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LESSON 12 Aseptic and antiseptic. Wounds: types of wounds, examination of the wounded, first aid. Suppuration of wounds. Acute and chronic surgical infection. Specific wound infection.


Purpose: To teach students to provide first aid at wounds, to identify symptoms of suppuration of wounds and specific wound infections, to prevent the development of surgical infections, observing the rules of asepsis and antiseptics.
test questions
1. The definition of antiseptics. Types of antiseptics.
2. Chemical antiseptics (groups of halogens, oxidizing agents, acids, alkalis, heavy metals, ethyl alcohol, aldehyde, dyes, sulfonamide preparations).
3. Determination of asepsis. Operating mode.
4. Prevention of airborne infections, contact infection.
5. Hand treatment.
6. Sterilization of instruments, suture material.
7. Wounds. Types of wounds.
8. Wound infection. The course of the wound process. Outcomes.
9. The provision of first aid.
10. General principles for the treatment of wounds.
11. What acute suppurative soft tissue diseases do you know?
12. Abscess, phlegmon. Clinic, first aid.
13. Boil, carbuncle. Clinic, first aid.
14. Hydradenitis, mastitis. Clinic, first aid.
15. Lymphangitis, lymphadenitis. Clinic, first aid.
16. Panaritium, acute thrombophlebitis. Clinic, first aid.
17. Specific wound infection. Kinds. Clinic. First aid.
Lecture notes
Infectious complications in victims can lead to death, despite the timely, brilliantly performed operation. Prevention of these complications is the main principle of surgery and one of the important conditions for the provision of first aid. Prevention of infectious complications is based on asepsis and antiseptics.
Aseptic is a complex of measures aimed at preventing infection from entering the wound.

Antiseptics - a set of measures aimed at combating infection in a human body, at preventing or eliminating an infectious inflammatory process.
Both methods represent a single whole in the prevention of surgical infection. They should be considered from the point of view of the relationship of the source of infection, its transmission and susceptibility of the body. Under the source of infection understand the place of development, reproduction of microorganisms. In relation to the patient, the wounded, they can be either outside (exogenous sources) or inside it (endogenous sources).
The main sources of exogenous infection are patients with purulent-inflammatory diseases and bacilli carriers. Ways of infection in the presence of exogenous sources - air, contact, implantation. Sources of endogenous infection are chronic inflammatory processes in the body that occur outside the zone of surgery (injury): skin, teeth, tonsils or in the organs on which the operation is performed (appendicitis, cholecystitis, osteomyelitis), as well as saprophytic flora of the oral cavity, intestines, respiratory ways. Ways of infection with endogenous infection - contact, lymphogenous, hematogenous. Aseptic methods are used to combat exogenous infection, and antiseptic methods to combat endogenous infection, including penetrating from the external environment into the human body, as happens with accidental wounds. For successful prevention of infection, it is necessary that the fight was conducted at all stages: the source of infection - the path of infection - the body.
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LESSON 12 Aseptic and antiseptic. Wounds: types of wounds, examination of the wounded, first aid. Suppuration of wounds. Acute and chronic surgical infection. Specific wound infection.

