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Sexually transmitted diseases and their prevention. AIDS and its prevention. Prevention of Sexual Violence

The sexual life of a person can be divided into three components: the platonic part, the erotic component and coital contacts. In the platonic part, the spiritual layer of questions is concentrated - words, views, letters, phone calls, etc. Erotic - these are dances, hugs, kisses, affection. Coitus from Latin translates as intercourse, and the couple chooses the form that they are most pleasant and interesting. It should be noted that the concept of norm in sexology is very broad and, most importantly, deeply individual. Sex, as you already know, is given to man not only for the extension of the genus, but also for pleasure.

However, alas, sexual relationships are not always safe. Firstly, casual intimate contacts are fraught for young women with an unplanned pregnancy. Now a large assortment of contraceptives has been put into practice, but almost all of them require the use of a special scheme and are recommended for people who lead a regular intimate life. If a woman wants to be healthy and happy, then from the very beginning of intimate contacts, and even better before the start, she should consult a gynecologist. A big mistake is made by those girls who rely on the advice of friends or even mothers. Each has its own anatomy and physiology, and universal advice is not suitable for everyone. True, there is one simple contraceptive device - a condom, which protects partners not only from unwanted conception, but also from infection with STDs, sexually transmitted diseases. The condom is easy to use, does not reduce the pleasure of an intimate act, is cheap and affordable. You just need to remember that when using it, the partner should leave a small free space for the ejaculate - spermatic fluid. A condom that is too tight can burst. A woman should take care of her health and well-being herself, therefore, she should have a condom with her if she believes that she can get into a situation in which intimate contact is possible. Nobody pushes you to licentiousness in intimate life, but getting rid of hypocritical ideas that no one has long been and is unlikely to follow: first a stamp in the passport, and then an intimacy, is necessary. A woman should be free in her intimate choice, and then she will have less trouble. Both moral and psychological, and somatic.

So what diseases relate to STDs. A lot of them. Let's take a look at some.

Gonorrhea. Called by gonococcus. It is transmitted by sexual contact and in rare cases when using a common bed (for example, a girl spent the night with a girlfriend who has gonorrhea, and they slept together), through a common wet towel, through other people's intimate things (underpants, swimwear, trousers).

The latent period of the disease is up to three days.

Symptoms: pain during urination, mucopurulent discharge from the genitals, fever.

First aid: treatment by a doctor.

Consequences: diseases of the genitourinary organs, chronic. Infertility. These consequences occur only if the patient was treated outside the medical institution or did not complete the course of treatment. In all other cases, gonorrhea is treatable.

Gonococcus can also affect the mucous membrane of the eyes. This leads to blindness. Due to the risk of infection of the child during passage through the genital tract of the mother during childbirth, antimicrobials are instilled into the eyes of newborns.

Syphilis. Called by a pale spirochete. It is transmitted by contact-sexual transmission, a household transmission route is very rare, since the spirochete dies in the open air within 1-2 minutes.

The latent period of the disease is 3 weeks. In the last week, the patient is already contagious.

Symptoms: the appearance of an ulcer at the site of contact - on the genitals, on the lips, in the throat. Less often in other places. The lymph node closest to the site of chancre (the so-called ulcer) swells. This is called the primary stage of syphilis. In the secondary stage, a rash appears, which disappears after a while, and syphilis goes into the tertiary stage - damage to the internal organs. In the fourth stage, the nervous system is affected.

In the first and second stages, syphilis is treatable and leaves no consequences. In the tertiary stage, it is difficult to cure and fraught with complications in the form of chronic diseases. In the fourth stage, syphilis is incurable, a person becomes disabled, including with visible deformities, for example, failure of the nasal septum. Syphilis of parents is dangerous for offspring - children of syphilitics have specific bone lesions, deafness and are often born morons.

Trichomoniasis Called by the simplest organism - Trichomonas. Ways of transmission - contact-sexual and domestic - swimming in dirty reservoirs with stagnant water, including sometimes in private pools.

Symptoms are similar to the symptoms of gonorrhea, therefore, any condition of discomfort in the genital tract - itching, discharge, etc. requires laboratory diagnosis to determine the pathogen. The disease is treatable.

Chlamydia A relatively new disease is caused by a microorganism that parasitizes inside the cell. There are, or rather known to date, five types of chlamydia. Three species are transmitted only through sexual contact, and two can be transmitted by domestic means.

Symptoms of the disease are very diverse, and the diagnosis of the disease is very difficult to establish. One of the most serious complications is infertility. Chlamydia treatment is long - up to one year.

