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Thermal eye burns occur as a result of the effect of temperature on the mucous membrane of the eyeball.

The depth of the lesion distinguishes four degrees of burns:

1st degree - slight redness;

2nd degree - edema, blisters on the skin of the eyelids, a white film on the cornea;

3rd degree - damage to the deep layers of the skin of the eyelids, cornea such as frosted glass;

4th degree - carbonization of tissues.

With 1st degree burns, hospitalization is not required.

Victims with burns of the 2-3rd degree must be evacuated for hospitalization in the nearest port.

Signs of a burn:

- pain;

- lacrimation,

- redness of the eyelids and mucous membranes,

- clouding of the cornea,

- decreased vision up to blindness.

First aid for thermal burn:

- instill painkillers eye drops;

- instill in the eyes a solution of sulfacyl sodium;

- apply ocular hydrocortisone ointment to the skin of the eyelids;

- close the eyes with a sterile dressing and urgently evacuate the patient in a supine position.

Chemical burns to the eye occur when exposed to acid or alkali on the mucous membrane of the eyeball.

When burned with acid on the skin, mucous membrane and cornea, a scab (dense necrosis) is formed, which prevents further penetration of the chemical agent.

First aid for acid burn:

- Flush eyes thoroughly with boiled water, then with 2% soda solution or furatsilin solution;

- instill anesthetizing eye drops into the eyes;

- instill in the eyes a solution of sulfacyl sodium;

- lubricate the skin of the eyelids with ocular hydrocortisone ointment;

- apply an aseptic blindfold on the eyes, evacuate the victim in a supine position.

When a alkali burns, the scab does not form, the chemical agent continues to penetrate into the depths of the tissues as long as it is on the skin of the mucosa, therefore alkali burns are more difficult.

First aid:

- Rinse thoroughly with boiled water and furatsilin solution until the chemical is completely removed;

- drip pain drops;

- instill a weak pink solution of manganese or a solution of sulfacyl sodium;

- apply hydrocortisone eye ointment to the skin of the eyelids, apply an aseptic dressing to both eyes, evacuate the victim in a supine position.

Foreign body of the eye

If it enters the mucous membrane of the eye, the foreign body causes discomfort, a burning sensation, lacrimation, etc.
For a long time irritating the conjunctiva, a foreign body causes inflammation of the mucosa and edema. To remove a foreign body, the upper eyelid is turned out, the lower eyelid is simply pulled back and the foreign body is removed with a rolled cotton swab dipped in a solution of sodium sulfacyl. To prevent infection of the mucous membrane, 2-3 drops of a solution of sulfacyl sodium are instilled into the eye.

When injured, the eyes are instilled with 2-3 drops of a solution of sulfacyl sodium, an aseptic dressing is applied to both eyes. You should not try to remove a wounding object if it has penetrated deeply into the tissues of the eye. After applying the bandage, the victim is laid on his back and urgently hospitalized in a supine position at the nearest port.
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