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First aid for burns is at the scene.

1. Elimination of the effect of the damaging factor.

Remove the injured person from the fire area, extinguish burning clothing on him, quickly cool the burned surface.

The best way to extinguish burning clothes is to use a fire stove or its counterparts from improvised means (the fabric should not be flammable!). Highly effective means are carbon dioxide fire extinguishers and simple water, which simultaneously quickly cools the burn surface. The use of foam fire extinguishers gives worse results than the indicated means, since the foam makes it difficult to subsequently localize the burn boundaries and apply a bandage.

The best way to quickly cool a burn surface is to use cold water (substitute the affected place under a stream of cold tap water for a few minutes, if you have extensive burns, pour cold water on the victim without taking off his clothes, you can put a clean sheet abundantly wetted under the faucet with cold water water

2. Control and correction of the functions of external respiration and blood circulation.

In victims of burns, asphyxia can occur if the upper respiratory tract is damaged by hot smoke, poisoning by toxic combustion products of plastics and other organic substances. In patients with unconsciousness, retraction of the tongue, aspiration of vomit and foreign bodies is possible. Severe burns and combined injuries can quickly lead to a state of clinical death requiring resuscitation according to generally accepted rules.

3. Fight against afferent pain impulses.

Categorical rejection of any manipulations on the burn surface! Do not remove clothes and do not try to separate them from the burn surface.
Aseptic dressing can be applied to a burn wound. If the upcoming transportation is short, in an ambulance car, the wound can be left open. A good effect is the imposition of a dressing on the burned surface moistened with 40-70% ethyl alcohol, which has anesthetic and antiseptic effect. Non-affected skin around the burn is also recommended to be treated with alcohol.

The use of narcotic analgesics (morphine, omnopon, promedol) is a highly effective means of preventing burn shock.

4. Prevention of hypovolemia and acute renal failure.

If there is no vomiting, then it is necessary to give to drink sweet tea or coffee or alkaline mineral waters, an early evacuation is necessary to the stage where parenteral administration of liquids is possible.

5. Warming the victim.

The evaporation of water from a burn wound, the loss of the insulating role of the skin leads to a rapid supercooling of the burned.

6. Prevention of infectious complications.

A burn wound is always primarily infected. The imposition of an aseptic dressing on it is more aimed at protecting it from external physical and mechanical influences.
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    There are thermal (exposure to high temperatures), chemical (exposure to chemicals) burns, burns from the sun. Depending on the depth of the tissue damage, burns are divided into four degrees: Grade 1 - damage to the surface layer of the skin. Manifested by severe pain, redness and swelling. Inflammation subsides on the 4-5th day. 2nd degree - defeat more
    Thermal burns of the eye result from the effect of temperature on the mucous membrane of the eyeball. Four degrees of burns are distinguished by the depth of the lesion: Grade 1 - slight redness; Grade 2 - swelling, blisters on the skin of the eyelids, white film on the cornea; 3rd degree - damage to the deeper layers of the eyelid skin, cornea like frosted glass; 4th degree - charring of tissues.
  3. First aid for burns
    Burn - tissue damage caused by high temperature, electrical current, acids, alkalis, or ionizing radiation. Thermal, electrical, chemical, and radiation burns are distinguished accordingly. Thermal burns are most common, they account for 90-95% of all burns. The severity of a burn depends on the depth of tissue damage and on the area of ​​its spread.
  4. First aid for burns
    Skin functions: a) Protective; b) Prevention of infection; c) Thermoregulation; d) Sensory. The severity of burns depends on: a) Temperatures; b) exposure time. The degree of depth of burns: Degrees: Epidermis (non-full-layer damage). Signs (manifestations) and symptoms (redness, erythema, pain, absence of water bubbles). Etiology: 1. Sunburn. 2. Light burn with hot water.
  5. SESSION 16 First pre-medical help for burns, frostbite, general cooling. The composition of the first aid kit, the appointment of its main components. Care for seriously ill patients and their hygiene.
    Objective: To teach students to determine the degree of burns and frostbite, effectively provide first aid in these conditions. Students must acquire practical skills in the care of severely ill patients, be able to draw up a first-aid kit and first-aid kit, and know the purpose of its main components. Test questions 1. Prepare for the final test on topics 15-16. 2. Definition of "burn".
  6. First aid for burns, frostbite, heat and sunstroke, drowning
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  7. SESSION 10 First aid for acute poisoning. The concept of "foodborne diseases". First aid for vomiting, hiccups, diarrhea, constipation. Clinic of botulism.
    Objective: To teach students to diagnose and first aid in acute poisoning. To characterize the main drugs used in the provision of emergency assistance for poisoning. Test questions 1. What is called poisoning, what kind of poisoning does it take, what usually causes poisoning? 2. Types of predominant action of substances. What substances belong to these types? 3. Rules
  8. The concept of burns, their classification and first aid
    Burns - tissue damage caused by high temperatures, chemicals (acids, alkalis, salts of heavy metals), electric current, solar and X-rays, as well as certain medications. According to the depth of the lesion, there are four degrees of burn. A 1st degree burn is manifested by superficial damage to the skin in the form of redness, swelling and burning pain. In 2-3 days
  9. SESSION 5 First pre-medical aid in case of thermal, sunstroke, fainting, collapse. Principles of assistance in violation of cerebral circulation.
    Objective: To teach students to assist victims in accidents caused by exposure to the environment (heat, sunstroke), in violation of cerebral circulation and reduction of vascular tone. Test questions 1. Heat stroke (pathogenesis, first aid). 2. Sunstroke (pathogenesis, first aid). What are the features of first aid (unlike
  10. Basics of first aid for burns and frostbite
    First aid for burns Burns are thermal - caused by fire, steam, hot objects and substances; chemical - acids and alkalis; electric - by electric current or electric arc. In depth of damage, all burns are divided into four degrees: the first is redness and swelling of the skin; the second is water bubbles; the third is the death of the skin; fourth - charring
  11. SESSION 9 First pre-medical aid in case of fever. Thermometry technique. Emergency care for infectious diseases, their prevention. Patient care (gastric lavage, enema). Curation of patients.
    Objective: To teach students how to diagnose febrile states and how to provide first aid. To acquaint with the main infectious diseases and measures for their prevention. To teach practical skills in patient care and the basics of supervision. Test questions 1. What is called fever? The clinical picture. The degree of increase in body temperature. 2. Tell us about the method of thermometry.
  12. First aid for injuries. Basic concepts about emergency care and requirements for it
    The restoration of health, and sometimes the preservation of life, may depend to a great extent on the timely provision of first aid. "Emergency medical care" is a broad concept and includes the elimination or weakening of the impact of harmful factors that aggravate the development of the disease, and measures to restore the health of the victim. Emergency medical assistance in the military
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    First aid for bone fractures should include hemostasis, anesthesia, dressing in the presence of a wound and transport immobilization. Immobilization is the creation of conditions for the immobility of the damaged part of the body. Immobilization must be applied for fractures of bones, joints, damage to nerves, large vessels, extensive muscle damage, large burns.
  14. First aid for hiccups
    Hiccup - involuntary, usually stereotypically repeated inhalation, accompanied by a peculiar sound, due to the clonic contraction of the diaphragm (can be single or within hours, weeks). In healthy people, the cause of hiccups is a dry meal. In pathology, hiccups can be a symptom of a tumor, aortic aneurysm, swollen lymph nodes. More common in patients
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