completed - not earlier than a month on the porridge. In this case, of course, we do not need any shrimp or mushrooms, protein, and salt is excluded for this time too. We go out for a walk dressed from head to toe. A hat is required, it is better to have a tight hood. The suit is needed not warm, but windproof.
- DAY TWENTY-NINE - DEPTH CLEANING (OPTIONAL PROCEDURE)
ATTENTION!!! - ONLY THOSE WHO HAVE A LIFE ON CAES NOT LESS THAN 40 DAYS. Such cleaning can be arranged only when the main one has been passed - not earlier than a month later on cereals. On this day, of course, we don’t need any shrimp or mushrooms, we don’t need protein, and salt is excluded for that time too. We go out for a walk dressed from head to toe. A hat is required, it is better to have a tight hood. The suit is needed not warm, but
- Combined anesthesia (epidural plus general anesthesia with mechanical ventilation)
Diagnosis (diagnosis and monitoring) when establishing a diagnosis (before surgery) is mandatory: It is determined by the patient’s membership in group 1, 2 or 3, depending on the nature of the surgical intervention and its duration, additional (as shown) is determined by the patient’s membership in group 1, 2 or 3, depending on the nature of the surgical intervention and its
- Monitoring standards
VV Likheantsev The main task of intraoperative monitoring is to increase safety during general anesthesia and constant monitoring of functions that may suffer as a result of an operation or anesthesia. Thus, it is conditionally possible to divide monitoring into security monitoring and monitoring the status of any patient system. The main trend of modern monitoring is
- The concept of anesthesiology and resuscitation. Types of general anesthesia. Local anesthesia.
Lecture 9 PAIN - an unpleasant sensation or suffering caused by irritation of special nerve endings in damaged or already damaged tissues of the body. The biological significance of pain lies in the fact that it serves as a warning signal and makes it possible to reduce physical activity during trauma or during illness, which facilitates the healing process. So pain is
- BASIC STAGES OF GENERAL ANESTHESIA. INFUSION-TRANSFUSION THERAPY DURING ANESTHESIA AND OPERATION
BASIC STAGES OF GENERAL ANESTHESIA. INFUSION-TRANSFUSION THERAPY DURING ANESTHESIA AND
- Brachial plexus anesthesia Subclavicular anesthesia
Anatomy. The brachial plexus is formed by the anterior branches of the 5-8th cervical and 1st pectoral nerves. Upon exit from the intervertebral foramen in the interstitial space, these branches are combined into three trunks: the upper, middle and lower. The latter between the clavicle and the 1st rib are sent to the axillary region. The plexus trunks on the first rib are completely or, less commonly (7.7%), partially located laterally