home
about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

Acute respiratory failure



Acute respiratory failure is a violation of the gas exchange between the surrounding air and the circulating blood with the presence of hypoxemia and / or hypercapnia, which develops over a period of time from several minutes to several days.

ETHIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS, CLASSIFICATION

The normal functioning of the respiratory system depends on the work of many of its components (respiratory center, nerves, muscles, chest, airways and alveoli). Impaired functioning of any of these links can lead to the development of acute respiratory failure.

According to the pathogenesis of acute respiratory failure is divided into:

¦ hypoxic (lack of oxygen) - occurs in the event of a violation of ventilation-perfusion relationships and bypass blood in the lungs;

¦ hypercapnic (excess carbon dioxide) - develops when the body is unable to provide proper ventilation of the lungs;

¦ mixed - a violation of both the ventilation-perfusion relationship and the ventilation function of the lungs.

Compensatory shortness of breath occurs, i.e. a change in the frequency, rhythm and depth of breathing, accompanied by an increase in the work of the respiratory muscles and, as a rule, subjective sensations of lack of air or difficulty breathing.

Causes of Acute Respiratory Failure

¦ Traumatic and exogenous

? Inhibition of respiratory regulation: head injury; overdose of sedatives.

? Neuromuscular lesions: spinal cord injury; exposure to drugs; intoxication.

? Damage to the wall of the chest and pleura: fractures of the ribs; scab after a burn; thoracoplasty.

? Respiratory tract injury: foreign body aspiration; hanging.

? Damage to the lungs: bruise; inhalation lesions; cytotoxic drugs.

¦ Vascular

? Inhibition of respiratory regulation: acute cerebrovascular accident. ? Neuromuscular lesions: transverse myelitis.

? Damage to the wall of the chest and pleura: pleural effusion.

? Respiratory tract damage: aortic aneurysm.

? Damage to the lungs: pulmonary embolism; acute heart failure; shock; vasculitis.

¦ Oncological

? Inhibition of respiratory regulation: primary or metastatic cancer.

? Neuromuscular lesions: paraneoplastic syndromes.

? Damage to the chest wall and pleura: mesothelioma.

? Respiratory tract injury: laryngeal cancer; bronchial adenoma.

? Lung damage: lymphangitis in cancer; diffuse lymphoma.

¦ Infectious

? Inhibition of respiratory regulation: meningitis; brain abscess encephalitis.

? Neuromuscular lesions: polio; Guillain-Barré syndrome; tetanus; botulism.

? Damage to the wall of the chest and pleura: empyema.

? Respiratory tract injury: COPD.

? Damage to the lungs: pneumonia.

¦ Idiomatic

? Inhibition of respiratory regulation: degenerative diseases of the central nervous system.

? Neuromuscular lesions: diaphragm paralysis; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; multiple sclerosis.

? Damage to the wall of the chest and pleura: spontaneous pneumothorax.

? Respiratory tract damage: laryngospasm.

? Lung damage: adult respiratory distress syndrome; pulmonary fibrosis.

¦ Metabolic

? Inhibition of respiratory regulation: coma; myxedema; alkalosis.

? Neuromuscular lesions: hypophosphatemia.

? Damage to the lungs: inhibition of carbonic anhydrase; hypoxemia with cirrhosis of the liver.

¦ Immunological

? Inhibition of respiratory regulation: sleep apnea with allergic rhinitis;

? Neuromuscular lesions: myasthenia gravis.

? Damage to the wall of the chest and pleura: scleroderma; ankylosing spondylitis.

? Damage to the respiratory tract: angioedema of the larynx; allergic form of bronchial asthma.

? Damage to the lungs: allergic pneumonitis; transfusion reactions. Complications of acute respiratory failure:

¦ acute hypoxemia leads to a rapid disruption of the functions of vital organs (primarily the central nervous system and heart);

¦ acute hypercapnia causes arterial hypotension, electrical instability of the heart, impaired consciousness, coma.

CLINICAL PICTURE

Complaints and clinical symptoms in acute respiratory failure are nonspecific and largely depend on the disease that led to its development (table.
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

