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First aid for burns is at the scene.

1. Elimination of the effect of the damaging factor.

It is necessary to remove the victim from the fire zone, put out the burning clothes on it, quickly cool the burnt surface.

The best way to extinguish burning clothing is to use a firecloth or its analogs from improvised means (the fabric should not be combustible!). Highly effective means are carbon dioxide fire extinguishers and simple water, which simultaneously quickly cools the burn surface. The use of foam fire extinguishers yields worse results than those indicated, since the foam hinders the subsequent localization of the burn boundaries and the application of the dressing.

The best way to quickly cool the burnt surface is to use cold water (substitute the affected area for a few minutes under a tap of cold tap water, with extensive burns - pour the victim with cold water without taking off his clothes, you can put a clean cloth on the open places, water.

2. Control and correction of respiratory and circulatory functions.

In victims with burns, asphyxia can occur when the upper respiratory tract is affected by hot smoke, poisoning by burning products of plastics and other organic substances. In patients with unconsciousness, tongue twisting, aspiration of vomit masses and foreign bodies is possible. Severe burn and combined injuries can quickly lead to a state of clinical death requiring resuscitation according to generally accepted rules.

3. Struggle with afferent pain impulses.

A categorical rejection of any manipulation on the burn surface! Do not remove or detach clothing from the burn surface.
On the burn wound, you can impose an aseptic bandage. If the upcoming transportation is short, in the ambulance car, the wound can be left open. A good effect results in the application of a bandage moistened with 40-70% ethyl alcohol, which has an analgesic and antiseptic effect, on the burned surface. Unfurnished skin around the burn is also recommended to be treated with alcohol.

The use of narcotic analgesics (morphine, omnopon, promedol) is a highly effective means of preventing burn shock.

4. Prevention of hypovolemia and acute renal failure.

If there is no vomiting, then it is necessary to give sweet tea or coffee or alkaline mineral water, an early evacuation to a stage where parenteral administration of fluids is possible.

5.Heat warming the victim.

Evaporation of water from a burn wound, loss of the heat-insulating role of the skin leads to a rapid supercooling of the burned.

6. Prevention of infectious complications.

The burn wound is always primarily infected. The superimposition of an aseptic dressing on it is mainly aimed at protecting against external physical and mechanical influences.
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    There are thermal (high temperature effects), chemical (chemical effects) burns, sunburn burns. Depending on the depth of tissue damage, burns are divided into four stages: 1st degree - damage to the surface layer of the skin. It is manifested by severe pain, redness and swelling. Inflammatory events subsided on the 4-5th day. 2nd degree - defeat more
    Thermal eye burns occur as a result of exposure to temperature on the mucous membrane of the eyeball. In terms of the depth of the lesion, there are four degrees of burns: 1st degree - mild redness; 2 nd degree - edema, blisters on the skin of the eyelids, white film on the cornea; 3rd degree - damage to deep layers of the skin of the eyelids, cornea such as frosted glass; 4-th degree - charring of tissues.
  3. First aid for burns
    Burn - tissue damage caused by high temperature, electric current, acids, alkalis or ionizing radiation. Accordingly, thermal, electrical, chemical and radiation burns are distinguished. Thermal burns occur most often, they account for 90-95% of all burns. The severity of the burn depends on the depth of tissue damage and the area of ​​its spread.
  4. First aid for burns
    Skin functions: a) Protective; b) Prevention of infection; c) Thermoregulation; d) Sensory. The degree of severity of burns depends on: a) Temperature; b) Time of exposure. Degree of burns: I degree: Epidermis (incomplete layer damage). Signs (manifestations) and symptoms (redness, erythema, pain, lack of water bubbles). Etiology: 1. Sunburn. 2. Easy burn with hot water.
  5. LESSON 16 First aid for burns, frostbites, general cooling. The first aid kit, the purpose of its main components. Care for the severely ill and his hygiene.
    Purpose: To teach students to determine the degree of burn and frostbite, effectively provide first aid in these conditions. Students should receive practical skills in caring for serious patients, be able to make a first aid kit for first aid and know the purpose of its main components. Control questions 1. Prepare for final control work on topics 15-16. 2. Definition of a "burn".
  6. First aid for burns, frostbite, heat and sunstroke, drowning
    First aid for burns, frostbite, heat and sunstroke,
  7. LESSON 10 First aid for acute poisoning. The concept of "food-borne diseases". First aid for vomiting, hiccups, diarrhea, constipation. Clinic of botulism.
    Purpose: To teach students diagnosis and first aid in acute poisoning. Give a description of the main drugs used in emergency care for poisoning. Control questions 1. What is called poisoning, what are the poisoning that usually causes poisoning? 2. Types of preferential action of substances. What substances belong to these types? 3. Rules
  8. The concept of burns, their classification and first aid
    Burns - tissue damage caused by high temperature, chemicals (acids, alkalis, heavy metal salts), electric current, solar and X-rays, as well as some medicines. According to the depth of the lesion, four degrees of burn are distinguished. The 1st degree burn is manifested by superficial skin damage in the form of redness, swelling and burning pain. After 2-3 days
  9. LESSON 5 First aid for a warm, sunny impact, fainting, collapse. Principles of providing care for cerebral circulation disorders.
    Purpose: To teach students to provide assistance to victims in case of accidents caused by environmental influences (heat, sunstroke), in cases of cerebral circulation disorders and a decrease in vascular tone. Control questions 1. Heat stroke (pathogenesis, first aid). 2. Sunstroke (pathogenesis, first aid). What are the features of first aid (in contrast to
  10. Basics of first aid for burns and frostbite
    First aid for burns Burns are thermal - caused by fire, steam, hot objects and substances; chemical - acids and alkalis; electrical - electric current or electric arc. In terms of the depth of the lesion, all burns are divided into four stages: the first - redness and swelling of the skin; the second - water bubbles; the third is the necrosis of the skin; the fourth is charring
  11. LESSON 9 First aid for fever. Method of thermometry. Emergency care for infectious diseases, their prevention. Care of the patient (a technique of washing of a stomach, statement of enemas). Curation of patients.
    Purpose: To teach students the diagnosis of fever and the rules of first aid. To acquaint with the basic infectious diseases and measures on their preventive maintenance. Teach practical skills in caring for the patient and the basics of supervision. Control questions 1. What is called a fever? Clinical picture. The degree of increase in body temperature. 2. Tell us about the thermometry technique.
  12. First aid for trauma. Basic concepts of emergency medical care and its requirements
    From the timely provision of first aid to a significant extent, the restoration of health, and sometimes the preservation of life, may depend. "Emergency medical care" is a broad concept and includes the elimination or weakening of the effects of harmful factors that aggravate the development of the disease, and measures to restore the health of the victim. Emergency medical care in the military
  13. First aid for fractures of bones
    First aid for bone fractures should include stopping bleeding, anesthesia, dressing with a wound and transport immobilization. Immobilization is the creation of conditions for the immobility of the damaged part of the body. Immobilization must necessarily be used for fractures of bones, joints, damage to nerves, large vessels, extensive muscle damage, large burns
  14. First aid with hiccups
    Hiccups - involuntary, usually stereotypically repeated inspiration, accompanied by a peculiar sound, caused by a clonic contraction of the diaphragm (it may be a single one or for hours, weeks). In healthy people, the cause of hiccups is the intake of dry food. In pathology, hiccups may be a symptom of a tumor, an aortic aneurysm, an enlarged lymph node. More common - occurs in patients
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