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ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE

Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a syndrome based on symptoms of impaired external respiration (HFD), which have common anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics and lead to insufficient oxygen supply and / or carbon dioxide retention. This condition is characterized by arterial hypoxemia or hypercapnia, or both indicators simultaneously.

Identification of this syndrome, as a rule, does not allow to identify the cause of the disease, but significantly narrows the range of possible etiological options and determines the correct approach to the diagnosis of the underlying disease. In contrast to chronic respiratory failure in cases of acute respiratory failure, gas exchange disorders are rapidly progressing, accompanied by damage to the cellular structures of the brain, internal organs and tissues. In the overwhelming majority of cases, in the absence of treatment with ONE, death occurs.

When providing first aid and treatment of a patient with ARF in intensive care units, very high demands are made on medical personnel.
Indeed, sometimes minutes of delay are worth the life of the patient! In-depth knowledge of the physiology and clinical picture of respiratory failure is needed. Only with this approach can positive results be achieved.

This section contains chapters containing the main aspects of clinical training: a brief summary of the physiology of external respiration and lung functions, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment of ONE. On the example of individual nosological forms of the disease complicated by ONE, the most typical clinical options are considered. In general, the material presented does not go beyond teaching clinical disciplines. The appendix presents anatomical landmarks, the knowledge of which is necessary for immediate therapy. We believe that the chosen form of presentation will contribute to better assimilation of the complex problems of the discipline covered.
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ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE

  1. Acute respiratory failure
    Acute respiratory failure is a violation of the gas exchange between the surrounding air and the circulating blood with the presence of hypoxemia and / or hypercapnia, which develops over a period of time from several minutes to several days. ETHIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS, CLASSIFICATION The normal functioning of the respiratory system depends on the work of many of its components (respiratory center, nerves, muscles, chest,
  2. Acute respiratory failure
    Clinical characteristics of acute respiratory failure Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a pathological condition in which the body cannot provide the necessary amount of oxygen to organs and tissues. A.P. Zilber (1978) defines ONE even easier: the inability of the lungs to turn venous blood into arterial blood. The most common causes of acute respiratory
  3. Acute respiratory failure
    Acute respiratory failure complicates the course of many infectious diseases due to impaired pulmonary ventilation as a result of laryngospasm (tetanus, rabies) and acute inflammation of the larynx (diphtheria, viral croup), respiratory muscle paralysis (botulism, diphtheria), obstructing tracheobronchial and alveolar inflammatory edema (influenza, acute respiratory infections, measles
  4. Acute respiratory failure
    Respiratory failure is a pathological condition in which the normal gas composition of the blood is not supported or its provision is achieved by enhancing external respiration. In 20-30% of cases, acute respiratory failure leads to death. Pathophysiology • Respiratory failure occurs due to a violation of the structure of the alveolar-capillary membrane. • Changes in the membrane
  5. Acute respiratory failure
    Clinical characteristics in acute respiratory failure The most important sign of damage to the respiratory system in children is respiratory failure. Respiratory failure is understood as a pathological condition in which external respiration does not provide the normal gas composition of the blood or supports it at the cost of excessive energy costs. Respiratory failure
  6. Acute respiratory failure
    There is no universally accepted definition of acute respiratory failure. It seems to us the most capacious, and at the same time not cumbersome definition proposed by V.L. Cassil et al. ONE is a rapidly growing severe condition due to the mismatch between the capabilities of the external respiration apparatus and the metabolic needs of organs and tissues, at which the maximum
  7. ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE
    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a syndrome based on symptoms of impaired external respiration (HFD), which have common anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics and lead to insufficient oxygen supply and / or carbon dioxide retention. This condition is characterized by arterial hypoxemia or hypercapnia, or both
  8. ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE
    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is the state of the body in which external respiration does not provide a normal level of O2 and CO2 in the arterial blood or its maintenance is achieved by excessive enhancement of breathing, i.e., inadequate use of its reserves. They distinguish between primary ONE when pathological changes occur in any part of the external respiration system (respiratory
  9. Acute respiratory failure
    Respiratory failure is a condition in which the respiratory system is not able to provide oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide, necessary to maintain the normal functioning of the body. Acute respiratory failure is characterized by rapid progression: after a few hours, and sometimes minutes, the patient may die. The main causes of acute
  10. Acute respiratory failure
    The anatomical, physiological and immunological characteristics of newborns and children under the age of 3 years contribute to the development of a number of pulmonary complications. If at the same time there are violations of the gas composition of the blood and (or) external respiration, which have a negative effect on the body, they speak of respiratory failure. There are 2 forms of acute respiratory failure (ONE) - compensated and
  11. Acute respiratory failure
    Mechanisms of circulatory disorders in ARDS. In the early stages of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), cardiac output usually increases in response to stress or as compensation for hypoxemia, but this is less common if the disease is at an advanced stage. The function of one or both ventricles may deteriorate as the pathological process in the lungs increases,
  12. 1.5. ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE (ONE)
    Acute respiratory failure is understood as a syndrome characterized by the development of a patient’s serious condition within minutes, hours or days, due to the mismatch of the capabilities of the external respiration apparatus with the metabolic needs of organs and tissues, at which the maximum tension of the compensatory respiratory and circulatory mechanisms occurs, followed by their exhaustion.
  13. Acute respiratory failure
    1. Patient A., 54 years old, was admitted to the intensive care unit in an extremely serious condition. Contact is difficult. Sopor. Pulse 120 in min, HELL 70/20 mm Hg Spontaneous breathing, frequency 40 per min. Acrocyanosis. Auscultatory in the lungs, a sharp weakening of vesicular breathing, a mass of moist rales of different sizes in all parts of the lungs. T 35.7 C. According to those accompanying: ill 5 days ago, increased
  14. Acute respiratory failure: diagnosis and principles of intensive care
    1. Methods to restore patency of the upper respiratory tract are: 1) Tipping the head 2) Opening the mouth 3) Extending the lower jaw 4) Position of Trendelenburg 5) Mechanical removal of the contents of the mouth and oropharynx Answers: a) all answers are correct; b) correctly 1,2,3; c) correctly 2,3,4; d) correctly 3,4,5; d) correctly 1,4,5. 2. The diffusion capacity of the lungs is not affected by:
  15. SESSION 3 Acute respiratory failure. Laryngeal stenosis, cardiac asthma, bronchial asthma: symptoms, differential diagnosis, first aid. The principles of tracheostomy. The technique of artificial ventilation.
    Objective: To teach students to identify the clinical symptoms of acute respiratory failure in patients (victims), to conduct diffdiagnosis, assess the severity of the condition and effectively provide first aid in these conditions. Test questions 1. What are the causes of acute obstruction of the respiratory tract and its clinical manifestations. Features of first aid. 2.
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