  1. Types of wounds. The concept of dressings. Overlay rules
    A wound is called damage, characterized by a violation of the integrity of the skin, mucous membranes, and sometimes deep tissues and accompanied by pain, bleeding and gaping. Types of wounds: • Gunshot wounds result from a bullet or shrapnel wound. They can be through when there are input and output wound openings; blind when a bullet or splinter gets stuck in
  2. LESSON 18 A test lesson on the course "First Aid".
    Purpose: To check the level of knowledge received by students in the course "First Aid". Plan of a test lesson 1. Control of lecture notes. 2. Control lecture notes. 3. Protection of the course history of the disease. 4. Computer testing of the level of theoretical training. 5. Monitoring the level of acquired practical skills in first aid and patient care (based on
  3. Types of wounds and their clinical signs
    A wound is a deep violation of the integrity of the skin (deeper than the papillary layer) and mucous membranes, due to external influences. Wounds are divided into operational (aseptic) and non-surgical (infected). All wounds, except operating ones, are considered to be primarily infected, since microbes enter the wound together with a wounding object, soil, parts of clothing, air, when touching the wound with hands
  4. SESSION 10 First aid in acute poisoning. The concept of "food poisoning". First aid for vomiting, hiccups, diarrhea, constipation. Clinic of botulism.
    Purpose: To teach students the diagnosis and first aid for acute poisoning. Describe the essential drugs used in the provision of emergency care for poisoning. Test questions 1. What is called poisoning, what kind of poisoning happens, what usually causes poisoning? 2. Types of predominant action of substances. What substances are of these types? 3. Rules
  5. Aseptic and antiseptic in first aid
    In order to prevent re-infection of the wound during first aid, it is necessary to observe the rules of asepsis and antiseptics. In nature, there are microorganisms that, penetrating a person’s wound, can cause certain complications. These complications are called wound infections. There are several types of wound infections. 1. Purulent infection - occurs when penetrated
  6. LESSON 16 First aid for burns, frostbite, general cooling. The composition of the first aid kit, the appointment of its main components. Care for the seriously ill and its hygiene.
    Purpose: To teach students to determine the degree of burns and frostbite, to effectively provide first aid in these conditions. Students should get practical skills for caring for seriously ill patients, be able to compose a first-aid kit for first aid and know the purpose of its main components. Test questions 1. Prepare for the final test on topics 15-16. 2. The definition of "burn".
  7. LESSON 5 First aid after heat, sunstroke, fainting, collapse. Principles of assisting in the violation of cerebral circulation.
    Purpose: To teach students how to help victims of accidents caused by environmental influences (heat stroke, sunstroke), in cases of cerebrovascular accident and decreased vascular tone. Test questions 1. Heat stroke (pathogenesis, first aid). 2. Sunstroke (pathogenesis, first aid). What are the features of first aid (unlike
  8. LESSON 6 First aid for allergic reactions. Anaphylactic shock. Quincke's edema. Hives. Drug allergy.
    Objective: To teach students the clinical symptoms of acute allergic reactions and the rules of first aid for such patients. Test questions 1. What types of allergic reactions do you know? 2. Anaphylactic shock: clinic, first aid. 3. Urticaria: clinic, first aid. 4. Quincke's edema: clinic, first aid. 5. Define the term “drug allergy”. Abstract
  9. LESSON 4 First aid after drowning, electric trauma, lightning strike. The practice of caring for the sick (setting cans and mustard plasters).
    Purpose: To check students' knowledge on topics 1-3 (conducting final test work). To teach students how to help victims of accidents caused by environmental influences (drowning, lightning, electric shock). Test questions 1. Prepare for the final test on topics 1-3. 2. What are the features of first aid for
  10. Infection of a surgical obstetric wound (O86.0), or obstetric peritonitis.
    This is one of the formidable complications of the postpartum period. Entrance gates for the infectious process are most often the divergence of sutures on the uterus after cesarean section or perineal suture, chorioamnionitis in childbirth, postpartum endometritis. The uterus with an open wound surface is a convenient base for the resorption of bacterial and tissue toxins. Three possible infection mechanisms are distinguished.
  11. LESSON 8 First-aid treatment for pain: pain in the abdomen, in the lumbar region. Diagnosis of the syndrome of "acute abdomen."
    Objective: To teach students to identify the symptoms of "acute abdomen" and provide first aid to such patients. To acquaint students with the main diseases in emergency surgical practice, which are accompanied by the development of the acute stomach syndrome. Test questions 1. What is characteristic of acute surgical diseases of the abdominal organs? What groups are they divided into? What do they understand
  12. SESSION 9 First aid for febrile illnesses. Thermometry technique. Emergency care for infectious diseases, their prevention. Patient care (gastric lavage, enemas). Curation of patients.
    Purpose: To teach students the diffdiagnosis of febrile conditions and the rules of first aid. To familiarize with the main infectious diseases and measures for their prevention. To teach practical skills in caring for the sick and the basics of supervision. Test questions 1. What is called fever? The clinical picture. The degree of increase in body temperature. 2. Tell us about the method of thermometry.
  13. First aid for wounds and bleeding
    Any wound is characterized by a violation of the integrity of the skin or mucous membranes, bleeding and pain. Wounds, and depending on the nature of the injuring item, can be chopped, chopped, lacerated, cut, bruised, gunshot. All wounds, except wounds from sterile instruments during surgery, should be considered infected. The size and depth of the wound determines the likelihood of infection,
  14. SESSION 3 Acute respiratory failure. Laryngeal stenosis, cardiac asthma, bronchial asthma: symptoms, differential diagnosis, first aid. The principles of tracheostomy. The technique of artificial ventilation.
    Objective: To teach students to identify the clinical symptoms of acute respiratory failure in patients (victims), to conduct diffdiagnosis, assess the severity of the condition and effectively provide first aid in these conditions. Test questions 1. What are the causes of acute obstruction of the respiratory tract and its clinical manifestations. Features of first aid. 2.
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