Acute respiratory failure

  1. Acute respiratory failure
    Clinical characteristics of acute respiratory failure Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a pathological condition in which the body cannot provide the necessary amount of oxygen to organs and tissues. A.P. Zilber (1978) defines ONE even easier: the inability of the lungs to turn venous blood into arterial blood. The most common causes of acute respiratory
  2. Acute respiratory failure
    Acute respiratory failure complicates the course of many infectious diseases due to impaired pulmonary ventilation as a result of laryngospasm (tetanus, rabies) and acute inflammation of the larynx (diphtheria, viral croup), respiratory muscle paralysis (botulism, diphtheria), obstructing tracheobronchial and alveolar inflammatory edema (influenza, acute respiratory infections, measles
  3. Acute respiratory failure
    Respiratory failure is a pathological condition in which the normal gas composition of the blood is not supported or its provision is achieved by enhancing external respiration. In 20-30% of cases, acute respiratory failure leads to death. Pathophysiology • Respiratory failure occurs due to a violation of the structure of the alveolar-capillary membrane. • Changes in the membrane
  4. Acute respiratory failure
    Clinical characteristics in acute respiratory failure An important sign of respiratory failure in children is respiratory failure. Respiratory failure is understood as a pathological condition in which external respiration does not provide the normal gas composition of the blood or supports it at the cost of excessive energy costs. Respiratory failure
  5. Acute respiratory failure
    There is no universally accepted definition of acute respiratory failure. It seems to us the most capacious, and at the same time not cumbersome definition proposed by V.L. Cassil et al. ONE is a rapidly growing severe condition due to the mismatch between the capabilities of the external respiration apparatus and the metabolic needs of organs and tissues, at which the maximum
  6. ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE
    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a syndrome based on symptoms of impaired external respiration (VFD), which have common anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics and lead to insufficient oxygen supply and / or carbon dioxide retention. This condition is characterized by arterial hypoxemia or hypercapnia, or both
  7. ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE
    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a syndrome based on symptoms of impaired external respiration (VFD), which have common anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics and lead to insufficient oxygen supply and / or carbon dioxide retention. This condition is characterized by arterial hypoxemia or hypercapnia, or both
  8. ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE
    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a state of the body in which external respiration does not provide a normal level of O2 and CO2 in the arterial blood or its maintenance is achieved by excessive enhancement of breathing, i.e., inadequate use of its reserves. They distinguish between primary ONE when pathological changes occur in any part of the external respiration system (respiratory
  9. Acute respiratory failure
    Respiratory failure is a condition in which the respiratory system is not able to provide oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide, necessary to maintain the normal functioning of the body. Acute respiratory failure is characterized by rapid progression: after a few hours, and sometimes minutes, the patient may die. The main causes of acute
  10. Acute respiratory failure
    Anatomical, physiological and immunological features of newborns and children under the age of 3 years contribute to the development of a number of pulmonary complications. If at the same time there are violations of the gas composition of the blood and (or) external respiration, which have a negative effect on the body, they speak of respiratory failure. There are 2 forms of acute respiratory failure (ONE) - compensated and
  11. Acute respiratory failure
    Mechanisms of circulatory disorders in ARDS. In the early stages of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), cardiac output usually increases in response to stress or as compensation for hypoxemia, but this is less common if the disease is at an advanced stage. The function of one or both ventricles may deteriorate as the pathological process in the lungs increases,
  12. 1.5. ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE (ONE)
    Acute respiratory failure is understood as a syndrome characterized by the development of a patient’s serious state within several minutes, hours or days, due to the mismatch of the capabilities of the external respiration apparatus with the metabolic needs of organs and tissues, at which the maximum tension of the compensatory mechanisms of respiration and blood circulation occurs, followed by their exhaustion.
  13. Acute respiratory failure
    1. Patient A., 54 years old, was admitted to the intensive care unit in an extremely serious condition. Contact is difficult. Sopor. Pulse 120 in min, HELL 70/20 mm Hg Spontaneous breathing, frequency 40 per min. Acrocyanosis. Auscultatory in the lungs, a sharp weakening of vesicular breathing, a mass of moist rales of different sizes in all parts of the lungs. T 35.7 C. According to those accompanying: ill 5 days ago, increased
  14. Acute respiratory failure: diagnosis and principles of intensive care
    1. Methods of restoring the patency of the upper respiratory tract are: 1) Tilting the head 2) Opening the mouth 3) Extending the lower jaw 4) Position of Trendelenburg 5) Mechanical removal of the contents of the mouth and oropharynx Answers: a) all answers are correct; b) correctly 1,2,3; c) correctly 2,3,4; d) correctly 3,4,5; d) correctly 1,4,5. 2. The diffusion capacity of the lungs is not affected by:
  15. SESSION 3 Acute respiratory failure. Laryngeal stenosis, cardiac asthma, bronchial asthma: symptoms, differential diagnosis, first aid. The principles of tracheostomy. The technique of artificial ventilation.
    Objective: To teach students to identify the clinical symptoms of acute respiratory failure in patients (victims), to conduct diffdiagnosis, assess the severity of the condition and effectively provide first aid in these conditions. Test questions 1. What are the causes of acute obstruction of the airways and its clinical manifestations. Features of first aid. 2.
  16. The mechanisms of respiratory failure in the pathology of the respiratory tract
    The development of DN in diseases of the respiratory tract is due to an increase in resistive resistance to air flow (RL). In this case, the ventilation of the affected areas of the lung is disturbed, the resistive work of breathing increases, and fatigue and weakness of the respiratory muscles can be the result of unremovable obstruction of the DP. Due to the fact that airway resistance (according to Poiseuille's law)
  17. ACUTE RESPIRATORY OBSTRUCTION
    Respiratory tract obstruction - impaired patency develops as a result of inflammatory processes (acute laryngotracheobronchitis), swelling and spasm of the glottis, aspiration, trauma. In some cases, this is extremely dangerous, since total airway obstruction and a quick fatal outcome are possible. Obstruction of the upper and lower respiratory tract is characterized by different
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019
info@medicine-guidebook.com