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Emergency and intensive care for electric shock, drowning and mechanical asphyxia

1. The severity and outcome of electric shock depend on internal and external factors:

1) Fatigue

2) Alcohol intoxication

3) Chronic diseases

4) Thyroid overproduction

5) Overheating and excessive sweating

Answer: a) correct 2,3,5; b) correctly 1,2,4; c) correctly 3,4,5; d) everything is correct.

2. The severity and outcome of electric shock depends on the loop of its passage. The most dangerous loop is:

1) Hand - hand

2) Leg - leg

3) Right hand - right foot

4) Left hand - left foot

Answer: a) correctly 1,2; b) correctly 2,3; c) correctly 3.4; d) 2.4 is correct; e) 1.4 is correct.

3. A lethal outcome with electric shock may occur as a result of:

1) Hypoxia

2) Hypercapnia

3) Reflex spasm of the coronary vessels

4) Ventricular fibrillation

5) Paralysis of the respiratory centers

Answer: a) correct 1; b) correctly 2; c) correctly 3; d) correctly 4; e) correctly 5; e) everything is correct

4. Is it possible hemolysis of red blood cells with electric shock:

1) Yes

2) No

5. The distribution of electric current in the body occurs:

1) By blood vessels

2) muscle tissue

3) By nerve trunks

Answer: a) correct 1; b) correctly 2; c) correctly 3.

6. The electric current on the body has the following effect:

1) Thermal

2) Mechanical

3) Electrochemical

4) Biological

Answer: a) correct 1, b) correct 2; c) everything is correct, except 4; d) everything is correct

7. The most pathogenic under the action of electric current is a lesion:

1) Central nervous system

2) Cardiovascular system

3) respiratory function

4) blood coagulation system

5) Endocrine system

Answer: a) correct 1; b) correctly 2; c) correctly 3; d) correctly 4; e) correctly 5; e) everything is correct

8. Electrical injury may be accompanied by necrosis:

1) Gastrointestinal necrosis

2) Focal necrosis of the liver, gallbladder

3) Focal necrosis of the pancreas

4) kidney necrosis

5) Lung necrosis

Answer: a) correct 1; b) correctly 2; c) correctly 3; d) correctly 4; d) all right

9. In clinical practice, the following types of drowning are distinguished, except:

1) Primary, true, wet

2) Asphyctic dry

3) Aspiration

Answer: a) correct 1; b) correctly 2; c) correctly 3.

The immediate cause of death when drowning in fresh water are:

1) Ventricular fibrillation

2) Hypoxia

3) Violations of KHS

4) Hyperkalemia

Answer: a) everything is correct; b) correctly 2; c) correct 1; d) correctly 3,4; e) correctly 1,2,3.

11. Drowning in sea water is accompanied by:

1) Violation of water and electrolyte balance

2) The development of hypovolemia

3) Hyperosmolar pulmonary edema

4) Arterial hypoxia

5) Metabolic acidosis

6) lung atelectasis

Answer: a) correct 3; b) correct 1; c) correctly 4,5, 6; d) everything is correct

12. The sequence of emergency care for drowning includes:

1) Conducting a closed heart massage

2) Carrying out IVL

3) Restoration of the airway

4) Defibrillation

5) Drug-induced respiratory stimulation.

Answer: a) correctly 2,5,1,4,3; b) correctly 3,5,2,4; c) correctly 3,2,1,5,4; d) correctly 3,2,1.

13. The degree of hemolysis of red blood cells when drowning in fresh water is determined by laboratory content:

1) Total Protein

2) Total bilirubin

3) Free hemoglobin

4) Nitrous toxins

5) Free myoglobin

Answer: a) correct 1; b) correctly 2; c) correctly 3; d) correctly 4; e) correctly 5.

14. Impaired blood oxygenation in the lungs when drowning due to:

1) Damage to the pulmonary parenchyma

2) Violation of the product and stability of the surfactant system

3) Violation of the mechanics of breathing

4) Increased perfusion pressure

5) Congestion of blood in the pulmonary circulation

Answer: a) correct 1; b) correctly 2; c) correctly 3; d) correctly 4; e) correctly 5.

15. The severity of the condition of patients with interrupted mechanical asphyxia due to the predominant development:

1) Acute cardiovascular insufficiency

2) Acute respiratory failure

3) Metabolic acidosis

4) Acute renal failure

5) Posthypoxic brain edema

Answer: a) correct 1; b) correctly 2; c) correctly 3; d) correctly 4; e) correctly 5.

