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Lactic acid level


If the rate of metabolic processes is significantly increased, the “normal” level of oxygen consumption may not be sufficient. Thus, the assessment of the main components of the oxygen transport system (DO, and V02) allows us to determine the supply of tissue to them, but does not provide information about its adequacy. With absolute or relative oxygen deficiency, the anaerobic type of respiration is activated, the final stage of which is the formation of lactic acid. Consequently, serum lactate concentration can be used to assess the balance between V02 and metabolic demands, even when V02 values ​​are within the normal range. In this case, hyperlactacidemia may serve as one of the indications for infusion or inotropic therapy, even with normal or elevated VO ,.
If an increase in lactate is associated with a decrease in V02, then the goal of the first stage of treatment should be to achieve adequate cardiac output and DO ,. The concentration of lactate is determined in arterial or mixed venous blood. In healthy people with muscle rest, it does not exceed 2 mmol / l, in patients of intensive care units, a concentration of up to 4 mmol / l is permissible.
Sometimes the level of lactate can increase without severe ischemia (for example, B6 hypovitaminosis, pneumonia, convulsive syndrome, respiratory alkalosis), which indicates a lack of specificity of this test.
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Lactic acid level

  1. ACETIC ACID (ETHANIC ACID, METHANACARBONIC ACID)
    GENERAL INFORMATION Empirical formula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C2H4O2 Structural formula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CH3COOH Molecular weight, kg / kmol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60.05 State of aggregation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  2. ASCORBIC ACID (y-LACTON 2,3-DEHYDROGULONE ACID, VITAMIN C)
    GENERAL INFORMATION Empirical formula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C6H8O6 Molecular weight, kg / kmol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176.14 Aggregate state. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solid Appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  3. Salicylic acid and its derivatives (acetylsalicylic acid and others)
    CLINICAL PICTURE Nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, tinnitus, hearing and vision disorders, dizziness, headache, heart rhythm disturbances, and hypotension occur as a result of repeated overdose. In severe poisoning, a disturbance of consciousness develops (from delirium to somnolentia and coma), often seizures, collapse, hemorrhagic diathesis, hemolysis. ACTIONS ON THE CHALLENGE
  4. Comparative commodity characteristics of dairy products based on secondary dairy raw materials manufactured by different enterprises
    Koshkarova N.N. Scientific adviser: Associate Professor, Ph.D. Department of TPT and VSE Bezina I.V. FGOU VPO "Ural State Academy of Veterinary Medicine", Troitsk One of the ways to solve the problem of rational use of whey is to produce products based on whey. Almost all trace elements and vitamins contained in milk pass into the serum: potassium, magnesium,
  5. BENZOIC ACID (BENZOLKARBONIC ACID)
    GENERAL INFORMATION Empirical formula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C7H6O2 Structural formula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C6H5COOH Molecular weight, kg / kmol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122.13 State of aggregation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  6. RECEPTOR STATUS OF STEROID BREAST TUMOR HORMONES, HER2NEU EXPRESSION AND LYMPHOGENIC METASTASIS IN BREAST CANCER
    Shalaeva G.V., Chukhrai O.Yu., Brovko V.N., Yasakov V.G., Gan O.G. Clinical Oncologic Dispensary DZ Krasnodar Territory Research Objective: To study the dependence of lymphogenous metastasis of breast cancer on the receptor status of the tumor and the level of expression of the Her-2 / neu protein. Materials and Methods: 651 cases of invasive ductal cancer operative material were analyzed.
  7. Acidity (pH)
    Some products directly contain acids and alkalis (soluble salts) in their composition, others increase acidity or alkalinity in the body in combination with juices and digestive acids (sour lemons promote alkalinity). As mentioned above, a diet rich in alkalinity-enhancing foods plays a key role in maintaining long-term health.
  8. FEATURES OF BRCA-ASSOCIATED BREAST CANCER AND METHODS OF PREVENTION OF HERITARY FORMS OF BREAST CANCER AND OVARIANS
    CM. Tailor, L.N. Lyubchenko, S.N. Blokhin, B.O. Toloknov, K.I. Jordania, A.N. Gritsay, O.A. Anurova, A.L. Arzumanyan, E.H. Kuchmezov, A.I. Vasilenko, K.P. Laktionov RCRC them. NN Blokhina RAMS, Moscow Objectives - an analysis of the tactics of treatment of breast cancer and prevention of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in women who carry the BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Hereditary frequency
  9. Specific features of the structure and function of the mammary gland of females of different species of animals. sssn Breast Diseases and Abnormalities
    Mastitis in animals: causes, pathogenesis, signs, classification, treatment and
  10. Touch level
    The sensory level of development of the psyche is associated with the transformation of the originally undifferentiated sensitivity into differentiated sensations. As shown by A.N. Leont'ev, the latter occur during the mastering by animals of more and more complex and diverse habitats. Among other mental processes, sensations are distinguished by their paradoxical specificity. L.M. Wecker notes that, with
  11. Perceptual level
    The next level of mental development is perceptual. It is associated with the ability of animals to perceive holistic objects and situations. Studies of "perceptogenesis" have shown that it is a stage process, including a number of intermediate stages between the sensation and the perception of the whole object (L.M. Vekker, B.F. Lomov). It can be assumed that similar transitional phases characterized and
  12. The level of the human psyche
    The level of the human psyche is characterized by the presence of speech-conscious sociogenic consciousness. The development of human consciousness is due to the development of the knowledge system, as well as the development of moral and ethical ideas and norms. Human knowledge, including the knowledge of moral values, is also due to the processes of intuition, but higher than at the previous stage of development of the psyche,
  13. Level (state) of consciousness.
    A normal child has a meaningful and lively appearance, is able to respond to external stimuli, including (if he is older) and answer questions, participates in an invitation to contact (contact). The figure shows that the child responds adequately to the medical examination and is calm in the presence of the mother. Impaired consciousness (drowsiness, confusion or coma) are the most important signs of progressive
  14. Undifferentiated Sensitivity Level
    The lowest, germinal level of mental development, which responds according to A.N. Leontiev, undifferentiated sensitivity, immediately follows the pre-psychic form of life and the pre-psychic form of reflection. Accordingly, the phase of the background activity (always corresponding, as shown in § 3 of Chapter 1, to the previous level of development) is carried out here at the pre-mental level and
  15. Postconventional level (after 13 years)
    True morality is characterized by this level. Having reached it, a person judges behavior on the basis of his own criteria, which naturally implies a high level of intellectual activity. Stage 5: "social norms, principles and values." Answers: 1) “If Heinz does not do everything possible to save his wife, he risks losing the respect of others. is he
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