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Acute respiratory failure

Respiratory failure is a pathological condition in which the normal gas composition of the blood is not maintained or its maintenance is achieved by increasing external respiration. In 20-30% of cases, acute respiratory failure leads to death.

Pathophysiology

• Respiratory failure occurs due to a violation of the structure of the alveolar-capillary membrane.

• Changes in the membrane lead to an increase in its permeability.

• Liquid entering the alveoli disrupts the lungs.

Initial inspection

• Assess the patient's level of consciousness, its dynamics.

• Assess the presence or absence of shortness of breath, dry cough.

• Determine respiratory rate, heart rate and blood pressure.

• Check for fever.

First aid

• Provide additional oxygen. If the symptoms of hypoxemia persist, prepare the patient for endotracheal intubation, and, if necessary, for mechanical ventilation.

• Perform ECG monitoring.

• Take the patient's blood to determine its gas composition.

• After intubation is completed, administer sedatives to the patient (as prescribed by the doctor).

Hypocostemia is an important sign of respiratory failure.

Following actions

• Constantly check vital parameters.

• Install patient venous and arterial catheters.

• Prepare the patient for a chest X-ray.

Preventive measures

• Speak with patients about the dangers of smoking.

• Warn allergic patients that anaphylaxis can occur if they come into contact with allergens.

• Working in “harmful” enterprises must comply with safety procedures.

The position of the patient with acute respiratory failure

A patient with acute respiratory failure must first of all be given the correct position.
If the patient lies on his back, his tongue sinks, which closes the lumen of the larynx. At the same time, the epiglottis descends, further blocking the airway. Sound is heard, breathing heard at a distance (snoring, wheezing). Such difficulties in breathing can lead to its complete stop, which especially often develops in unconscious patients.

To prevent the tongue from falling down, the lower jaw should be pulled forward and at the same time re-extended in the occipital-cervical articulation. A very simple technique that does not require any adaptations and ensures airway patency in unconscious patients is to give the patient a so-called stable lateral position (preferably on the right side).

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Acute respiratory failure

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    Acute respiratory failure - a violation of gas exchange between ambient air and circulating blood with the presence of hypoxemia and / or hypercapnia, which develops in a period of time from several minutes to several days. ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS, CLASSIFICATION The normal functioning of the respiratory system depends on the work of many of its components (respiratory center, nerves, muscles, chest,
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  4. Acute respiratory failure
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