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Restrictive type ODN
This type of ARF is characterized by a decrease in the surface of the alveolar membrane due to the restrictive or restrictive effect on the lung parenchyma of various factors. They can be caused by both changes in most lung parenchyma or extrapulmonary causes: pulmonary atelectasis, hydrothorax, pneumothorax, diaphragmatic hernia, systemic lupus erythematosus, fibrosing alveolitis, syndrome Hammam-Rich - a disease characterized by the proliferation of cubic alveolar epithelial cells, fibrosis of the alveolar septa , peribronchial tissue and pleura. This leads to a decrease in the airiness of the lung tissue by 3-4 times, reducing its elongation.
First, the child experiences discomfort during physical exertion, later dissatisfaction with inhalation and shortness of breath at rest is added. An objective sign is increased minute alveolar ventilation, which is associated with increased afferent impulses from receptors of fibro-modified lungs. In these children, as a rule, PaCO2 is registered below 35-32 mm Hg. Art. Because of the defeat of the pulmonary capillaries, which are involved in the pulmonary process for the second time, the ventilation-perfusion relationship with the prevalence of ventilation over the perfusion is disrupted.
A special place in the case of a restrictive type of respiratory failure is a condition that can quickly lead to a catastrophe - it is a syndrome of intrathoracic tension (tense lung cyst, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, resulting from bacterial destruction of the lungs, diaphragmatic hernia).
With intense pneumothorax, the following paradoxical phenomena occur:
• When inhaling, the lung on the affected side does not increase in volume, but decreases. This is due to its compression by increased intrapleural pressure.
• When inhaling, the air from the affected lung enters the healthy lung as a result of its compression.
• The opposite phenomenon during expiration - the air from a healthy lung enters the victim, resulting in an increase in volume. The specified aerodynamics is described in the literature as pendelluft (air pendulum).
• Displacement of the mediastinum relative to the axis of the spine towards the unaffected lung, which causes a decrease in its surface gas exchange. As a result of displacement of the mediastinum, large vessels can bend and blood circulation stops.
Treatment consists of compulsory oxygen inhalation and elimination of intrathoracic tension by puncture or drainage of the pleural cavity. The puncture site in children is selected in the second intercostal space in the midclavicular line. With hydrothorax or hydropneumothorax - along the mid or back axillary line at the level of the nipple. Most authors in children recommend passive decompression of the pleural cavity, arguing that the child’s lung, regardless of the nature of decompression (passive or active), takes 17-24 hours, meaning “lung smoothing” and normalization of ventilation-perfusion relationships.
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Restrictive type ODN
- Central type ODN
Ventilation ODN of a central type develops with intoxication with depressants, overdose of tranquilizers, antihistamines and narcotics, barbiturates, with neuroinfections (encephalitis and meningoencephalitis), convulsive syndrome, Reye syndrome, edema, and dislocation of brain structures, skull-brain brain syndrome, brain-brain syndrome, swelling and brain dislocation, brain structures, skull-brain brain syndrome, syndrome. In the mechanisms of development of ARF, the violation
- Lower obstructive-constrictive type ODN
This type of ARF includes chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), which are accompanied by blockage of the lower respiratory tract due to structural and functional disorders, such as hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucous glands, discrinia, mucostasis, expansion of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles, destruction of the pulmonary parenchyma. Clinically HOLS manifest
- Type of cnosporidia and type of microsporidia.
The greatest practical importance has the group Myxosporidia - fish parasites of great practical importance. Mixosporidia (mucus sporoleviki) became known from the middle of X! Xv. The life cycle of myxosporidia takes place entirely in the host, which becomes infected by ingesting spores scattered in the environment. They are multicellular and have two or more sashes connected together. Have
- RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY
Definition Restrictive cardiomyopathy is an infiltrative or fibrous myocardial lesion, which is characterized by rigid, uncompliant ventricular walls, decreased filling and diastolic volume of one or both ventricles with normal or almost unchanged systolic function and wall thickness. The basis of the disease is common interstitial fibrosis.
- Thoracoabdominal ODN
Thoracoabdominal type ODN develops with injuries of the chest, abdomen, after thoracic and abdominal surgical interventions, with marked meteorism, especially in young children, with dynamic intestinal obstruction, peritonitis. In the mechanism of development of ARF of this type, limiting the excursion of the chest and diaphragm is of paramount importance. The clinic is characterized
- Restrictive cardiomyopathy.
This is a primary or secondary myocardial disease, characterized by diastolic dysfunction, lack of dilatation or ventricular hypertrophy, the presence of increased systemic and pulmonary venous pressure. Restrictive cardiomyopathy occupies a special place among all myocardial diseases and is rare. ETIOLOGY. The cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy is considered fibroplastic
- Restrictive lung diseases
Causes of restrictive pulmonary pathology Causes of acute restrictive pathology: • ????? pulmonary edema; • ???? ARDS; •????aspiration; • ???? neurogenic edema; • ????? opioid overdose; • ???? congestive myocardial insufficiency; • ???? pleural effusion; •????pneumothorax; • ???? increase mediastinum; • ???? pneumomediastinum. Chronic lung disease leading to restrictive
- Restrictive lung diseases
Restrictive diseases are characterized by a decrease in lung compliance. Lung volumes are below normal, while the volumetric flow rate on the exhalation is not reduced. Thus, FEV1 and FZHEL are reduced, but the value of the OFVch / FZHEL ratio remains normal. Restrictive diseases include many acute and chronic pathological conditions of the lungs, as well as lesions of the pleura, chest wall, diaphragm and
- RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY.
According to WHO experts, two diseases are attributed to restrictive cardiomyopathy: endomyocardial fibrosis and Löffler endo-carditis. There is a term that combines both diseases - "Endomyocardial disease". Diseases are found in countries with a hot climate. Endemic foci have been identified in Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Mozambique,
- Ventilation ODN
The main reason leading to ONE ventilation type is a reduction in the rate of alveolar air renewal (minute alveolar ventilation). This explains the name - ventilation ONE. The reason for such respiratory failure is a violation of the regulation and biomechanics of respiration of various origins. For this type of respiratory failure is characterized by safety
- Primary idiopathic restrictive cardiomyopathy
A rare form of non-infiltrative myocardial disease with restrictive-type diastolic dysfunction. The absence of LVH and systolic dysfunction is characteristic. Often inherited and associated with skeletal myopathy. The disease usually occurs sporadically, but may be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. The occurrence of a rigid ventricle may be due to pathology.
- Syndrome of acute respiratory failure (ARF)
ONE is a pathological condition of the body in which the normal function of the external respiratory apparatus does not provide the necessary gas exchange. Etiology. The causes leading to ARF are manifold. Classification of ONE depends on the main pathogenetic mechanisms of the syndrome. 1. ONE of central origin (due to inhibition of the respiratory center): - anesthesia; - poisoning (barbiturates,
- Diffusion ODN
Parenchymal type ODN, or adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), may be accompanied by severe and toxic forms of pneumonia, aspiration syndrome, fatty pulmonary embolism, “shock lung”, respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn and infant, pulmonary arrhythmias, respiratory distress syndrome, alveolar pulmonary dysplasia, respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn and infants, alveolar lung dysplasia, respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn and infants, alveolar pulmonary embolism, respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn and infants, alveolar pulmonary embolism, “pulmonary artery”; Despite the polyetiology of ODN of this type,