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Emergency and intensive care for electric shock, drowning and mechanical asphyxia

  1. Electric shock. Drowning. Asphyxia
    1. Patient A., 56 years old, was taken to the clinic with a diagnosis of electrical injury, received in the domestic conditions. He lost consciousness at the scene, others were resuscitated (artificial mouth-to-mouth ventilation, an indirect heart massage). The JV staff intubated the trachea and resuscitation continued. It is necessary: ​​to appoint an additional examination,
    When exposed to electric current, local and general changes in the body occur. Local changes are characterized by the emergence of so-called electro-burns in the form of yellowish-brown or whitish spots. General changes are associated with the inhibitory effect of electric current on the central nervous, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. This may cause loss of consciousness, convulsions,
  3. Drowning. Types of drowning. Symptoms Principles of emergency care.
    Drowning is based on the penetration of fluid into the upper respiratory tract and lungs. Often drowning occurs while neglecting elementary precautionary measures (swimming in questionable bodies of water, prolonged exposure to water, etc.). Types of drowning: 1) true (“wet”): a large amount of water enters the victim’s lungs, death occurs due to pulmonary edema; 2) asphyxial
    The high frequency of injuries in children, especially of school age, is due to their socio-psychological development during this period of life, the desire for a broad knowledge of the world around them and the lack of awareness of potential dangers. Accidental and deliberate causes of child injury cannot be fully foreseen and prevented, but can be significantly reduced.
  5. Respiratory support for mechanical asphyxia
    Obstruction of the upper respiratory tract may be due to obstruction (foreign body, tumor, swelling, hematoma), as well as compression from the outside - strangulation. With full obturation of the larynx or trachea, as well as strangulation, death occurs in a few minutes. For mechanical asphyxia, a combination of hypoxia with hypercapnia is characteristic. There is a short-term spasm, and then paresis of the brain.
  6. Intensive care for newborn asphyxia
    Algorithm of action in the presence of meconium in the amniotic fluid. The presence of meconium in the amniotic fluid is an absolute sign of fetal hypoxia. The possibility of aspiration of meconial fluid exacerbates the prognosis. It is important to start treatment activities in a timely manner. Meconium aspiration syndrome develops, as a rule, in post-term babies and children who are underweight at birth.
  7. General indications for mechanical ventilation in intensive care
    Despite the numerous works devoted to indications for mechanical ventilation in intensive care, and many years of study of this issue, it cannot be considered finally resolved. This is a matter of paramount importance, since its effectiveness depends on the timely start of respiratory support. One of the most frequent mistakes in treating patients with respiratory failure is a late onset.
  8. Mechanical injuries to the external nose. Emergency treatment
    Damage to the external nose and walls of the nasal cavity is more common in men and in childhood. Injuries to the skin of the nose are found in the form of bruises, bruises, abrasions, and injuries. During the examination, one should keep in mind that the damage is often only seemingly superficial, but in fact penetrates more deeply; in such a wound there may be a foreign body; this damage
    First aid for the defeat of electricity should be immediately, at the scene. First of all, it is necessary to release the victim from the action of electric current, since, due to loss of consciousness or convulsive muscle contraction, he often cannot independently detach himself from the wire. It is important to remember about the danger of electric shock of the rescuer. Necessary if this
  10. First aid for drowning
    The complete cessation of oxygen in the lungs is called asphyxia. The death at the same time comes quickly, within 2 - 3 min. There are two types of drowning: true or blue drowning, in which water fills the lungs, and pale drowning, when water does not penetrate into the lungs. The blue type of drowning is observed in the warm season when bathing in a fresh water pond, river, lake. Not immediately drowning
  11. First aid for electrical injuries
    Damage caused by an electric current or by lightning (a discharge of atmospheric electricity) is called an electric shock. Electratrauma causes local and general disorders in the body. Local changes are manifested by burns of tissue at the points of entry and exit of electric current, often very deep, of 3-4 degrees of weight. Common phenomena - convulsive muscle contractions, loss of consciousness, depression
  12. Mechanical asphyxia
    Hypoxia - oxygen deprivation of organs and tissues, until the complete cessation of oxygen in the body. Asphyxia is a condition of the body when carbon dioxide accumulates in it along with the lack of oxygen. Mechanical asphyxia arises from the action of an external mechanical factor. By the rate of development of hypoxia is divided into: acute, developing and leading to
  13. Primary and resuscitation care for asphyxia of newborns
    Fetal hypoxia and neonatal asphyxia (perinatal asphyxia) are pathological conditions that develop as a result of acute or chronic oxygen deficiency and metabolic acidosis, manifested by disorders in the activity of vital systems (CNS, blood circulation, respiration). Perinatal asphyxia is one of the main causes of perinatal mortality, accounting for
  14. First aid for burns, frostbite, heat and sunstroke, drowning
    First aid for burns, frostbite, heat and sunstroke,
  15. SESSION 4 First aid for drowning, electric shock, lightning. Practice in patient care (setting cans and mustard plaster).
    Objective: To test students' knowledge on topics 1-3 (conducting the final test). Teach students to assist victims in accidents caused by exposure to the environment (drowning, lightning, electrical shock). Test questions 1. Prepare for the final test on topics 1-3. 2. What are the features of first aid at
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