AIDS is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. One of the youngest diseases. Caused by the human immunodeficiency virus HIV. The virus infects one of the links of the immune chain - blood cells, the whole chain crumbles. The body ceases to resist any infectious agents. People with AIDS can die from a wide variety of diseases, ranging from a cold and ending with cancer.

The disease can develop hidden for 5 years. All these years, man has been contagious, although he has no symptoms. Such people are called HIV carriers.

AIDS is transmitted in several ways: through intimate contact, through blood and semen (with coitus, there may be minor, invisible lesions of the mucosa, which allows the virus to invade the body of a healthy partner). When using medical instruments contaminated with the patient’s blood (syringes, needles, catheters). A mother can transmit HIV to the fetus. Through dishes, towels, with a handshake, AIDS is not transmitted.

AIDS is called the plague of the 20th century. The disease spreads very quickly. In all countries there are anti-AIDS committees that carry out a large preventive work among the population and especially in risk groups: among adolescents, among drug addicts, among gay men. The latter are considered the most susceptible to the disease, since male sperm, once in the male body, reduces immunity even in the absence of HIV, and even more so if it is present.

One of the simplest and most effective ways to prevent all sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS is cleanliness in intimate relationships, single-partnering, and the absence of casual intimate contacts. With the growth of STDs and AIDS, condom use is becoming an elementary hygiene requirement.

In this chapter, we will discuss another very intimate question - the prevention of rape. Young women and girls need to know where they may face a threat to their sexual integrity and how to behave in this case. No one can give advice on this subject better than a lawyer, and therefore, an excerpt from the book of the candidate of legal sciences Yu. G. Plesovsky “Sexual violence” is given below.

What is “sexual abuse”, now everyone knows. Someone, unfortunately, from my own experience, someone from television films, newspapers, magazines, stories of friends and acquaintances. As a result of such awareness, someone considers sexual violence a fiction of screenwriters or an element of “not our” life, but someone hourly, every turn, awaits a meeting with a sexual maniac with fear.

Who is right? What is the actual state of affairs? Should I even think about it?

Unfortunately worth it. It’s worth it if only because every year in our country (according to the Research Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia) about 20 thousand crimes of a sexual nature are committed. The vast majority - rape. And although the number of such crimes is growing more slowly than many others, there is no reason to believe that in the near foreseeable future they will become a rarity.
Moreover, the real number of sexual crimes is several times higher than recorded in police reports. After all, the police become aware of the incident most often from the statements of the victims, and not all of them seek help. Forensic scientists believe that only every 3-4 victim does this.

It is almost impossible to completely protect yourself from sexual abuse. But minimizing the risk of becoming a victim is real and not very difficult. The knowledge of HOW IT HAPPENS will greatly help this.

For some reason, it is generally accepted that sexual violence is committed at night, in a back alley, a maniac with sinister features, etc. But this is far from the case. According to statistics, most of these crimes (up to 70%) are committed in the evening, from 18 to 23 hours and only from 7 to 14% - at night. The place of the crime most often (approximately half of the cases) is the place of residence (apartment, cottage). On the streets, in yards and parks, 18% of sexual crimes are committed. Almost the same in the basements, in the attics and in the porches.

If we talk about criminals, the vast majority of them are mentally healthy! Even among those who committed the so-called serial killings on the basis of sex (and there are very few of them) and who underwent forensic psychiatric examination, only 17.7% were declared insane! Moreover, more often than not, these are the most “normal” people in the everyday sense! 85% of rapists are people under 30 years old, and every third of them is a school student or a vocational school student.

Interestingly, 2/3 of the victims knew the criminals before committing sexual violence. At the same time, 22% of dating cases took place on the day the crime was committed.

Oddly enough, but sometimes the victims themselves are to blame for what happened to them. Of course, none of them wanted to become a victim of violence, but with their behavior, manner of dressing and using cosmetics, they provoke a potential criminal to commit a crime. To avoid this, it is enough to follow the advice: to behave modestly, with dignity. But one modesty, unfortunately, does not always save from a rapist. Therefore, a few recommendations, following which you can significantly reduce the risk of attack:

- always demonstrate self-confidence: appearance, gait, look, answers to questions;

- having come to an unfamiliar place, look around, try to determine the location of the phone, people who could help you in case of danger;

- if you had to leave home one late evening, pre-estimate the route in such a way as to avoid poorly lit streets, gathering places of men's companies, etc.;

- Dress in such a way that clothes do not constrain movements, but so that it is difficult to tear;

