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Thermal burns of the eye result from the effect of temperature on the mucous membrane of the eyeball.

Four degrees of burns are distinguished by the depth of the lesion:

1st degree - slight redness;

Grade 2 - swelling, blisters on the skin of the eyelids, white film on the cornea;

3rd degree - damage to the deeper layers of the eyelid skin, cornea like frosted glass;

4th degree - charring of tissues.

At burns of the 1st degree hospitalization is not required.

Victims with burns of grade 2–3 must be evacuated for hospitalization in the nearest port.

Signs of burns:

- pain;

- watery eyes

- redness of the eyelids and mucous membranes,

- corneal opacity,

- decrease in sight up to a blindness.

First aid for thermal burns:

- drip anesthetic eye drops;

- drip into the eyes a solution of sulfacyl-sodium;

- apply eye hydrocortisone ointment to the eyelid skin;

- close eyes with a sterile bandage and urgently evacuate the patient in the supine position.

Chemical eye burns occur when acid or alkali is applied to the eyeball mucosa.

In acid burns, a scab (dense necrosis) forms on the skin, mucous membrane and cornea, which prevents further penetration of the chemical agent.

First aid for acid burns:

- rinse thoroughly with boiled water, then with 2% soda solution or furatsilina solution;

- drip eye painkillers into the eyes;

- drip into the eyes a solution of sulfacyl-sodium;

- lubricate the eyelid skin with hydrocortisone ophthalmic ophthalmic;

- put an aseptic bandage on the eyes, evacuate the victim in a supine position.

In case of alkaline burn, the scab does not form, the chemical agent continues to penetrate into the depth of the tissues all the time while it is on the skin of the mucous membrane, therefore, burns with alkalis are heavier.

First aid:

- rinse abundantly with boiled water and furatsilina solution until the chemical is completely removed;

- drip painkillers drops;

- drip weak pink solution of manganese or a solution of sulfacyl-sodium;

- apply hydrocortisone eye ointment on the skin of the eyelids, apply an aseptic bandage on both eyes, and evacuate the injured person in a supine position.

Foreign body of the eye

When a foreign body gets on the mucous membrane of the eye, it causes discomfort, burning sensation, tearing, etc.
Prolonged irritation of the conjunctiva, a foreign body causes inflammation of the mucous membranes and swelling. To remove a foreign body, the upper eyelid is inverted, the lower one is simply pulled off and the foreign body is removed with a folded cotton swab dipped in a solution of sulfacyl-sodium. To prevent infection of the mucous membrane, 2-3 drops of a sulfacyl-sodium solution are instilled into the eye.

In case of eye injuries, 2-3 drops of sodium sulfacyl solution are instilled, an aseptic dressing is applied to both eyes. Do not attempt to remove a wounding object if it has penetrated deep into the eye tissue. After applying the bandage, the victim is placed on his back and is urgently hospitalized in a recumbent position in the nearest port.
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