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Acute respiratory failure


Clinical characteristics of acute respiratory failure Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a pathological condition in which the body cannot provide the necessary amount of oxygen to organs and tissues. A.P. Zilber (1978) defines ONE even easier: the inability of the lungs to turn venous blood into arterial blood. The most common causes of acute respiratory failure: injuries of the chest and respiratory organs, accompanied by fractures of the ribs, pneumo or hemothorax, disorders of the central mechanisms of breathing regulation in injuries and diseases of the brain; airway disorders; decrease in the functioning surface of the lungs, for example, with pneumonia, circulatory disorders in the pulmonary circle (shock lung, pulmonary thromboembolism, pulmonary edema); drug overdose.
Clinical picture
Signs of acute respiratory failure: shortness of breath, cyanosis (absent with bleeding and anemia), tachycardia, agitation, then progressive lethargy, loss of consciousness, skin moisture, their crimson hue, inclusion of auxiliary muscles in the breath. With progressive respiratory failure, arterial hypertension is replaced by hypotension, bradyrhythmia often develops, and death occurs with cardiovascular failure.

Urgent care
Resuscitation measures in the terminal phase of ARF are ineffective, therefore timely intensive care of ARF is especially important. Until the cause of ONE is clarified, it is strictly forbidden to administer hypnotic, sedative or antipsychotic drugs, as well as drugs to the patient.
What can a paramedic do in case of ONE? It all depends on his qualifications, the availability of medicines and equipment at hand. With mild illnesses and injuries and the occurrence of ARF, simple measures often help. In case of rib fractures (1-2), anesthesia with a solution of dipyrone of 50% -2-3 ml, baralgin, trigan, giving through an oxygen mask stops or significantly softens ODN.
Violation of patency of the upper respiratory tract (foreign bodies, saliva, blood, mucus) is eliminated either by suction or a gauze swab on the clamp, followed by the introduction of the duct and oxygen inhalation. The treatment of ARF with cardiac asthma and pulmonary edema is described in detail above.
If possible, the paramedic calls upon the ambulance resuscitation team. All patients with acute respiratory failure are hospitalized in hospitals, depending on the cause of the ONE.
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Acute respiratory failure