- Do not enter the porch or elevator with a stranger;

- Be careful in case of random acquaintances, avoid giving your address, and if possible, even a phone number, make appointments in “neutral” territory;

- never stop passing cars;

- acquire the means of self-protection permitted by law and carry them with you;

- if this is not possible, buy a whistle and boldly use it in case of danger, carry any aerosol packaging with you as a means of self-defense - hair spray, deodorant, etc .;

“It seemed to you that you are being persecuted, - go to the other side of the street, stop (tie a lace, look in the mirror), finally turn back and boldly go towards the pursuer. If the fears are confirmed, do not despair. You are not at all powerless, no matter who the offender is. But in order to successfully confront the rapist, you need to know HOW TO DO YOURSELF.

Talk to a potential rapist. The longer he speaks with you, the more difficult it will be to psychologically harm him. In addition, you gain time. Try to puzzle the criminal. He expects you to scream for help, resistance, but not sympathy, goodwill, easy consent without violence to have sexual intercourse with him, a condom. Calmly inform the criminal about your imaginary illness. But don’t say that you have AIDS or syphilis - you won’t believe it. The more unusual and incomprehensible that you say, the more reliable your words will sound for the rapist. If you can, show him the signs of this disease (rehearse at home in front of the mirror). If nothing helped, and the offender did not give up his intentions - resist. But the resistance must be decisive, otherwise it will only push the offender to more active actions. Use all the means at hand: an umbrella, apartment keys, a nail file, etc. Remember the nightmarish episodes from American films about sexual violence, where the victim, resisting, plunges a pencil into the criminal's eye, hits him with his heel in the groin and etc. Scary? Can't you? But the same films show what a rapist can do with you if the resistance is not effective. Think!

Buy yourself an aerosol package with a tear and irritant - a “gas spray”. Permission to purchase is not required, and the costs will more than pay off if the substance can be avoided with the help of this substance. But do not use it without studying the relevant rules, otherwise the effect may be the opposite of what you want.

Do not be afraid to harm the criminal. The law gives every citizen of Russia the right to necessary defense, that is, if you protect yourself, your rights and the rights of others, the interests of the state, you will not be liable even if the criminal dies as a result of your actions. It is only important not to exceed the limits of the necessary defense. Such is considered a clear non-compliance of the defense with the nature and danger of the offense.

It may happen that your resistance does not reach the goal and the criminal will achieve his goal. This does not mean that nothing more needs to be done. Unfortunately, this misfortune may not end. Having committed a crime, the rapist may recall the criminal liability for the deed and want to get rid of the victim. And here it is necessary to convince him that publicizing the incident is not in your interests. Without waiting for the criminal to act, be the first to ask him to keep what happened secret, referring to strict parents, a jealous husband or groom, etc. Agree on everything that he will say, give without resistance everything that he likes of your things. Do not threaten a criminal with retaliation after committing an act of sexual violence. Particularly dangerous is the mention of a “brother-boxer”, “uncle - an OMON officer”, a familiar “criminal authority”, etc. Think that threats are pointless - the worst has already happened, and the criminal can really get scared and just kill you.

Try to remember the appearance of the offender: his height, physique, eye and hair color, special signs (scars, moles, tattoos), clothes, characteristic gestures, manner of speaking, habits (for example, related to smoking), etc. where the offender left traces of his stay at the scene of the incident (footprint of shoes in soft soil, traces of hands and lips on bottles and glasses, an abandoned cigarette butt, etc.).

But the worst is over, the offender has left, and the victim faces the question: WHAT TO DO AFTER WHAT HAPPENED? Go to the police? Remain alone with your misfortune, believing that life is over and there will be nothing good in it? Cry and forget.

First of all, leave the scene immediately. The criminal may return in order to repeat his actions or kill a dangerous witness.

And the last recommendation. Do not try to overcome your misfortune alone. This is a lot harder. Tell someone about what happened, ask for advice.

Questions and Tasks:



1. What sexually transmitted diseases are known to you?

2. What are the transmission methods:

a) gonorrhea;

b) syphilis;

c) trichomoniasis;

g) chlamydia;

3. What is HIV infection?

4. What modes of AIDS transmission do you know? Methods of prevention and protection.

5. What are the effects of sexually transmitted infections, including AIDS, on disease?

6. What do you know about ways to protect a person from sexual abuse?

7. Spend a role-playing game on the topic: “Prevention of violence” in the group.
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Sexually transmitted diseases and their prevention. AIDS and its prevention. Prevention of Sexual Violence

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