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General principles of first aid for ODN


Restoring airway patency.
Before proceeding to artificial respiration, it is necessary to restore the patency of the nasopharynx and oropharynx (risk of aspiration!). Often, carefully suctioned contents save the patient's life! (for more information on restoring airway patency, see lesson 2).
Airway Manipulation:
1. Head tilting - chin retraction: a method for opening the airways in the absence of a spinal injury.
2. Lower jaw retraction: a method for opening the airways in cases of suspected spinal injury.
3. Oro- and nasopharyngeal ducts: tubes inserted into the airways to maintain their patency. The oropharyngeal duct is introduced only if the victim is unconscious, otherwise vomiting will occur.
4. Oro- and nasotracheal intubation: the best adjuvant to ensure maximum oxygenation and ventilation during resuscitation.
5. Cricothyreotomy and tracheotomy: performed in cases where it is impossible to ensure airway patency as described above.
Techniques for mechanical ventilation:
1. From mouth to mouth: an effective method of providing auxiliary ventilation as a temporary measure until more targeted therapeutic measures are applied.

2. Breathing bag / mask: provides better ventilation compared to the mouth-to-mouth method (higher oxygen concentration).
The best method is mouth-to-nose, with nose injury, mouth-to-mouth, for infants and young children mouth-to-mouth and nose, possibly mouth-to-air Safara.
Coniotomy
The question of coniotomy arises only as a last resort! At the prehospital stage, coniotomy is extremely rare. This requires a very serious testimony!
Possible indications:
- common damage to the facial skull with the impossibility of intubation;
- increasing swelling of the vocal cords;
- Highly located, strongly stuck, non-extractable foreign bodies that pose a threat to life.
Equipment:
- The position of the patient on the back with a straightened head;
- Palpate the larynx;
- Cut the skin in the longitudinal direction;
- Dissect the cricoid-thyroid membrane with a scalpel in the longitudinal direction;
- Insert and fix the tracheotomy tube (or tracheal tube = size 26 on the Charriere scale); inflate the clutch and proceed to mechanical ventilation.
The most reliable method of maintaining airway patency and the prevention of aspiration is tracheal intubation.
Consider some options for acute respiratory failure.
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General principles of first aid for ODN

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