  1. Acute respiratory failure
    Acute respiratory failure is a violation of the gas exchange between the surrounding air and the circulating blood with the presence of hypoxemia and / or hypercapnia, which develops over a period of time from several minutes to several days. ETHIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS, CLASSIFICATION The normal functioning of the respiratory system depends on the work of many of its components (respiratory center, nerves, muscles, chest,
  2. Acute respiratory failure
    Acute respiratory failure complicates the course of many infectious diseases due to impaired pulmonary ventilation as a result of laryngospasm (tetanus, rabies) and acute inflammation of the larynx (diphtheria, viral croup), respiratory muscle paralysis (botulism, diphtheria), obstructing tracheobronchial and alveolar inflammatory edema (influenza, acute respiratory infections, measles
  3. Acute respiratory failure
    Respiratory failure is a pathological condition in which the normal gas composition of the blood is not supported or its provision is achieved by enhancing external respiration. In 20-30% of cases, acute respiratory failure leads to death. Pathophysiology • Respiratory failure occurs due to a violation of the structure of the alveolar-capillary membrane. • Changes in the membrane
  4. Acute respiratory failure
    Clinical characteristics in acute respiratory failure An important sign of respiratory failure in children is respiratory failure. Respiratory failure is understood as a pathological condition in which external respiration does not provide the normal gas composition of the blood or supports it at the cost of excessive energy costs. Respiratory failure
  5. Acute respiratory failure
    There is no universally accepted definition of acute respiratory failure. It seems to us the most capacious, and at the same time not cumbersome definition proposed by V.L. Cassil et al. ONE is a rapidly growing severe condition due to the mismatch between the capabilities of the external respiration apparatus and the metabolic needs of organs and tissues, at which the maximum
  6. ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE
    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a syndrome based on symptoms of impaired external respiration (VFD), which have common anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics and lead to insufficient oxygen supply and / or carbon dioxide retention. This condition is characterized by arterial hypoxemia or hypercapnia, or both
  7. ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE
    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a syndrome based on symptoms of impaired external respiration (VFD), which have common anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics and lead to insufficient oxygen supply and / or carbon dioxide retention. This condition is characterized by arterial hypoxemia or hypercapnia, or both
  8. ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE
    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is the state of the body in which external respiration does not provide a normal level of O2 and CO2 in the arterial blood or its maintenance is achieved by excessive enhancement of breathing, i.e., inadequate use of its reserves. They distinguish between primary ONE when pathological changes occur in any part of the external respiration system (respiratory
  9. Acute respiratory failure
    Respiratory failure is a condition in which the respiratory system is not able to provide oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide, necessary to maintain the normal functioning of the body. Acute respiratory failure is characterized by rapid progression: after a few hours, and sometimes minutes, the patient may die. The main causes of acute
  10. Acute respiratory failure
    The anatomical, physiological and immunological characteristics of newborns and children under the age of 3 years contribute to the development of a number of pulmonary complications. If at the same time there are violations of the gas composition of the blood and (or) external respiration, which have a negative effect on the body, they speak of respiratory failure. There are 2 forms of acute respiratory failure (ONE) - compensated and
  11. Acute respiratory failure
    Mechanisms of circulatory disorders in ARDS. In the early stages of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), cardiac output usually increases in response to stress or as compensation for hypoxemia, but this is less common if the disease is at an advanced stage. The function of one or both ventricles may deteriorate as the pathological process in the lungs increases,
  12. 1.5. ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE (ONE)
    Acute respiratory failure is understood as a syndrome characterized by the development of a patient’s serious state within several minutes, hours or days, due to the mismatch of the capabilities of the external respiration apparatus with the metabolic needs of organs and tissues, at which the maximum tension of the compensatory respiratory and circulatory mechanisms occurs, followed by exhaustion.
  13. Acute respiratory failure
    1. Patient A., 54 years old, was admitted to the intensive care unit in an extremely serious condition. Contact is difficult. Sopor. Pulse 120 in min, HELL 70/20 mm Hg Spontaneous breathing, frequency 40 per min. Acrocyanosis. Auscultatory in the lungs, a sharp weakening of vesicular breathing, a mass of moist rales of different sizes in all parts of the lungs. T 35.7 C. According to those accompanying: ill 5 days ago, increased
  14. Acute respiratory failure: diagnosis and principles of intensive care
    1. Methods of restoring the patency of the upper respiratory tract are: 1) Tipping the head 2) Opening the mouth 3) Extending the lower jaw 4) The position of Trendelenburg 5) Mechanical removal of the contents of the mouth and oropharynx Answers: a) all answers are correct; b) correctly 1,2,3; c) correctly 2,3,4; d) correctly 3,4,5; d) correctly 1,4,5. 2. The diffusion capacity of the lungs is not affected by:
  15. SESSION 3 Acute respiratory failure. Laryngeal stenosis, cardiac asthma, bronchial asthma: symptoms, differential diagnosis, first aid. The principles of tracheostomy. The technique of artificial ventilation.
    Objective: To teach students to identify the clinical symptoms of acute respiratory failure in patients (victims), to conduct diffdiagnosis, assess the severity of the condition and effectively provide first aid in these conditions. Test questions 1. What are the causes of acute airway obstruction and its clinical manifestations. Features of first aid. 2.
  16. The mechanisms of respiratory failure in the pathology of the respiratory tract
    The development of DN in diseases of the respiratory tract is due to an increase in resistive resistance to air flow (RL). In this case, the ventilation of the affected areas of the lung is disturbed, the resistive work of breathing increases, and fatigue and weakness of the respiratory muscles can be the result of unrecoverable obstruction of the DP. Due to the fact that airway resistance (according to Poiseuille's law)
  17. ACUTE RESPIRATORY OBSTRUCTION
    Airway obstruction - impaired patency develops as a result of inflammatory processes (acute laryngotracheobronchitis), swelling and spasm of the glottis, aspiration, trauma. In some cases, this is extremely dangerous, since total airway obstruction and a quick fatal outcome are possible. Obstruction of the upper and lower respiratory tract is characterized by different
  18. Acute renal failure
    DEFINITION OF ARF - an acute pathological condition characterized by impaired renal function with a delay in the excretion of nitrogen metabolic products from the body and an upset of water, electrolyte, osmotic and acid-base balance, caused by acute damage to the tissue of the lungs, for example, in shock, poisoning or infectious diseases. The term was first proposed by J. Merill
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